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GENEALOGY  COLLECTION 


833  00826 


048 


Digitized  by  the  Internet  Archive 
in  2016 


https://archive.org/details/historyoferiecouOOaldr 


HI  STORY 

OF 

■ \ . 

ERIE  COUNTY 

O II  I o 


WITH  ILLUSTRATIONS  AND  BIOGRAPHICAL  SKETCHES 
OF  SOME  OF  ITS  PROMINENT  MEN  AND  PIONEERS. 


EDITED  BY 

LEWIS  CASS  ALDRICH 


SYRACUSE,  N.  Y. 

D.  MASON  & CO.,  PUBLISHERS 
1889 


. 


1560915 


INTRODUCTION. 


HISTORY  is  a statement  of  fact,  clearly  and  concisely  written,  and  without 
comment,  inferences  or  opinions.  One  of  the  most  satisfactory  situations 
in  which  the  writer  of  local  history  can  find  himself  is  that  that  enables  him  to 
realize  that  his  work  is  original.  But  in  Erie  county  this  delightful  reflection 
is  denied  him,  for  there  is  but  little  of  its  history  that  has  not,  in  some  form  or 
other,  appeared  in  print;  still,  it  is  confidently  believed  that  this  volume  con- 
tains records,  the  events  of  which  are  proper  to  be  treated  upon  as  a part  of 
the  county’s  history,  that  have  been  passed  unnoticed  by  former  writers ; and 
while  the  major  part,  perhaps,  of  the  work  is  a compilation  of  records  previously 
discussed,  the  subjects  have  been  herein  arranged  and  classified  so  as  to  make 
them  more  intelligent  to  the  reader,  and  therefore  more  valuable. 

It  would  be  indeed  remarkable  to  find,  after  an  examination,  that  this  vol- 
ume contained  not  an  error  of  fact  or  date.  “ To  err  is  human,”  and  the  editor 
realizes  fully  the  force  of  the  statement  made  by  Samuel  Johnson,  when  he 
says:  “ He  that  has  a great  work  to  do  will  do  something  wrong.” 

In  the  preparation  of  the  History  of  Erie  County  and  its  several  townships, 
the  compiler  has  to  acknowledge  with  gratitude  the  valuable  assistance  of  a 
number  of  residents  of  the  city  of  Sandusky  and  other  towns.  But  before 
making  any  individual  mention,  the  editor  desires  to  extend  to  the  press  of  the 
city  sincere  thanks  for  uniform  courtesy  and  willing  assistance  rendered  upon 
every  occasion  upon  which  the  same  was  sought. 

To  Charles  N.  Freeman,  of  Sandusky,  is  due  the  credit  of  a valuable  and 
interesting  contribution  of  material  facts  — the  results  of  his  explorations  among 
the  Indian  and  other  mounds  with  which  the  county  was  at  an  early  day  known 
to  abound;  to  Charles  H.  Cramer,  esq.,  an  attorney  of  the  city,  is  also  due 
thanks  for  the  contribution  of  the  Geological  chapter;  to  Professor  A.  A.  Bar- 
tow for  the  chapter  on  education,  and  other  valuable  assistance;  to  Dr.  E.  Von 


' 


8 


Introduction. 


Schulenburg  for  his  able  chapter  on  The  German  Element  of  Erie  county  ; to 
W.  D.  Gurley  for  the  history  of  Perkins  township  ; to  Mrs.  Margaret  B. 
Peeke  for  the  church  history  of  the  city  and  other  important  chapters  ; to  Dr. 

I.  B.  Massey  for  substantial  assistance  in  preparing  the  Medical  chapter  ; to 

J.  F.  Green  for  the  Agricultural  article  ; to  Counsellor  S.  C.  Wheeler  for  valuable 
material  relating  to  the  Masonic  organizations  of  the  city  of  Sandusky  and 
elsewhere  ; and  further,  to  the  people  of  the  county  at  large,  who  by  their 
generous  contributions  to  the  subscription  list  have  made  the  publication  of 
this  volume  not  only  possible  but  successful,  are  also  extended  the  thanks  not 
only  of  the  editor  but  of  the  publishers  as  well. 


CONTENTS. 


CHAPTER  I. 

‘The  Subject  — Beginning  of  Erie  County’s  History Page  13 

CHAPTER  II. 

Traces  of  a Pre-Historic  Race  — An  Unknown  People  — The  Mound  Builders  — Theories 
Concerning  Them  — Character  of  Their  Mounds  — Discoveries  in  Erie  County  of  Evi- 
dences of  Their  Former  Presence  There 14 

CHAPTER  III. 

'The  Indian  Occupation  — The  Eries  — Their  Destruction  by  the  Five  Nations  — The  Iro- 
quois Confederacy  — Lake  Erie  — Its  Name  and  Derivation  — The  Huron  or  Wyandot 
Indians  — Their  Subjugation  by  the  Five  Nations  — Other  Tribes  of  this  Region  — In- 
cidents Concerning  Them  — Their  Final  Removal 19 

CHAPTER  IV. 


The  French  Dominion  — La  Salle  — His  Voyage  Up  Lake  Erie  — The  Griffin  — French 
Operations  in  this  Region  — The  French  and  English  Wars  — Extinction  of  French 
Power  in  America  — Pontiac’s  League  — The  Conspiracy  — The  War  — Peace  Again 
Restored 23 


CHAPTER  V. 

.Events  Preceding  the  Revolution  — Twelve  Years  of  Peace  — Growing  English  Power  — 
Early  Commerce  of  the  Lake  — The  Second  Sailing  Vessel  — The  Beaver  — The  Mora- 
vian Missionaries  and  Indians  — Their  Settlement  in  Erie  County  — The  Revolution . . 28 

CHAPTER  VI. 

JExtinguishment  of  Indian  Titles  to  Land  — Treaty  at  Fort  McIntosh  — Fort  Laurens  — 

Fort  Finney  — Battle  at  Fallen  Timbers  — Wayne’s  Victory  — Treaty  at  Fort  Indus- 
try— Text  of  the  Treaty  — The  Indian  Title  to  Lands  of  Erie  County  Vested  in  the 
United  States — Later  Events — The  War  of  1812-15 31 


IO 


Contents. 


CHAPTER  VII. 

The  Soil  and  Civil  Jurisdiction  of  Ohio  — The  Connecricut  Lands — The  Western  Reserve 

— Connecticut  Sufferers’  or  Fire  Lands  — Detailed  Record  of  their  Organization  — 

Laws  — Acts  and  Explanations  — Surveys  — Dissolution  of  the  Fireland’s  Company  — 
Records  Transferred  to  Huron  County 38 

CHAPTER  VIII. 

Organization  of  Counties  on  the  Reserve  — Botetourt  — Trumbull  — Geauga  — Cuyahoga 

— Huron  — Proceedings  to  Erect  Huron  County  — The  County  Seat  at  Milan  Changed 

t<^  Norwalk — Officers  — Erie  County  Erected  — Acts  Regarding  It  — County  Civil 
List 50 

CHAPTER  IX. 

A General  Topographical  and  Geographical  View  of  Erie  County  — Its  Situation  and 

Boundaries  — Civil  Divisions  59- 

CHAPTER  X. 

Locating  the  County  Seat  — Sites  Offered  — Incidents  — Sandusky  Chosen  — The  First 
Court-House  — Change  of  County  Seat  Threatened  — Permanent  House  of  Justice 
Provided  — The  Tardy  Proprietors  — Some  Notable  Cases  Tried  — The  First  and  Only 
Murderer  Executed  in  Erie  County  — The  Old  Jail  — Present  County  Buildings  ....  63 

CHAPTER  XI. 

Geology  of  Erie  County 72 

CHAPTER  XII. 

Agriculture  of  Erie  County 83 

CHAPTER  XIII. 

Military  History  of  Erie  County 93 

CHAPTER  XIV. 

The  Press  of  Erie  County 178 

CHAPTER  XV. 

Bench  and  Bar 187 


Contents.  i i 

CHAPTER  XVI. 

The  Medical  Profession 211 

CHAPTER  XVII. 

The  German  Element  of  Erie  County 228 

CHAPTER  XVIII. 

Railways  of  the  County 263 

CHAPTER  XIX. 

Some  Events  of  Erie  County’s  Political  History 272 

CHAPTER  XX. 

History  of  the  City  of  Sandusky  — The  Seat  of  Justice  of  Erie  County 280 

CHAPTER  XXI. 

History  of  Berlin  Township  438 

CHAPTER  XXII. 

History  of  Florence  Township 450 

CHAPTER  XXIII. 

History  of  Groton  Township 454 

CHAPTER  XXIV. 

History  of  Huron  Township  459 

CHAPTER  XXV. 

History  of  Kelley’s  Island 473 

CHAPTER  XXVI. 

History  of  Margaretta]  Township 481 


12 


Contents. 


CHAPTER  XXVII. 

History  of  Milan  Township  and  Village 492 

CHAPTER  XXVIII. 

History  of  Oxford  Township 509- 

CHAPTER  XXIX. 

History  of  Vermillion  Township 514 

CHAPTER  XXX. 

History  of  Perkins  Township 521 

CHAPTER  XXXI. 

Brief  Biographical  Sketches 541 

4 


ILLUSTRATIONS. 

Stoll,  Adam  J.,  portrait  facing  406 

Sadler,  Ebeneze  B.,  portrait facing  534 

Simpson,  William  A.,  portrait facing  280 


BIOGRAPHICAL. 

McKelvey.  John ....  529 

Sadler,  Ebenezer  B 534 

Simpson,  William  A 532 

Stoll,  Adam  J 531 


History  of  Erie  County. 


CHAPTER  I. 

THE  SUBJECT.— BEGINNING  OF  ERIE  COUNTY’S  HISTORY. 

THE  history  of  any  county  properly  begins  with  its  organization,  and  a nar- 
rative of  the  events  occurring  within  its  borders  prior  to  that  organization 
must  necessarily  be  associated  with  the  older  counties  of  which  it  had  previously 
formed  a part.  Erie  county  was  not  organized  with  its  present  name  until  the 
year  1838.  The  larger  and  the  more  interesting  part  of  its  history  had  at  that 
time  already  taken  place.  It  is  necessary,  therefore,  to  point  out  that  the  sub- 
ject of  this  work  is  the  territory  comprised  within  the  present  bounds  of  Erie 
county,  together  with  the  inhabitants  of  that  territory,  no  matter  whether  the 
events  recorded  occurred  before  or  after  the  beginning  of  the  independent  ex- 
istence of  the  county.  Again,  as  has  already  been  intimated,  it  will  be  neces- 
sary to  frequently  refer  to  matters  outside  this  territory  in  order  to  elucidate 
the  history  of  the  county  and  show  a succession  of  events.  Such  extraneous 
references,  however,  will  be  confined  chiefly  to  a few  of  the  earlier  chapters. 

There  is  scarcely  a subject  pertaining  to  the  history  of  Erie  county,  or  to 
this  region,  that  has  not  in  some  manner  been  written,  and  it  is  hardly  to  be 
expected  that  at  this  late  day  any  new  and  important  historical  material  can 
be  unearthed  and  brought  forward  from  the  long  hidden  recesses  of  the  past. 
It  will  be  necessary  in  view  of  the  many  publications  that  have  been  made,  to 
discuss  the  subjects  that  have  therein  appeared  and  in  much  the  same  manner 
as  they  appear  to  be  related  ; but  in  quoting  from  other  works  and  other  writ- 
ers full  credit  will  be  given  and  preference  exercised  for  those  who  have  been 
in  some  manner  identified  with  the  past  of  this  immediate  locality. 

Further,  when  “Erie  county”  is  spoken  of  previous  to  the  organization  and 
naming  thereof,  it  will  be  understood  that  the  words  are  used  chiefly  to  avoid 
circumlocution  and  mean  the  territory  included  within  its  present  boundaries. 
So,  too,  for  convenience  the  territory  now  comprised  in  a township  will  occa- 
3 


' 


14 


History  of  Erie  County. 


sionally  be  mentioned  by  its  present  name,  before  any  such  township  was  act- 
ually in  existence. 

It  is  the  aim  and  hope  of  the  writer,  by  a proper  arrangement  and  classifi- 
cation of  the  subjects  treated  in  the  several  chapters,  to  present  to  the  people 
of  Erie  county  a work  that  shall  be  to  them  of  much  value  for  ready  reference 
and  to  the  succeeding  generations  a work  of  inestimable  value  as  an  instructor 
regarding  the  past  of  the  county  and  region. 


CHAPTER  II. 

Traces  of  a Pre-Historic  Race. — An  Unknown  People. — The  Mound  Builders. — Theories 
Concerning  Them.—  Character  of  Their  Mounds. — Discoveries  in  Erie  County  of  Evidences  of 
Their  Former  Presence  There. 

IT  seems  to  be  a fact,  and  a fact  founded  upon  theory,  surmise,  inference  and 
probability,  that  the  whole  region  of  country  now  embraced  within  the  lim- 
its of  the  State  of  Ohio,  was  the  home  of  a large  race  of  people  possessing  traits 
and  a degree  of  intelligence  far  beyond  those  possessed  by  the  average  Amer- 
ican Indian  of  the  seventeenth,  eighteenth  or  nineteenth  centuries,  of  all  of 
whom  we  have  positive  knowledge.  Of  this  peculiar  people  there  exists  no 
vyritten  history,  nor  have  we  any  traditionary  knowledge  of  them  or  other  ev- 
idence than  the  works  and  relics  that  they  left  behind  them  like  “ footprints  in 
the  sands  of  time.”  This  people,  the  historians  of  the  last  two  centuries  have 
been  pleased  to  term  as  Mound  Builders.  The  time  of  their  occupation  of  the 
-country  has  never  been  determined. 

The  eaHiest  traditionary  Indian  history  carries  the  reader  back  to  the  oc- 
cupation of  this  whole  lake  and  river  country  by  two  nations  of  people  who 
nvere  said  to  have  come  from  the  country  west  of  the  Mississippi  River,  those 
settling  in  the  country  bordering  upon  the  lakes  being  known  as  the  Mengwe, 
Yvhile  the  others  occupied  the  territory  upon  the  larger  rivers  of  New  York, 
Pennsylvania,  Ohio  and  the  country  south  and  who  were  known  as  the  Lenni 
Lenapes  or  “ original  people.”  These  two  peoples  had  a tradition  extending 
back  to  the  early  part  of  the  thirteenth  century,  but  from  them  there  came  no 
knowledge  of  an  earlier  nation  than  their  own.  The  name  Mound  Builders 
seems  to  have  been  accepted  as  the  only  one  to  properly  designate  the  pecul- 
iar race  who  certainly  did,  in  some  by-gone  age,  occupy  the  territory  of  Ohio. 

The  case  presents  two  features  : That  which  is  known  and  that  which  is 
not  known  concerning  them,  and  the  latter  is  largely  in  preponderance.  “Eu- 
ropeans, Egyptians  and  Asiatics  might  have  voyaged  across  the  Atlantic  by 


- • 


Pre-Historic  Evidences. 


15 


way  of  the  Western  Islands,  Iceland  and  Greenland,  or  as  the  Welsh  expedi- 
tion of  Madoc  did  in  1170  A.  D.,  or  as  Christopher  Columbus  did  in  1492,  or  as 
might  have  been  done  by  an  earlier,  bolder  navigator  by  way  of  the  mid-ocean 
island  Atlantis,  of  which  we  read  (though  always  doubtingly)  in  Plato,  and 
which  the  right  of  authority  pronounces  fabulous.”  But  “ we  do  not  know 
where  they  came  from,  when  and  how  they  disappeared,  whether  they  were 
extinguished  by  war,  pestilence,  or  famine,  or  ultimately  degenerated  into  bar- 
barians, or  whether  they  slowly  moved  to  the  southwest  and  finally  came  with- 
in the  domain  of  history  as  Aztecs,  or  some  more  ancient  people,  once  of  pre- 
historic times  in  Mexico  or  Central  America.” 

We  leave  then  the  speculations  of  theorists  for  the  more  practical  knowl- 
edge of  the  Mound  Builders,  as  shown  by  their  works  which  have  been  exam- 
ined and  explored  , in  this  State.  These  consisted  of  mounds,  effigies  and  in- 
closures, and  from  the  first,  which,  predominating,  gave  the  name  of  “Mound 
Builders  ” to  this  people. 

Those  who  have  given  this  subject  the  most  study  and  examination  have 
classified  the  mounds  into  sepulchral,  sacrificial,  temple  (or  truncated)  mounds, 
also  mounds  of  observation  and  memorial  or  monumental  mounds.  Effigies 
are  also  called  animal  mounds  ; sometimes,  too,  they  are  named  emblematic  or 
symbolic  mounds. 

“ Inclosures  are  of  several  kinds,  one  class  being  known  as  military  or  de- 
fensive works,  another  as  parallel  embankments  or  covered  ways,  and  the  third 
as  sacred  inclosures.” 

But  it  is  not  well  to  pursue  this  theoretical  subject  further  for  the  purposes 
of  this  chapter.  None  of  these  higher  grades  of  mounds  have  been  discovered 
in  this  locality,  although  they  have  been  known  elsewhere  in  Ohio.  Still  there 
have  been  found  in  Erie  county  evidences  of  the  presence  hereof  this  lost  and 
unknown  people.  Many  of  what  has  been  believed  to  be  the  remains  of  mounds 
in  various  localities  hereabouts  have  been  explored  and  implements  of  warfare 
and  for  domestic  use  among  the  Mound  Builders  have  been  taken  from  them. 

A few  interested  persons,  residents  of  Sandusky  and  elsewhere  in  the 
county,  have  given  these  matters  some  attention.  Therefore,  by  request,  we 
present  to  the  readers  of  this  work  the  results  of  examinations  made  by  Charles 
N.  Freeman,  of  the  city  of  Sandusky,  written  and  contributed  expressly  for 
this  chapter  : 

Contrary  to  the  generally  accepted  opinion,  Erie  county  bears  abundant 
evidence  of  occupancy  by  a race  of  people  ante-dating  the  present  race  of 
Indians,  or  their  generally  accepted  ancestors.  Although  there  are  no  large 
mounds,  or  those  of  peculiar  shape,  such  as  are  found  in  the  central  and  south- 
ern parts  of  the  State,  yet  a close  examination  of  the  knolls  along  the  banks  of 
the  rivers  and  creeks  tributary  to  Sandusky  Bay  and  Lake  Erie  reveals  the 
fact  that  mounds  did  exist  here  in  large  numbers.  The  action  of  time,  and 


1 6 


History  oi  Erie  County. 


more  especially  cultivation,  the  greatest  foe  to  the  preservation  of  such  re- 
mains, have  in  many  instances  almost  obliterated  all  trace  of  them,  but  the  fact 
that  they  are  still  traceable  is  stronger  proof  of  their  existence.  On  the  high- 
est points  and  some  distance  back  from  the  creek  banks,  in  fields  of  light, 
sandy  soil  and  clay  sub-soil,  are  found  circular  deposits  of  extremely  black 
earth,  varying  in  depth  from  one  to  three  feet,  in  which  are  found  skeletons  of 
a “race” — not  Indians.  The  skull  is  well  developed,  being  full  in  the  fore- 
head, broad,  with  good  height  above  the  ears,  and  in  all  respects  different  from 
the  Indians.  The  skeletons  of  adults  are  above  the  average  size  and  some  of 
them  gigantic.  The  writer,  together  with  Dr.  Charles  Stroud  and  Mr.  T.  L. 
Williams,  have  dug  up  a number  in  different  localities,  and  always,  with  one 
exception,  with  the  same  results.  The  graves  were  dug  through  the  soil 
of  varying  depth  to  the  clay  sub-soil,  on  which  was  spread  a deposit  of  ashes 
and  charcoal  from  four  to  eight  inches  thick.  The  skeletons  are  found  lying 
side  by  side,  facing  the  west,  the  arms  closely  pinioned  to  the  sides,  and  sur- 
rounded by  innumerable  bones  of  birds  and  small  animals,  black  with  age,  but 
evidently  not  burnt. 

The  exception  referred  to  was  an  excavation  made  by  the  writer  on  the 
farm  of  Henry  Geasen,  formerly  part  of  the  Upp  property,  situated  on  the 
east  bank  of  Pipe  Creek.  Here,  in  a mound  of  about  one-half  acre  in  extent, 
were  discovered  a large  number  of  skeletons  buried  face  downward  in  parallel 
trenches  running  north  and  south.  Twenty-three  were  removed  and  exam- 
ined, and  a large  number  were  left  untouched.  No  relics  of  importance  were 
found,  but  there  were  large  quantities  of  broken  tomahawks,  pipes  and  pottery, 
the  latter  from  the  shallowness  of  burial,  evidently  destroyed  by  action  of 
frost.  On  this  mound  have  been  found  stone  arrow  and  spear  points,  relics  of 
the  stone  age  ; also  stone  pipes,  fleshers,  tomahawks,  curiously  shaped  totems, 
and  pottery  of  various  and  in  some  instances  of  quite  elaborate  design.  In  the 
collection  of  Mr.  Williams  is  an  arrow  point,  found  in  Oakland  Cemetery,  at  a 
depth  of  eight  feet.  Nearly  all  the  finds  are  made  on  the  east  side  of  the 
creeks.  On  Plum  Brook,  beginningat  a point  near  where  it  empties  into  the 
marsh,  is  a line  of  mounds,  or  rather  their  remains,  extending  in  almost  a 
straight  line  to  Bogart’s  Corners,  crossing  the  creek  in  one  instance,  but  al- 
ways on  the  highest  elevations.  On  one  of  them  is  a large  ring,  fifty  feet  in 
diameter,  four  feet  wide,  and  being  of  black  earth  is  plainly  discernible  on  the 
yellow  sandy  soil.  In  this  ring  have  been  found  several  fine  specimens,  highly 
polished.  The  arrow  and  spear  points  differ  in  shape  and  material  on  the  dif- 
ferent creeks,  those  found  on  Plum  Brook  being  leaf-shaped,  chert,  and  deeply 
notched  black  flint ; also  the  Icelandic  or  double  notched  arrow  points,  which 
are  very  rare  and  are  found  in  no  other  place  in  this  vicinity.  On  Goose 
Creek,  so  called,  the  arrow  points  are  of  chert,  crude  and  imperfect,  very  few 
good  specimens  being  found.  Even  the  tomahawks  and  fleshers  are  of  the 


■ 


. 

■ 


Pre-Historic  Evidences. 


i 7 


-crudest  make,  and  bear  evidence  of  great  age.  Pipe  Creek  furnishes  the  most 
of  the  willow-leaf  variety,  double  pointed  arrows  and  drills.  The  specimens 
found  here  are  of  excellent  workmanship.  Mill’s  Creek  furnishes  a greater 
variety,  but  here,  even,  a special  shape,  that  of  the  triangular  or  war  arrow, 
predominates.  These  facts  seem  to  denote  tribal  distinctions.  On  the  north 
bank  of  Mill’s  Creek,  just  soutft  of  the  Lake  Shore  track,  was  a large  burial 
mound,  which  was  partly  removed  when  the  fill  was  made  at  that  place.  On 
this  mound  grew  an  immense  oak  tree,  of  great  age,  whose  roots  had  pene- 
trated to  the  center  and  there  entwined  themselves  around  the  bones  laid  to 
rest,  drawing  sustenance  from  those  whose  graves  it  sheltered.  When  this 
tree  was  removed  a number  of  relics  were  found,  besides  the  skeletons  referred 
to.  To  the  east  of  this  mound  is  a level  spot  of  about  three  acres,  evidently 
the  site  of  a village.  The  rise  from  the  creek  is  gradual,  and  the  elevation 
•commands  a view  of  the  creek  to  its  mouth  as  well  as  the  surrounding  country. 
Its  natural  position  made  it  easy  of  defense,  and  occupied  by  any  considerable 
force  would  seem  almost  impregnable.  It  was  less  than  one-half  mile  from 
the  shore  of  one  of  the  most  beautiful  sheets  of  still  water  to  be  found  along 
the  lake  shore,  whose  depths  swarmed  with  fish  of  countless  variety,  and 
whose  surface  was  covered  with  wild  fowl — the  bay  and  adjoining  marshes 
being  feeding  grounds  during  the  migratory  seasons — and  backed  by  a track- 
less forest,  filled  to  repletion  with  the  game  that  supplied  the  material  for  their 
clothing  and  a large  proportion  of  their  food.  Supplies  of  nuts  and  acorns 
were  easily  obtained,  and  the  marshes  were  thickets  of  wild  rice,  which  for 
them  then,  as  for  the  tribes  of  the  Northwest  now,  no  doubt  formed  part  of 
their  food  supply.  No  stretch  of  the  imagination  is  necessary  to  appreciate 
the  motives  and  sentiments  that  influenced  those  who  chose  this  spot  for  a 
dwelling  place.  The  ground  bears  evidence  of  having  been  the  scene  of  a 
fierce  conflict.  Scattered  about  all  over  this  field  are  broken  tomahawks  of 
all  shapes  and  sizes,  and  the  small  triangular  or  war  arrows  are  found  in  great 
-abundance.  The  soil  is  full  of  specimens  of  great  variety.  There  is  a bed  of 
burned  pottery  material  here,  covering  about  thirty  feet  square,  evidently  the 
seat  of  the  pottery  manufacture  for  this  whole  section.  It  is  composed  of  clay 
and  ground  white  quartz,  mixed  in  proportions  of  about  one  to  twenty,  evi- 
dently to  make  it  harder.  Many  stone  hammers  are  found,  of  granite  and 
greenstone,  fashioned  to  fit  the  hand  perfectly.  There  are  no  large  fragments 
of  flint  found,  but  an  abundance  of  fine  chips,  the  refuse  of  the  arrow-makers. 
Almost  every  stone  in  the  whole  field  bears  evidence  of  having  been  used  for 
some  purpose.  Taken  together,  these  results  prove  conclusively  that  this  is 
the  site  of  the  prolonged  habitation.  The  land  adjoining,  at  this  writing 
planted  in  vineyards,  yields  with  every  turn  of  the  plow  relics  of  every  descrip- 
tion and  grade  of  workmanship.  I have  in  my  collection  two  beveled-edge 
-arrow  points,  found  here,  which  for  design  and  symmetry  equal  any  thing  that 


' 

. 


i8 


History  of  Erie  County. 


can  be  fashioned  from  stone.  The  angles  are  exactly  forty-five  degrees,  which 
would  cause  the  arrow  to  revolve  as  soon  as  it  left  the  hand  of  the  archer, 
insuring  more  accurate  aim  and  causing  an  ugly  wound. 

At  a point  on  Sandusky  Bay  known  as  Martin’s  Cave  are  several  mounds 
of  small  pieces  of  stone.  They  have  been  repeatedly  investigated,  but  nothing 
of  importance  found  in  them.  There  are  also  several  earth  mounds  in  that 
vicinity  which  as  yet  remain  untouched. 

Tradition,  the  ally  of  the  historian,  has  made  mention  of  a fort  in  this  vicin- 
ity which  has  finally  been  located  about  one  mile  south  of  Venice.  Repeated 
plowing  and  the  washings  of  many  years  have  effaced  all  semblance  as  regards 
embankments,  but  by  the  discoloration  of  the  soil  the  outline  is  plainly  defined, 
and  within  its  prescribed  limits,  at  various  times,  have  been  found  stone  pipes, 
and  a number  of  those  curious  combination  bird  and  animal  shape  totems. 
They  have  often  the  body,  legs  and  ears  of  an  animal,  and  a bill  like  a duck. 
Through  the  feet  are  drilled  small  holes,  for  what  purpose  is  a mystery.  Nu- 
merous other  relics  have  been  found  differing  from  any  known  to  be  in  any  of 
the  large  collections  of  the  State. 

The  same  general  condition  of  things  is  found  on  the  banks  of  the  Huron 
and  Vermillion  Rivers,  and  in  fact  throughout  the  whole  county;  but  that  part 
of  it  nearest  to  and  within  easy  reaching  distance  of  Sandusky  City  has  been 
the  most  thoroughly  examined,  and  from  it  in  particular  the  facts  have  been 
noted,  and  the  deductions  drawn  which  appear  in  this  article.  To  whatever 
race  made  and  used  these  tools  and  weapons  must  be  given  the  credit  for  in- 
genuity, skill  and  persistent  effort.  With  stone  hammers  they  fashioned  their 
tomahawks  and  fleshers,  and  sharpened  and  polished  them  on  stones  of  Berea 
grit,  by  rubbing  them  in  a circle  until  the  desired  effect  was  obtained.  With 
the  bow  and  flint-drill  were  made  the  holes  in  the  totems  and  pipes,  they  bear- 
!ng  the  marks  of  the  sharp  edges  of  the  drills  to  this  day.  The  pipes  were  first 
fashioned  as  regards  shape  and  style,  and  then  drilled.  I have  two  in  my  col- 
lection finished,  with  the  exception  of  boring,  which  in  each  is  begun  at  the 
stem  and  bowl.  They  sawed  by  means  of  sand  and  water  on  the  same  princi- 
ple of  to-day,  until  the  required  depth  was  reached,  and  broke  the  remainder. 
Time  to  them  was  an  unknown  quantity,  but  that  admitted,  the  results  they  ob- 
tained were  wonderful.  The  material  for  their  fleshers,  hammers  and  toma- 
hawks were  obtained  from  the  beds  of  the  creeks.  Mill’s  Creek,  especially,  at 
some  points  being  full  of  small  boulders  of  the  same  material  as  the  relics  found. 
The  chert  came  from  the  limestone  beds,  and  the  flint  from  a distance  ; the 
flat  totems  from  stones  picked  up  on  the  lake  shore,  and  other  tools  and  weap- 
ons from  stones  whose  natural  adaptation  attracted  their  notice.  Beginning 
with  the  crudest  relics  found  by  comparison  it  is  an  easy  matter  to  trace  the 
progress  made  not  by  long  strides,  but  little  by  little,  adding  detail  to  detail, 
until  perfection  in  the  material  used  was  obtained.  Adaptation  to  circum- 
stances is  a natural  law  governing  the  human  race. 


. 


■ 


Indian  Occupation. 


19 


There  is  also  an  inherent  force  urging  mankind  to  greater  effort,  but  then 
even,  the  diversity  of  their  product,  the  skill  developed,  and  the  patience  shown 
are  marvelous,  and  to  the  student  an  endless  source  of  admiration. 

A large  number  of  specimens  from  Erie  county  have  been  donated  to  the 
Fremont  and  Firelands  Associations,  aside  from  those  to  the  collections  of  Dr. 
Stroud,  Mr.  Williams  and  my  own,  which  together  number  more  than  three 
thousand,  nearly  all  of  which  have  been  collected  personally,  by  careful  and 
persistent  search.  They  embrace  spear  and  arrow  points;  of  the  latter  nine  va- 
rieties being  found,  pipes  of  pottery  and  stone,  carved  and  plain,  tomahawks, 
fleshers,  hammers,  mortars  and  pestles,  totems  of  different  design  and  material, 
drills,  bone  awls,  wampum,  beads  of  pottery,  flint  knives,  polishing-stones, 
round  hammered  stones,  used  as  a bolas,  bears  claws,  with  holes  drilled  through 
them,  evidently  parts  of  amulets  and  necklaces,  worn  by  the  braves  as  proof 
of  their  prowess,  and  a large  number  of  unique  specimens  which  the  writer  has 
never  seen  classified  or  described. 

To  the  student  and  collector  Erie  county  is  a splendid  field  for  observation 
and  exploration,  yielding  rich  rewards  for  rightly  directed,  systematic  research. 
As  yet  no  concerted  action  in  this  direction  has  been  taken,  or  sufficient  inter- 
est awakened  to  form  a society  for  that  purpose.  Erie  county  should  not  be 
behind  in  so  important  a matter,  and  it  is  hoped  such  an  organization  will  soon 
be  effected,  and  many  discoveries  made  that  will  throw  light  upon  this  subject, 
and  many  specimens  added  to  a large  nucleus,  ready  to  be  donated  to  so  wor- 
thy an  object. 


CHAPTER  III. 

The  Indian  Occupation  — The  Eries  — Their  Destruction  by  the  Five  Nations — The 
Iroquois  Confederacy  — Lake  Erie  — Its  Name  and  Derivation  — The  Huron  or  Wyandot 
Indians  — Their  Subjugation  by  the  Five  Nations  — Other  Tribes  of  this  Region  — Incidents 
Concerning  Them  — Their  Final  Removal. 

THE  first  nation  of  Indians  concerning  whom  any  reliable  information  is 
obtainable  as  having  occupied  the  lands  bordering  on  Lake  Erie  in  this 
vicinity  was  the  Eries,  and  they,  prior  to  their  destruction  by  the  powerful 
Iroquois  Confederacy,  occupied  the  greater  part  of  the  country  on  the  south  of 
the  lake.  From  this  tribe,  or  nation,  the  lake  derives  its  name.  The  name, 
Erie,  was  always  mentioned  by  the  early  French  writers  as  meaning  “ Cat.” 
On  Sanson’s  map,  published  in  1651,  Lake  Erie  is  called  “Lac  du  Chat,”  Lake 
of  the  Cat.  There  were  certainly  no  domestic  cats  among  the  Indians  until 
introduced  by  the  whites,  and  the  name  must  be  attributed  to  the  wild  cat  or 


- 


20 


History  of  Erie  County. 


panther.  It  may  have  been  assumed  by  this  tribe  because  its  warriors  thought 
themselves  as  ferocious  as  these  animals,  or  it  may  have  been  assigned  to  them 
by  their  neighbors  because  of  the  abundance  of  wild  cats  and  panthers  in  the 
territory  occupied  by  the  Eries.  It  is,  then,  first  with  this  nation  that  we  have 
to  deal.  The  precise  years  in  which  these  events  occurred  are  uncertain,  nor 
is  it  accurately  known  whether  the  Eries  or  other  tribes  first  felt  the  anger  of 
the  Five  Nations  (the  Iroquois).  According  to  early  French  writers,  among 
these  Indians  there  lived  a tradition  that  runs  somewhat  as  follows  : 

The  Eries  had  been  jealous  of  the  Iroquois  from  the  time  the  latter  formed 
their  confederacy.  About  the  time  under  consideration  the  Eries  challenged 
their  rivals  to  a grand  game  of  ball,  a hundred  men  on  a side,  for  a heavy  stake 
of  furs  and  wampum.  For  two  successive  years  the  challenge  was  declined, 
but  when  it  was  again  repeated  it  was  accepted.  The  Eries  were  defeated,  and 
then  proposed  a foot-race  between  ten  of  the  fleetest  young  men  on  each  side. 
Again  the  Iroquois  were  victorious.  Still  later  the  Eries  proposed  a wrestling 
match  between  ten  champions  on  each  side,  the  victor  in  each  bout  to  have  the 
privilege  of  knocking  out  his  adversary’s  brains  with  his  tomahawk.  This 
challenge,  too,  was  accepted,  though,  as  the  various  Iroquois  historians  assert, 
with  no  intention  of  claiming  the  forfeit  if  successful.  In  the  first  bout  the 
Iroquois  wrestler  threw  his  antagonist,  but  declined  to  play  the  part  of  execu- 
tioner. The  chief  of  the  Eries,  infuriated  by  his  champion’s  defeat,  himself 
struck  the  unfortunate  wrestler  dead,  as  he  lay  supine  where  the  victor  had 
flung  him.  Another  and  another  of  the  Eries  was  in  the  same  way  conquered 
by  the  Iroquois,  and  in  the  same  way  dispatched  by  the  wrathful  chief,  until 
the  Eries  were  thrown  into  a state  of  terrific  excitement,  and  the  leader  of  the 
confederates,  fearing  an  outbreak,  ordered  his  followers  to  take  up  their  march 
home. 

But  the  jealousy  and  hatred  of  the  Eries  was  still  more  inflamed  by  their 
defeat,  and  they  soon  laid  a plan  to  surprise,  and,  if  possible,  destroy  the  Iro- 
quois. In  this  they  were  foiled  and  terribly  beaten  in  an  open  conflict.  After- 
wards a powerful  body  of  the  descendants  of  the  Eries  went  from  the  west  to 
attack  the  Iroquois,  but  were  utterly  defeated  and  slain. 

Such  is  the  tradition.  It  is  a very  nice  story  for  the  Iroquois.  None  of 
these  scenes  was  enacted  in  this  region,  but  in  the  far  eastern  country  occu- 
pied by  the  Eries ; and  as  the  possessors  of  the  soil  hereabouts  were  engaged 
actively  in  that  series  of  events,  it  is  here  related. 

The  time  of  the  destruction  of  the  Eries  by  the  Iroquois  is  somewhat  uncer- 
tain, but  from  all  authorities  it  may  be  placed  at  about  1655.  It  was  certainly 
later  than  1645,  and  earlier  than  1660. 

This  fierce  Iroquois  nation  possessed  the  soil  of  this  region  for  a few  years 
after  the  subjugation  of  the  Eries,  but  as  their  possessions  were  so  vast,  and 
they  were  engaged  in  a terrible  warfare  with  the  Delawares,  soon  after  they 


Indian  Occupation. 


21 


withdrew  from  its  actual  occupation,  still,  however,  exercising  authority  and 
acts  of  ownership  until  their  treaty  with  the  whites  extinguished  their  claim  to 
title. 

A word  or  two  will  suffice  to  describe  these  temporary  possessors  of  the 
-soil  of  Erie  county,  who  have  been  variously  known  as  the  Five  and  subse- 
quently as  the  Six  Nations  and  as  the  Iroquois  Confederacy.  It  should  be 
said  that  the  name  “Iroquois”  was  never  applied  by  the  confederates  to  them- 
selves. It  was  first  used  by  the  French,  and  its  meaning  is  veiled  in  obscu- 
rity. The  men  of  the  Five  Nations  (afterwards  the  Six  Nations)  called  them- 
selves “ Hedonosaunee,”  which  means  literally,  “They  form  a cabin”;  describ- 
ing in  this  expressive  manner  the  close  union  existing  among  them.  The 
Indian  name  just  quoted  is  more  liberally  and  commonly  rendered  “ The  Peo- 
ple of  the  Long  House  which  is  more  fully  descriptiveof  the  confederacy, 
though  not  quite  so  accurate  a translation. 

The  tribes  comprising  the  Five  Nations  were  the  Mohawks,  Onondagas,  « 
Oneidas,  Cayugas  and  Senecas.  During  one  of  their  warlike  excursions  to  the 
Carolinas  they  were  assisted  by  the  Tuscaroras  in  overpowering  the  Powhat- 
tans.  At  a later  period  the  Tuscaroras  were  overcome  by  the  Powhattans  and 
whites  and  driven  out  of  the  country.  They  came  north  and  were  taken  into 
the  confederacy,  whereupon  the  Five  Nations  became  the  Six  Nations. 

The  best  authority  regarding  the  name  of  the  first  Indian  occupants  of  this 
region  is  the  work  of  the  Jesuit  priest,  Father  Louis  Hennepin,  published 
about  the  year  1684,  in  which  he  says:  “These  good  fathers  were  great 
friends  of  the  Hurons,  who  told  them  that  the  Iroquois  went  to  war  beyond 
Virginia,  or  New  Sweden,  near  a lake  which  they  called  ‘ Erige,’  or  * Erie,* 
which  signifies  ‘the  cat,’  or  ‘nation  of  the  cat;’  and  because  these  savages 
brought  captives  from  the  nation  of  the  cat  in  returning  to  their  cantons  along 
this  lake,  the  Hurons  named  it,  in  their  language,  ‘ Erige,’  or  ‘ Ericke,’  ‘the 
lake  of  the  cat,’  and  which  our  Canadians,  in  softening  the  word,  have  called 
4 Lake  Erie.’  ” 

Another  French  writer,  Charlevoix,  says  respecting  the  lake  : “ The  name 
it  bears  is  that  of  an  Indian  nation  of  the  Huron  (Wyandot)  language,  which 
was  formerly  seated  on  its  banks,  and  who  have  been  entirely  destroyed  by 
the  Iroquois.  Erie,  in  that  language,  signifies  cat,  and  in  some  accounts,  this 
nation  is  called  the  Cat  Nation.  This  name  probably  comes  from  the  large 
number  of  those  animals  formerly  found  in  this  country.” — Howe's  Hist.  Col. 

From  this  it  is  inferred  that  the  Hurons  were  the  successors  to  the  soil  of 
this  region  under  sufferance  of  the  Iroquois  Confederacy.  Charlevoix  credits 
the  Hurons,  or  Wyandots,  for  they  were  the  same  people,  with  speaking  the 
same  language  as  the  Eries.  This  would  seem  to  confirm  the  theory  advanced 
by  some  writers  of  note  that  a remnant  of  the  unfortunate  Eries,  some  years 
after  their  subjugation,  returned  and  possessed  the  soil  of  their  fathers, 

4 


.. 


22 


History  of  Erie  County. 


although  unwilling  to  assert  their  relationship  to  the  Eries  through  fear  of  an- 
other visitation  of  the  vengeance  of  the  dreaded  Iroquois. 

But  the  Hurons,  too,  fell  victims  to  the  merciless  attacks  of  these  fierce 
confederates,  for,  says  Johnson:  “After  the  overthrow  of  the  Kahquahs  and 
Eries  the  Iroquois  went  forth  conquering  and  to  conquer.  This  was  probably 
the  day  of  their  greatest  glory.  Stimulated  but  not  yet  crushed  by  contact 
with  man,  they  stayed  the  progress  of  the  French  into  their  territories,  they 
negotiated  on  equal  terms  with  the  Dutch  and  English,  and,  having  supplied 
themselves  with  the  terrible  arms  of  the  pale- faces,  they  smote  with  direst 
vengeance  whomsoever  of  their  own  race  were  so  unfortunate  as  to  provoke 
their  wrath. 

“ On  the  Susquehanna,  on  the  Alleghany,  on  the  Ohio,  even  to  the  Mis- 
sissippi in  the  west  and  the  Savannah  in  the  south,  the  Iroquois  bore  their 
conquering  arms,  filling  with  terror  the  dwellers  alike  on  the  plains  of  Illinois 
and  in  the  glades  of  Carolina.  They  strode  over  the  bones  of  the  slaughtered 
Kahquahs  and  Eries  to  new  conquests  on  the  lakes  beyond,  even  to  the  foam- 
ing cascades  of  Michillimacinac,  and  the  shores  of  the  mighty  Superior.  They 
inflicted  such  terrible  defeat  upon  the  Hurons,  despite  the  alliance  of  the  latter 
with  the  French,  that  many  of  the  conquered  nation  sought  safety  on  the 
frozen  borders  of  Hudson’s  Bay.  In  short,  they  triumphed  on  every  side, 
save  only  where  the  white  man  came,  and  even  he  was  for  a time  held  at  bay 
by  these  fierce  confederates.” 

The  seat  of  government  of  the  Erie  Indians  was  in  the  western  part  of  New 
York  State,  but  their  possessions  extended  westward  along  the  lake  even  to 
this  region  and  beyond  it  on  the  west.  With  the  Hurons  or  Wyandots  their 
relations  were  entirely  friendly  and  they  spoke  the  same  language.  The  Hu- 
rons occupied,  in  their  time,  this  locality,  both  on  the  east  and  west,  in  the  lat- 
ter direction  their  lands  extended  to  Lake  Huron,  and  from  them  that  body  of 
water  derives  its  name. 

The  name  “ Wyandot  ” is  applied  to  a branch  of  this  family  or  people,  as 
it  was  a custom  followed  for  hundreds  of  years  to  give  the  scattered  branches 
of  the  parent  tribe  some  name  suitable  to  the  locality  in  which  they  chanced 
to  dwell. 

The  name  Huron  was  applied  to  this  people  by  the  French,  but  its  signifi- 
cation is  unknown. 

The  Ottawas,  also,  were  a tribe  of  Indians  that  used  to  visit  this  locality,, 
but  their  main  seat  of  residence  was  on  the  Maumee.  The  “Ottawa,”  is  an 
Indian  word  meaning  “ trader.” 

Occasionally  there  comes  information  that  other  tribes  have  been  repre- 
sented in  this  vicinity,  and  frequently  some  chief  of  prominence  in  the  wars 
made  a visit  here.  The  Shawnees  were  one  of  these.  They  came  from  the 
country  of  the  Susquehanna  River  of  Pennsylvania,  having  been  compelled  to 


. 

• , ■.  -•  ■ . . > ;•  . 1 ■ • ■■  - ' 

. 

1 •'  - 


French  Dominion. 


23 


leave  that  region  by  the  sale  of  the  lands  to  the  proprietaries  of  that  province 
by  the  Five  Nation  Indians.  The  Shawnees  were  formerly  allied  to  the  Dela- 
wares, and  with  the  latter  were  beaten  by  the  Iroquois  in  their  greatest  devas- 
tating and  conquering  excursion.  They  (the  Shavvnees)  are  supposed  to  have 
been  of  Southern  origin.  They  spoke  the  Algonquin  language. 

Some  of  these  Indians  'figured  in  the  early  wars,  but  their  depredations 
were  confined  to  the  localities  where  white  settlement  had  made  an  advance. 
Therefore  we  can  furnish  to  the  reader  none  of  the  blood-curdling  incidents  or 
tales  of  horror  as  having  occurred  within  the  boundaries  of  Erie  county,  Yet, 
in  a general  way,  as  a part  of  the  history  of  this  region,  some  reference  will 
be  made  to  the  early  battles  in  Northwestern  Ohio. 

The  last  treaty  with  the  Indians  by  which  their  title  to  lands  in  Ohio  was 
extinguished  was  made  in  the  year  1829,  and  soon  thereafter  their  removal  was 
commenced  under  the  authority  and  direction  of  the  general  government.  It 
was  nearly  ten  years  later,  however,  before  the  last  remnant  of  the  tribes  was 
removed. 


CHAPTER  IV. 

FRENCH  DOMINION. 

The  French  Dominion — La  Salle —His  Voyage  up  LakeErie — The  Griffin — French  Opera- 
tions in  this  Region — The  French  and  English  Wars — Extinction  of  French  Power  in  America 
— Pontiac's  League — The  Conspiracy — The  War — Peace  Again  Restored. 

FRANCE  laid  claim  to  the  soil  and  right  of  possession  of  this  country  by 
discovery.  The  chief  central  figure  in  all  operations  of  that  sovereign 
power  was  Robert  Cavalier  de  La  Salle,  a Frenchman  of  good  family,  then 
thirty-five  years  of  age,  and  one  of  the  most  gallant,  devoted  and  adventur- 
ous of  all  the  bold  explorers  who,  under  many  different  banners,  opened  the 
new  world  to  the  knowledge  of  the  old.  This  man  arrived  at  the  mouth  of 
the  Niagara  in  the  month  of  January,  1679.  He  left  his  native  Rouen  at  the 
age  of  twenty- two,  and  from  that  time  forward  he  was  employed  in  leading  a 
life  of  adventure  and  exploration  among  the  Indians  of  America.  He  held  a 
commission  from  King  Louis  to  discover  the  western  part  of  New  France,  and 
in  carrying  out  this  work  he  first  came  to  Lake  Erie.  He  was  authorized  to 
build  such  forts  as  were  necessary,  but  at  his  own  expense,  being  granted  cer- 
tain privileges  in  return,  the  principal  of  which  appears  to  have  been  the  right 
to  trade  in  furs  and  skins.  During  this  same  year,  1679,  he  sent  Sieur  de  La 


* - fcvl  sb 


24 


History  of  Erie  County. 


Motte  and  Father  Hennepin  (the  priest  and  historian  of  his  expedition),  in  ad- 
vance to  the  mouth  of  the  Niagara.  La  Motte  soon  returned. 

At  a point  about  six  miles  above  the  falls  La  Salle  built  the  first  vessel  that 
navigated  the  waters  of  Lake  Erie.  It  was  named  Le  Griffo?i  (The  Griffin),  in 
compliment  to  the  Count  de  Frontenac,  minister  of  the  French  colonies,  whose 
coat  of  arms  was  ornamented  with  representations  of  that  mythical  beast. 

The  Griffin  was  a diminutive  vessel  compared  with  the  [leviathans  of  the 
deep  which  now  navigate  these  inland  seas,  but  was  a marvel  in  view  of  the 
difficulties  under  which  it  had  been  built.  It  was  of  sixty  tons  burthen,  com- 
pletely furnished  with  anchors  and  other  equipments,  armed  with  seven  small 
cannon,  and  filled  with  thirty-four  men,  all  Frenchmen  with  a single  excep- 
tion. 

In  1680  La  Salle  sailed  the  length  of  Lake  Erie  and  into  the  chain  of  lakes 
beyond.  Whether  he  touched  Sandusky  Bay  does  not  appear,  either  by  rec- 
ord or  tradition.  But  his  was  a voyage  of  exploration  and  discovery,  and  it  is 
more  than  possible  that  he  did  visit  this  locality  ; and,  in  view  of  the  subse- 
quent French  erections  in  this  region,  it  may  reasonably  be  inferred  the  in- 
trepid commander  delighted  his  eyes  with  the  beautiful  harbor  of  Sandusky 
Bay. 

To  follow  La  Salle  through  all  his  voyages  and  journeyings  is  not  within 
the  province  of  this  work.  Suffice  it  to  say,  therefore,  that  the  Griffin  was 
lost  in  the  eastern  waters  of  the  lake,  while  her  brave  commander  fell  a victim 
to  the  murderous  assaults  of  his  own  men  whom  he  had  employed  to  serve 

him. 

For  the  next  half  century  after  the  adventures  of  La  Salle,  the  French 
maintained  a general  but  not  very  substantial  ascendency  in  this  region.  Their 
voyagers  traded  and  their  missionaries  labored.  Among  the  Huron-Wyan- 
dots,  and  other  tribes  of  this  region,  they  made  friends  and  converts.  The 
French  sovereigns  and  ministers  considered  the  whole  lake  region  as  being  un- 
questionably a part  of  “New  France"  (or  Canada).  Their  maps  so  described  it, 
and  they  looked  forward  with  entire  assurance  to  the  time  when  French  troops 
and  French  colonists  should  hold  undisputed  possession  of  all  this  vast  domain. 

During  the  latter  years  of  the  seventeenth  century  the  French  and  English 
claimants  (for  the  English  claimed  also  by  discovery  and  possession),  became 
involved  in  a conflict,  each  endeavoring  not  only  to  maintain  but  to  extend 
their  possessions,  in  the  eastern  country,  and  scarcely  had  an  adjustment  of 
their  difficulties  been  reached  and  the  echoes  of  conflict  died  away  than  they 
again  became  involved  in  the  long  contest  known  as  “ Oueen  Anne’s  War.” 

But,  meanwhile,  through  all  this  western  country  the  French  -extended 
their  influence.  Detroit  was  founded  in  1701,  the  most  important,  perhaps,  of 
all  the  western  posts  and  the  key  to  the  whole  lake  region.  Other  posts  were 
established  far  and  wide,  but  it  was  not  until  near  the  middle  of  the  eighteenth 


. 


French  Dominion. 


25- 

century  that  operations  were  commenced  within  the  borders  of  Erie  county, 
and  the  offensive  and  defensive  measures  were  then  adopted  by  the  French 
and  their  firm  allies,  the  Hurons,  on  account  of  the  growing  English  settle- 
ment generally  in  the  region.  It  has  been  stated  that  near  the  middle  of  the 
seventeenth  century,  which  would  be  about  1650,  some  English  traders  made 
a settlement  and  built  a stockade  on  the  site  of  the  present  village  of  Venice, 
in  Margaretta  township  ; and  that  for  something  like  one  hundred  years  were 
they  in  possession  before  being  compelled  to  leave  by  the  French.  The  same 
authority  is  also  somewhat  uncertain  as  to  the  exact  location  of  Fort  Junan- 
dat,  but  thinks  tradition  accurately  locates  it  at  Venice.  Upon  the  authority 
of  Evan’s  map  of  the  Middle  British  Colonies  the  location  of  Fort  Junandat  is 
given  as  the  east  bank  of  Sandusky  River,  near  the  bay,  and  that  it  was  built 
in  1754. 

The  war  between  England  and  France  was  begun  in  1744  and  closed  by 
the  treaty  of  Aix-la-Chapelle,  in  1748.  None  of  its  more  stirring  events  were 
enacted  in  Erie  county,  save  the  incidents  to  which  reference  has  already  been 
made,  and  even  they  were  auxiliary  and  of  subsequent  performance.  During 
these  years  the  Huron- Wyandots  remained  firm  in  their  allegiance  to  the 
French. 

During  the  eight  years  of  nominal  peace  which  succeeded  the  treaty,  both 
the  French  and  English  made  numerous  efforts  to  extend  their  dominion  be- 
yond their  frontier  settlements,  the  former  with  the  more  success  ; and  it'was- 
unquestionably  during  these  years,  and  those  that  followed,  down  to  the  out- 
break of  the  struggle  for  American  independence,  that  the  more  stirring  scenes 
of  warlike  acts  were  performed  in  this  county  and  vicinity.  To  their  already 
established  posts  the  French  added  many  others,  and  endeavored  to  establish  a 
complete  line  of  defenses  from  the  lakes  to  the  Mississippi.  Among  these 
forts  so  constructed,  although  a position  of  minor  importance,  was  that  at  the 
mouth  of  the  Huron  River,  within  the  borders  of  Huron  township  ; and 
another  on  the  shore  of  the  bay  near  the  site  of  Sandusky  city.  They  were 
constructed  in  order  to  afford  a protection  to  the  French  missionaries,  traders 
and  colonists  who  were  living  among  the  Huron-Wyandot  Indians,  should 
they  become,  at  any  time,  in  need  of  greater  defenses  than  their  own  strength. 
These  forts  were  abandoned  prior  to  the  Revolution. 

Frequent  detachments  of  French  troops  and  their  Indian  allies  passed 
along  the  route.  Gaily  dressed  French  officers  sped  backward  and  forward,  at- 
tended by  the  fierce  warriors  of  their  allied  tribes,  and  not  infrequently  the 
Hurons.  Dark-gowned  Jesuits  hastened  to  and  fro,  everywhere  receiving  the 
respect  of  the  red  men,  even  when  their  creed  was  rejected,  and  using  all  their 
art  to  magnify  the  power  of  both  Rome  and  France. 

In  1754  open  hostilities  and  violent  acts  were  indulged  in,  but  it  was  not 
until  1756  that  war  was  again  declared  between  England  and  France,  this- 


. 

. 

' 


History  of  Erie  County. 


26 


being  their  last  great  struggle  for  supremacy  in  the  New  World.  At  first  the 
French  were  everywhere  victorious.  Braddock,  almost  at  the  gates  of  Fort 
Du  Ouesne,  was  slain,  and  his  army  cut  in  pieces  by  a force  utterly  contempt- 
ible in  comparison  with  his  own.  Oswego  fell.  The  French  lines  along  the 
lakes  and  across  the  country  were  stronger  than  ever.  But  gradually  the  tide 
•of  war  turned  in  favor  of  the  British,  and  many  of  the  Indian  tribes  wavered  in 
their  fidelity  to  the  cause  of  France.  Not  so,  however,  with  the  Ohio  Indians, 
who  entertained  only  feelings  of  hatred  for  the  English.  They  knew  only  the 
French,  and  were  strongly  attached  to  them — the  Ottawas,  the  Wyandots  and 
the  Chippewas,  the  inhabitants  of  this  region.  The  first  visit  these  tribes  re- 
ceived from  the  English  was  after  the  surrender  of  Vaudreuil,  when  Major 
Robert  Rogers  was  sent  to  take  charge  of  Detroit.  He  left  Montreal  in  Sep- 
tember, 1760.  By  way  of  Presque  Isle  he  proceeded  slowly  up  Lake  Erie  and 
reached  Detroit  on  the  19th  of  November.  He  at  once  demanded  the  sur- 
render of  the  post,  but  it  was  not  until  the  29th  that  Beleter,  the  commander, 
yielded,  and  this  important  point  passed  into  possession  of  the  British. 

While  before  Detroit  Major  Rogers  was  visited  by  the  great  Ottawa  chief, 
Pontiac,  and  between  them  a friendship  was  at  once  formed.  From  Detroit,  in 
December,  1760,  Rogers  proceeded  to  the  Maumee,  and  thence  across  Ohio  to 
Fort  Pitt.  His  route  lay  “ from  Sandusky,  where  Sandusky  city  now  is, 
crossed  the  Huron  River,  then  called  Bald  Eagle  Creek,  to  ‘ Mohickon  John’s 
Town,’  upon  what  we  know  as  Mohicon  Creek,  the  northern  branch  of  White 
Woman’s  River,  and  thence  crossed  to  Beaver’s  Town,  a Delaware  town  on 
the  west  side  of  the  ‘ Maskongam  Creek,’  opposite  ‘a  fine  river,’  which,  from 
Hutchins’s  map,  we  presume  was  Sandy  Creek.” 

The  reader  will  observe  that  the  worthy  historian  places  the  fort  on  or  near 
the  site  of  Sandusky  city.  Evan’s  map  of  the  Middle  British  Colonies  locates 
it  on  the  west  of  Sandusky  River,  and  a third  authority,  referred  to  before  in 
this  chapter,  gives  it  as  near  Venice.  As  to  which  may  be  correct  is  a ques- 
tion that,  perhaps,  cannot  be  satisfactorily  settled  at  this  day,  but  from  the  best 
information  at  hand  it  is  thought  that  Venice  was  not  the  site  of  the  fort,  but 
that  it  was  several  miles  distant  therefrom. 

The  years  1761  and  1762  proved  disastrous  to  the  French  arms,  and  soon 
the  struggle  was  over.  The  English  Octavius  had  defeated  the  Gallic  Antony. 
Forever  destroyed  was  the  hope  of  a French  peasanty  inhabiting  the  plains  of 
Erie  county  ; of  baronial  castles  crowning  the  vine-clad  heights  of  the  islands 
-of  the  lake  ; of  a gay  French  city  overlooking  the  placid  waters  of  Sandusky 
Bay.  The  treaty  of  peace  between  England  and  France  was  ratified  in  Feb- 
ruary, 1763,  and  by  that  treaty  Canada  was  ceded  to  the  former  power.  Not- 
withstanding the  disappearance  of  the  French  soldiers,  the  western  tribes  still 
remembered  them  with  affection,  and  were  still  disposed  to  wage  war  upon  the 
English.  The  celebrated  Pontiac  united  nearly  all  these  tribes  in  a league 


\ 


French  Dominion. 


2 7 


against  the  red-coats,  immediately  after  the  advent  of  the  latter,  and,  as  na 
such  confederation  had  been  formed  against  the  French,  during  all  their  long 
years  of  possession,  this  action  of  Pontiac  must  be  assigned  to  some  cause  other 
than  mere  hatred  of  all  civilized  intruders.  In  truth,  there  appeared  abundant 
room  for  the  belief  that  Pontiac  was  but  carrying  out  the  schemes  devised  by 
some  of  the  more  revengeful  of  the  defeated  Frenchmen.  And  but  two  short 
years  before  this  league  was  formed,  and  while  the  war  between  the  English 
and  French  was  working  hard  against  the  latter  and  defeat  seemed  inevitable, 
this  same  chief  of  the  Ottawas  is  credited  with  having  said:  “ Englishmen  ! 

Although  you  have  conquered  the  French,  you  have  not  yet  conquered  us.  We 
are  not  your  slaves.  These  lakes,  these  woods,  these  mountains,  were  left  to 
us  by  our  ancestors.  They  are  our  inheritance,  and  we  will  part  with  them  to 
none.  Your  nation  supposes  that  we,  like  the  white  people,  cannot  live  with- 
out bread,  and  pork  and  beef.  But  you  ought  to  know  that  He,  the  Great 
Spirit  and  Master  of  Life,  has  provided  food  for  us  upon  these  broad  lakes  and 
in  these  mountains.” 

So  powerful  indeed  was  the  Pontiac  league  that  the  old  animosity  existing 
between  some  of  the  tribes  and  the  Iroquois  was,  for  the  time,  laid  aside,  and 
a few  of  the  Five  Nations  joined  the  great  body.  By  far  the  greater  portion, 
however,  were  of  the  Ottawa,  Wyandot,  Chippewa,  Miami,  Delaware  and 
Shawnee  tribes.  All  from  this  region  were  enlisted  in  league. 

In  May,  1763,  the  league  surprised  nine  out  of  twelve  English  posts,  and 
massacred  their  garrisons.  Detroit,  Pittsburg  and  Niagara  alone  escaped  sur- 
prise, and  each  successfully  resisted  a siege,  in  which  branch  of  warfare,  in- 
deed, the  Indians  were  almost  certain  to  fail. 

I i September  of  that  year  occurred  the  horrible  massacre  at  Devil’s  Hole; 
and  following  close  upon  that,  in  October,  came  the  awful  slaughter  of  the 
forces  of  Major  Wilkins,  who  was  moving  to  reinforce  the  garrison  at  Detroit. 

In  the  West,  Pontiac  kept  up  active  though  unavailing  hostilities,  and  in 
the  summer  of  1764  the  English  commander-in-chief  determined  to  send  a 
force  up  the  lakes,  able  to  overcome  all  opposition.  Accordingly,  General 
Bradstreet,  an  able  officer,  with  twelve  hundred  British  and  Americans,  ac- 
companied by  the  indefatigable  Sir  William  Johnson  and  a body  of  his  faithful 
Iroquois  warriors.  The  Senecas,  the  only  tribe  of  the  Iroquois  nation  that 
gave  aid  to  the  French,  or  to  Pontiac,  were  met  by  Bradstreet  and  brought 
into  submission.  That  commander  then  embarked  on  the  lake  and  went  to 
the  relief  of  Detroit.  He  caused  to  be  destroyed  the  Indian  towns  and  crops 
through  this  locality  and  upon  the  Maumee,  and  drove  the  Indians  from  the 
country. 

Arriving  at  Detroit  Bradstreet  easily  routed  the  forces  of  the  now  disheart- 
ened Pontiac,  after  which  he  returned  to  this  county  and  proceeded  up  San- 
dusky Bay  and  River  into  the  heart  of  the  Wyandot  country  where  he  en- 


..  .. 

L 

' ■ 

• . ■ •.  . .-.v  . .v.r.  ■ vj  Id.:  qu  ocnol 


History  of  Erie  County. 


28 


camped.  Here  he  soon  after  made  a peace  treaty  with  the  chiefs  and  sachems 
of  the  hostile  tribes. 

So  ended  this  struggle  that  has  been  known  in  history  as  Pontiac’s  War. 
Peace  again  was  restored,  not  long,  however,  to  be  enjoyed  by  the  already 
over-burdened  American  colonists  before  the  whole  country  was  thrown  into  a 
•state  of  excitement  growing  out  of  the  wrongs  inflicted  by  the  mother  coun- 
try, and  which  finally  resulted  in  overthrow  of  British  rule  in  America. 

Before  entering  upon  a narrative  of  the  events  of  our  country  succeeding 
Cresap’s  War,  in  order  to  be  entirely  just  toward  all  writers,  is  given  an  ac- 
count of  the  destruction  of  the  Indian  crops  in  this  county,  alleged  to  have 
taken  place  in  1763,  but  it  must  be  said  that  the  statement  lacks  verification  by 
the  standard  authorities.  It  is  as  follows: 

“ In  June,  following  (1763),  Captain  Dalzell,  on  a coastwise  voyage  from 
Niagara  to  the  relief  of  Detroit,  with  a force  of  two  hundred  and  eighty  men, 
•stopped  at  Sandusky,  burnt  the  fields  of  standing  corn,  and  the  Wyandot  vil- 
lage at  Castalia  ; then  marched  his  men  northward,  to  Detroit,  and  relieved  the 
garrison  at  that  place.” 

The  expedition  sent  out  by  the  commander-in-chief  of  the  British  forces  to 
relieve  Detroit,  was  placed  under  command  of  General  Bradstreet,  and  its  de- 
parture was  made  from  Niagara.  On  their  way  the  Wyandot  village  and  crops 
were  destroyed,  and  it  is,  of  course,  possible  that  their  destruction  may  have 
been  accomplished  by  a detachment  from  Bradstreet’s  troops  under  command 
-of  Captain  Dalzell ; still  no  standard  authority  credits  the  latter  with  command 
•of  the  expedition  sent  to  relieve  the  post  at  Detroit. 


CHAPTER  V. 


Events  Preceding  the  Revolution  — Twelve  Years  of  Peace — Growing  English  Power  — 
Early  Commerce  of  the  Lake  — The  Second  Sailing  Vessel  — The  Beaver — The  Moravian 
Missionaries  and  Indians  — Their  Settlement  in  Erie  County  — The  Revolution. 

OF  the  British  and  Americans  who  had  been  in  the  closest  frendship,  and  un- 
der the  same  banners  had  passed  to  and  fro  over  the  county  and  the  lakes, 
there  were  not  a few  who  in  twelve  more  years  were  destined  to  seek  each  oth- 
er’s lives  on  the  blood-stained  battle-fields  of  the  Revolution.  For  a while, 
however,  there  was  peace,  not  only  between  England  and  France,  but  between 
the  Indians  and  the  colonists.  The  Six  Nations,  though  the  seeds  of  dissen- 


■■  ' 

. 


. 


. 


Preceding  the  Revolution. 


29 


sion  were  sown  among  them,  were  still  a powerful  confederacy,  and  their  war 
parties  occasionally  made  incursions  into  their  county,  against  their  old  ene- 
mies, the  dwrellers  of  this  region,  but  the  latter  generally  avoided  an  engage- 
ment and  withdrew  upon  their  approach.  Hither,  too,  came  occasional  de- 
tachments of  red  coated  Britons  passing  along  the  borders  of  the  lake  and  bay 
in  open  boats  journeying  westward  to  Detroit,  Mackinaw  and  other  forts  and 
trading  posts. 

Along  the  borders  of  this  country,  too,  went  nearly  all  the  commerce  of  the 
upper  lakes,  consisting  of  supplies  for  the  military  posts,  goods  for  barter  and 
trade  with  the  Indians,  and  the  furs  received  in  return.  Trade  was  carried  on 
almost  entirely  in  open  boats  propelled  by  oars,  with  the  occasional  aid  of  a 
temporary  sail.  In  good  weather  tolerable  progress  could  be  made,  but  woe 
to  any  of  these  frail  craft  which  might  be  overtaken  by  a storm. 

The  New  York  Gazette  in  February,  1770,  informed  its  readers  that  several 
boats  had  been  lost  in  crossing  Lake  Erie,  and  that  the  distress  of  the  crews 
was  so  great  that  they  were  obliged  to  keep  two  human  bodies  found  on  the 
north  shore,  so  as  to  kill  for  food  the  ravens  and  eagles  which  came  to  feed  on 
the  corpses.  Other  boats  were  mentioned  at  the  same  time  as  frozen  up  or 
lost,  but  nothing  was  said  as  to  sail-vessels.  There  were,  however,  at  least  two 
or  three  English  trading  vessels  on  Lake  Erie  before  the  Revolution,  and  prob- 
ably one  or  two  armed  vessels  belonging  to  the  British  government.  One  of 
the  former,  called  the  Beaver , is  known  to  have  been  lost  in  a storm  on  the 
southeastern  coast  of  Lake  Erie,  and  to  have  furnished  relics  found  in  that  vi- 
cinity (Eighteen-Mile  Creek)  by  early  settlers,  which  by  some  have  been  attrib- 
uted to  the  ill-fated  Griffin. 

It  was  about  the  year  1770  that  the  great  body  of  people  known  as  the  Mo- 
ravian Missionaries  and  Indians  left  their  established  home  on  the  Susquehanna 
River  in  Pennsylvania,  and  emigrated  westward  to  various  places  in  Ohio  and 
elsewhere.  Their  Pennsylvania  settlement  and  colony  was  in  the  country  of 
the  Shawnees,  among  whom  they  had  made  many  converts  and  strong  friend- 
ships. By  the  treaty  and  sale  of  1768  concluded  between  the  Iroquois  and  the 
proprietaries  of  the  province  of  Pennsylvania,  the  lands  occupied  by  the  Shaw- 
nees and  the  Moravians  as  well,  passed  into  the  control  of  the  proprietors, 
whereupon  the  occupants  prepared  to  vacate,  although  such  action  was  not  en- 
forced. 

The  Iroquois  claimed  title  to  this  whole  country  of  Pennsylvania  by  con- 
quest, and  from  that  time  the  Shawnees  were  a broken  people,  many  of  whom 
came  to  Ohio  and  made  a settlement  in  this  region,  while  others  remained  on 
the  Susquehanna,  as  they  were  permitted  to  do  by  the  conquerors.  Rev.  Chris- 
tian Frederick  Post  seems  to  have  been  the  leader  of  the  missionaries,  and  his 
influence  among  all  the  Indian  people  was  something  remarkable.  He  was  the 
great  mediating  power  between  the  whites  and  natives  in  time  of  trouble,  and 
5 


' 


- 

. 

• J ■■■  ‘Jt  ' ' V 


. 


30 


History  of  Erie  County. 


his  strength  among  the  savages  was  attained  through  his  entire  freedom  from 
deception,  sham,  avarice.  Truth  and  singleness  of  mind  were  his  characteris- 
tics. The  Indians  knew  this  and  trusted  him  as  fully  as  if  he  was  of  their  own 
people. 

Some  of  the  Moravians  accompanied  the  Shawnees  at  the  time  of  their  ear- 
liest immigration  into  Ohio,  but  the  great  body  did  not  come  until  many  years 
later,  the  time  mentioned  above.  One  branch  or  body  of  them  made  a settle- 
ment in  Erie  county  on  the  Huron  River  about  two  miles  from  Milan,  but  after- 
ward moved  to  Milan.  The  precise  date  of  their  coming  is  not  known,  but  it 
is  supposed  to  have  been  soon  after  the  Revolutionary  War;  still  some  authori- 
ties place  their  coming  at  an  earlier  day. 

Concerning  these  people  in  this  county  we  extract  the  following  sketch  from 
the  work  of  Mr.  Henry  Howe,  the  sketch  having  been  contributed  by  Rev.  E. 
Judson,  of  Milan  : “ On  the  spot  where  the  town  of  Milan  now  stands,  there 

was,  at  the  time  of  the  survey  of  the  fire-lands  in  1807,  an  Indian  village,  con- 
taining within  it  a Christian  community,  under  the  superintendence  of  Rev. 
Christian  Frederick  Dencke,  a Moravian  missionary.  The  Indian  name  of  the 
town  was  Petquotting.  The  mission  was  established  here  in  1804.  Mr.  Dencke 
brought  with  him  several  families  of  Christian  Indians  from  the  vicinity  of  the 
Thames  River  in  Upper  Canada.  They  had  a chapel  and  a mission-house, 
and  were  making  good  progress  in  the  cultivation  of  Christian  principles,  when 
the  commencement  of  the  white  settlements  induced  them  in  1809  to  emigrate 
with  their  missionary  to  Canada.  There  was  a Moravian  mission  attempted  as 
early  as  1787.  A considerable  party  of  Christian  Indians  had  been  driven  from 
their  settlement  at  Gnadenhutton  on  the  Tuscarawas  River,  by  the  inhuman 
butchery  of  a large  number  of  the  inhabitaits  by  the  white  settlers.  After  years 
of  wandering,  with  Zeisberger  for  their  spiritual  guide,  they  at  length  formed  a 
home  on  the  banks  of  the  Cuyahoga  River  near  Cleveland,  which  they  named 
Pilgerruh,  “Pilgrim’s  Rest”.  They  were  soon  driven  from  this  post,  whence 
they  came  to  the  Huron,  and  commenced  a settlement  on  its  east  bank,  and 
near  the  north  line  of  the  township.  To  this  village  they  gave  the  name  of 
New  Salem.  Here  the  labors  of  their  indefatigable  missionary  were  crowned 
by  very  considerable  success.  They  were  soon  compelled  to  leave,  however, 
by  the  persecutions  of  the  pagan  Indians.  It  seems  to  have  been  a portion  of 
these  exiles  who  returned  in  1841  to  commence  the  new  mission.” 

In  1775  the  Revolution  began.  Its  important  events  were  enacted  without 
the  boundaries  of  what  now  constitutes  the  State  of  Ohio.  Still,  it  is  to- that 
war  that  Erie  county  owes  some  of  the  most  important  events  of  its  early  his- 
tory, for,  by  reason  of  the  sufferings  of  residents  of  Connecticut  at  the  hands 
of  the  British,  the  whole  body  of  land  now  embraced  by  the  county  and  more, 
was  donated  to  them,  and  the  historic  “ Firelands”  were  brought  into  exist- 
ence. This  subject  will  appear  fully  discussed  in  a later  chapter  of  this  work. 


. 

. ■ ....  **>  . " - . 


Acquisition  of  Land  Titles. 


3i 


During  the  War  of  the  Revolution,  Indian  sentiment  was  divided.  The  pow- 
erful Six  Nations,  through  the  influence  of  Sir  William  Johnson,  and,  after  his 
death  in  1774,  of  his  nephew,  Colonel  Guy  Johnson,  remained  true  to  the  cause 
of  Great  Britain,  while  many  of  the  tribes  who  had  been  allied  to  the  French 
during  the  early  wars,  inclined  to  the  cause  of  the  colonies,  who  were  receiving 
not  only  sympathy,  but  substantial  support  from  the  French  government.  Still, 
many  tribes  were  unwilling  to  aid  the  patriot  cause  for  the  reason  that  their 
settlements  were  becoming  too  numerous,  and  they  were  transgressing  against 
what  the  Indians  firmly  believed  to  be  their  undeniable  rights.  The  inhabit- 
ants of  this  region  were  not  called  into  active  service,  either  aggressive  or  de- 
fensive ; they  were  destined  to  wait  for  coming  years  when  later  wars  called 
them  into  action,  which  ended  in  their  defeat,  the  loss  of  their  favorite  hunting 
and  fishing  grounds,  and  they  themselves  compelled  to  end  their  days  in  a new 
country  beyond  the  Mississippi. 

With  the  surrender  of  Cornwallis,  in  October,  1781,  hostilities  ceased.  In 
the  fall  of  1783  peace  was  formally  declared  between  Great  Britain  and  the  re- 
volted colonies,  henceforth  to  be  acknowledged  by  all  men  as  the  United  States 
of  America,  of  which  Lake  Erie  formed  a portion  of  the  northern  boundary. 
Although  the  forts  held  by  the  British  on  the  American  side  of  the  line  were  not 
given  up  for  many  years  afterward,  and  although  they  thus  retained  a strong 
influence  over  the  Indians  located  on  this  side,  yet  the  legal  title  was  admitted 
to  be  in  the  United  States.  Thus  the  unquestioned  English  authority  over 
the  territory  of  Erie  county  lasted  only  from  the  treaty  with  France  in  1763, 
to  that  with  the  United  States  in  1783,  a little  over  twenty  years. 


CHAPTER  VI. 

Extinguishment  of  Indian  Titles  to  Land  — Treaty  at  Fort  McIntosh  — Fort  Laurens  — 
Fort  Finney  — Battle  at  Fallen  Timbers  — Wayne’s  Victor}’  — Treaty  at  Fort  Industry  — 
Text  of  the  Treaty  — The  Indian  Title  to  Lands  of  Erie  County  Vested  in  the  United  States  — 
Later  Events — The  War  of  1812-15. 

IN  the  peace  treaty  made  between  Great  Britain  and  the  United  States  no 
provision  was  made  for  the  Indians  who  had  been  hostile  to  the  American 
arms.  It  became,  therefore,  one  of  the  most  important  duties  of  the  govern- 
ment to  peaceably  acquire  the  Indian  title  and  there  seemed  to  be  a general  de- 
sire to  possess  the  territory  northwest  of  the  Ohio  River.  The  British  gov- 
ernment had  already  offered  their  supporting  Indians  territory  in  the  Canadas, 
but  this  offer  was  accepted  only  by  the  Mohawks. 


. 

• 


. 

■ 


32 


History  of  Erie  County. 


The  treaty  at  Fort  McIntosh  was  made  on  the  2ist  of  January,  1785,  with 
the  Wyandots,  Delawares,  Chippewas  and  Ottawas,  by  the  terms  of  which  they 
released  all  claim  to  lands  of  the  Ohio  Valley,  and  established  the  boundary 
line  between  them  and  the  United  States  to  be  the  Cuyahoga  River,  and  along 
the  main  branch  of  the  Tuscarawas  to  the  forks  of  said  river  near  Fort  Laurens, 
thence  westwardly  to  the  Portage  between  the  head  waters  of  the  Great  Miami 
and  the  Maumee  or  Miami  of  the  lakes  ; thence  down  said  river  to  Lake  Erie 
and  along  said  lake  to  the  mouth  of  the  river  Cuyahoga.  This  treaty  was  ne- 
gotiated by  George  Rogers  Clark,  Richard  Butler  and  Arthur  Lee  for  the  gov- 
ernment and  by  the  chiefs  representing  the  several  tribes. 

Subsequently,  on  January  31,  1786,  at  Fort  Finney,  the  Shawnees  accepted 
the  terms  of  this  treaty  and  became  a party  to  it.  This  treaty  retained  to  the 
several  tribes  mentioned  the  right  to  possess  the  lands  along  Lake  Erie  from 
the  Cuyahoga  to  the  Maumee,  and  thenceforth  they,  the  Wyandots,  Ottawas, 
Chippewas,  Delawares  and  Shawnees  occupied  the  lands  of  Erie  and  adjoining 
counties. 

The  treaty  at  Fort  Harmar,  held  by  General  St.  Clair,  January  9,  1789, 
was  but  confirmatory  of  the  former  treaties,  and  was  necessitated  by  the  dis- 
content of  the  tribes  who  were  parties  to  them. 

It  was  not  long,  however,  before  the  Indians  again  violated  their  agreement 
and  their  acts  led  to  the  salutary  punishment  administered  by  Gen.  Wayne  in 
the  ever  memorable  battle  of  Fallen  Timbers  on  the  20th  day  of  August, 
179 4- 

This  decisive  victory  resulted  in  the  treaty  at  Greenville,  in  which  Wayne 
met  chiefs  of  the  most  powerful  of  the  northwestern  tribes  and  made  an  amica- 
ble adjustment  of  all  difficulties. 

It  may  be  stated  as  a matter  of  fact  and  interest  that  the  insurrectionary 
movement  on  the  part  of  the  Indians  that  led  to  their  chastisement  at  Fallen 
Timbers  was  instigated  by  the  British  occupants  of  the  forts  in  the  Maumee 
country.  And  further,  after  Wayne’s  victory  some  unpleasant  words  passed 
between  the  officers  of  the  post  and  Wayne’s  men.  This  coming  to  the  ears  of 
the  “old  warrior,”  he  at  once  intimated  that  if  they  wanted  a taste  of  his  met- 
tle their  wishes  should  be  gratified.  Wayne  knew  perfectly  well  that  the  jeal- 
ous and  beaten  British  had  incited  the  Indians  to  such  acts  and  depredations 
as  they  had  committed. 

Of  the  many  treaties  made  with  the  Indians  for  the  purpose  of  acquiring 
the  title  to  lands  claimed  by  them  there  was  not  one  perhaps  in  which  such 
extreme  care  was  exercised  as  in  that  held  at  Fort  Industry  on  the  4th  day  of 
July,  1805.  A portion  of  the  lands  involved  in  this  purchase  were  the  Western 
Reserve  of  Connecticut,  the  title  to  which  had  been  ceded  by  that  State  to  the 
United  States,  subject,  however,  to  the  rights  of  owners  prior  to  Connecticut’s 
deed  of  cession. 


* 


' 


Acquisition  of  Land  Titles. 


33 


It  was  the  intention  of  the  agent  of  the  government  that  the  council  should 
be  convened  at  Cleveland,  but  owing  to  the  inability  of  the  representatives  of 
all  the  tribes  to  meet  there,  another  meeting  was  arranged  to  be  held  at  Fort 
Industry,  on  the  Maumee,  which  was  done  on  the  4th  of  July,  1805. 

It  is  possible  that  the  reader  may  be  somewhat  confused  regarding  some  of 
the  provisions  of  this  treaty  and  their  application  and  force,  but  after  having 
read  the  chapter  on  the  “ Western  Reserve,”  and  the  “ Firelands  ” the  whole 
subject  will  become  clear. 

The  treaty  with  its  preceding  certificate  and  the  president’s  proclamation 
in  conclusion  is  as  follows:  “To  all  to  whom  these  presents  shall  come, 
greeting : I certifiy,  that  the  annexed  writing  contains  a true  copy  of  a 
treaty  concluded  with  certain  Indian  tribes  at  Fort  Industry,  on  the  4th  day 
-of  July,  1805,  the  original  whereof  remains  in  this  office.  In  faith  whereof,  I, 
Robert  Smith,  secretary  for  the  department  of  state  of  the  United  States  of 
America,  have  signed  these  presents  and  caused  the  seal  of  my  office  to  be  af- 
fixed hereto,  at  the  city  of  Washington,  this  22d  day  of  March,  A.  D.  1809, 
and  in  the  thirty-third  year  of  the  independence  of  the  said  States. 

“ [L.  S.]  R.  Smith. 

“ Thomas  Jefferson , President  of  the  United  States  of  America  : To  all  to 
whom  these  presents  shall  come,  greeting  : 

“WHEREAS,  a treaty  was  held  on  the  4th  day  of  July,  A.  D.  one  thousand 
eight  hundred  and  five,  under  the  authority  of  the  United  States,  with  the 
sachems,  chief  and  warriors  of  the  Wyandot , Ottawa , Chippeway , Munsee  and 
Delaware , Shawanee  and  Pottowatomie  nations  or  tribes  of  Indians  at  Fort 
Industry  on  the  Miami  of  the  lake,  in  the  presence  and  with  the  approbation 
of  Charles  Jewett,  the  commissioner  of  the  United  States  appointed  to  hold 
the  same,  the  following  agreement  was  made  between  the  said  nations 
and  tribes  of  Indians  and  the  agent  of  the  land  companies  hereinafter  men- 
tioned. 

“ A treaty  between  the  United  States  of  America  and  the  sachems,  chiefs 
and  warriors  of  the  Wyandot , Ottawa , Chippewa , Mitnsee , and  Delaware , 
Shawanee  and  Pottazvatomie  nations,  holden  at  Fort  Industry,  on  the  Miami 
of  the  lake,  on  the  4th  day  of  July,  A.  D.,  one  thousand  eight  hundred  and 
five. 

“WHEREAS,  Thomas  Jefferson,  President  of  the  United  States,  did  appoint 
Charles  Jewett,  esquire,  a commissioner  to  hold  a treaty  with  said  Indian 
Nations,  for  the  purpose  of  enabling  the  agents  of  the  Connecticut  Reserve  to 
negotiate  and  conclude  a cession  of  their  lands  ; and, 

“WHEREAS,  The  company  incorporated  by  the  name  of  the  ‘Proprietors 
-of  the  half  million  acres  of  land  lying  south  of  Lake  Erie,  called  “ Sufferers’ 
Lands,”  ’ and  the  owners  and  proprietors  of  the  one  half  million  acres  of  land, 


34 


History  of  Erie  County. 


part  of  said  Connecticut  Reserve,  lying  on  the  west  end  thereof,  and  south  of 
the  shore  of  Lake  Erie  ; and, 

“ WHEREAS,  The  Connecticut  Land  Company,  so  called,  are  the  owners 
and  proprietors  of  the  remaining  part  of  said  Reserve  lying  west  of  the  river 
Cuyahoga ; and, 

“WHEREAS,  Henry  Champion,  esquire,  agent  of  the  said  Connecticut 
Land  Company,  and  Isaac  Mills,  esquire,  agent  of  the  directors  of  the  com- 
pany, incorporated  by  the  name  of  the  ‘ Proprietors  of  the  half  million  acres  of 
land  lying  south  of  Lake  Erie,  called  “Sufferers’  Lands,”  ’ were  both  duly  au- 
thorized and  empowered  by  their  respective  companies  and  the  directors  there- 
of, to  treat  for  the  cession  and  purchase  of  said  Connecticut  Reserve. 

“ Now,  Knoiu  all  men  by  these  presents,  That  we,  the  sachems,  chiefs,  and 
warriors  of  the  Nations  aforesaid,  for  the  consideration  of  eighteen  thousand 
nine  hundred  sixteen  and  sixty-seven  one-hundredths  dollars  received  of  the 
companies  aforesaid,  by  the  hands  of  their  respective  agents,  to  our  full  satis- 
faction, have  ceded,  remised,  released,  and  quit  claimed,  and  by  these  presents 
do  cede,  remise,  release,  and  forever  quit  claim  to  the  companies  aforesaid,  and 
the  individuals  composing  the  same,  and  their  heirs  and  assigns  forever,  all  the 
interest,  right,  title,  and  claim  of  title  of  the  said  Indian  Nations  respectively, 
of,  in  and  to  all  the  lands  of  said  companies  lying  west  of  the  river  Cuyahoga, 
and  the  portage  between  that  and  the  Tuscarawas  branch  of  the  Muskingum, 
north  of  the  northernmost  part  of  the  forty-first  degree  of  north  latitude,  east 
of  a line  agreed  and  designated  in  a treaty  between  the  United  States  and  said 
Indian  Nations,  bearing  even  date  herewith,  being  a line  north  and  south  one 
hundred  and  twenty  miles  due  west  of  the  west  line  of  Pennsylvania,  and  south 
of  the  northvvesternmost  part  of  the  forty-second  degree  and  two  minutes 
north  latitude,  for  them  the  said  companies  respectively,  to  have,  hold,  occupy, 
peaceably  possess  and  enjoy  the  granted  and  quit-claimed  premises  forever,  free 
and  clear  of  all  let,  hindrance,  or  molestation  whatever,  so  that  said  Nations 
and  neither  of  them,  the  sachems,  chiefs,  and  warriors  thereof,  and  neither  of 
them,  or  any  of  the  posterity  of  said  nations  respectively,  shall  ever  hereafter 
make  any  claim  to  the  quit- claimed  premises,  or  any  part  thereof,  but  there- 
from said  Nations,  the  sachems,  chiefs,  and  warriors  thereof,  and  posterity  of 
said  Nations  shall  be  forever  barred. 

“In  witness  whereof,  The  commissioner  of  the  United  States,  the  agents 
of  the  Companies  aforesaid,  and  the  sachems,  chiefs,  and  warriors  of  the  respec- 
tive Indian  Nations  aforesaid,  have  hereunto  inter-changeably  fixed  their  seals 
and  set  their  names. 

“ Charles  Jewett,  (l.  s.) 

“ Henry  Champion,  (l.  s.) 

“ Isaac  Mills,  (l.  s.) 

“Nekik,  or  Little  Otter,  (l.  s.)” 


' . • 

■ 


? T*a^h»-  -^HgSrx  #***' 


Acquisition  of  Land  Titles. 


35 


I 

: ■*' 


Here  follows  the  names  of  the  other  sachems,  etc.,  of  the  aforesaid  Indian 
tribes  : 

“ In  the  presence  of  William  Dean,  C.  F.  L.  C. 

“J.  B.  Mower, 

“ Jasper  Parish. 

“ Now,  be  it  known,  that  I,  Thomas  Jefferson,  president  of  the  United 
States  of  America,  having  seen  and  considered  the  said  treaty,  do,  by  and 
with  the  advice  and  consent  of  the  Senate  thereof,  accept,  ratify  and  confirm 
the  same  and  every  article  and  clause  thereof. 

“ In  testimony  whereof  \ I have  caused  the  seal  of  the  United  States  to  be 
hereunto  affixed,  and  signed  the  same  with  my  hand. 

“ Done  at  the  city  of  Washington,  the  25th  day  of  January,  A.  D.  one 
thousand  eight  hundred  and  six,  and  of  the  independence  of  the  United  States 
of  America  the  thirtieth. 

. 1560915  “Th.  Jefferson. 

“ B}'  the  President 

“James  Madison,  Secretary  of  State. 

“ Recorded  and  examined  by  Isaac  Mills,  Clerk.’' 

Thus,  by  this  treaty,  was  ended  the  right  to  possession  or  claim  of  title  of 
any  of  the  Indian  tribes  to  the  territory  of  Erie  county,  but  it  was  a number 
of  years  thereafter  before  they  entirely  disappeared  from  the  region,  and  not 
until  their  removal  was  ordered  by  the  general  government,  some  twenty-five 
or  more  years  later.  Many  remained  to  end  their  days  on  their  favorite  hunt- 
ing and  fishing  grounds  in  the  region  of  the  lake,  the  bay,  and  the  Sandusky 
and  Huron  Rivers  and  other  streams  of  the  locality.  And  we  have  records, 
too,  of  one  at  least,  who  performed  missionary  labors  among  his  brethren,  and 
who  finally  met  a tragic  death  at  the  hands  of  one  whom  he  had  sought  to 
befriend.  This  worker  for  the  spiritual  welfare  of  the  resident  tribes  was  the 
chief,  Ogontz,  of  the  Ottawa  nation.  It  is  said  that  his  cabin  stood  upon  the 
site  of  Sandusky  City. 

After  the  extinguishment  of  the  Indian  titles  to  lands  in  this  vicinity  had 
been  completed,  the  proprietors  of  the  various  companies  took  immediate  steps 
for  their  improvement  and  settlement ; but  in  this  direction  not  much  was 
accomplished,  and  only  a few  families  settled  on  the  Firelands  prior  to  the 
war  of  1812.  The  whole  country  was  in  an  unsettled  condition  on  account  of 
the  difficulties  then  existing,  and  which  led  to  the  declaration  of  war,  and  but  a 
few  availed  themselves  of  the  offer  of  lands  in  Erie  county. 

The  Indian  occupants  of  the  soil  were  unfriendly  to  the  American  colonists, 
and  they  committed  many  petty  depredations  at  the  direct  instigation  of  the 
British,  who  still  held  various  posts  on  the  frontier. 

To  meet  and  check  these  acts  of  hostility  troops  were  ordered  to  the  north- 
western country,  and  the  government  was  strongly  urged  to  place  a naval  war 


: 11  ' l 1 • ' * 


36 


History  of  Erie  County. 


fleet  on  Lake  Erie  to  engage  the  British  fleet  already  there.  Hull  was  in  com- 
mand at  Detroit  at  this  time,  and  while  the  Democratic  or  Republican  (for  at 
this  time  they  were  both  one)  element  of  the  National  Congress  was  in  favor 
of  immediate  and  decisive  action,  nevertheless  they  were  continually  embar- 
rassed and  hampered  by  the  Federalists  who  were  a large  and  influential  minor- 
ity of  the  House,  and  were  opposed  to  the  war  and  demanded  further  negoti- 
ations with  Great  Britain.  This  delay  enabled  the  British  to  perfect  their 
organization  and  strengthen  their  military  posts. 

Early  in  the  year  1812,  and  prior  to  the  actual  outbreak  of  the  war,  the 
Indians  of  this  locality  became  troublesome  — so  much  so  that  an  organization 
was  perfected  at  Huron  to  resist  any  attack,  and,  if  possible,  to  prevent  further 
outrages.  But  while  the  citizens  were  in  meeting  for  the  purpose  stated,  a 
report  was  brought  in  that  two  men,  Gibbs  and  Buel,  had  been  foully  murdered 
at  a point  not  far  south  from  Sandusky.  As  soon  as  the  report  was  confirmed, 
these  “ Minute  men”  of  Erie  county  started  in  pursuit  of  the  murderers  and 
eventually  captured  them.  They  were  Omeek  and  Semo.  The  former  was 
hanged  at  Cleveland,  but  the  latter,  who  was  not  secured  until  later,  knowing 
his  probable  fate,  died  by  his  own  hand. 

In  the  latter  part  of  June,  1812,  the  war  was  commenced.  Hull,  as  has 
been  stated,  was  in  command  at  Detroit,  and  through  his  inefficiency  and 
blundering  that  post  was  surrendered  to  the  British  on  the  16th  of  August, 
together  with  the  whole  command,  numbering  nearly  fifteen  hundred  men, 
while  the  opposing  force  reached  less  than  one  thousand. 

Indian  outrages  in  this  locality  continued  even  while  the  British  with  their 
allies  were  besieging  Detroit  and  fighting  the  various  commands  sent  out  by 
Hull.  The  record  of  these  events  in  Erie  county  and  its  immediate  vicinity 
are  so  clearly  recited  in  a local  publication,  made  some  thirty  years  ago,  that 
free  quotations  are  made  from  it. 

“During  the  same  spring  (1812)  another,  and  perhaps  one  of  the  most 
barbarous  massacres  occurring  before  or  since,  took  place  at  the  head  of  Cold 
Creek.  There  were  living  there  at  this  time  the  families  of  D.  P.  Snow,  But- 
ler and  Putnam,  and  a girl  named  Page,  all  of  whom  were  captured  by  the 
Indians.  Snow  had  erected  on  Cold  Creek  a grist-mill  in  which  he  usually 
kept  corn.  The  Indians,  being  aware  of  this,  would  come  in  the  night  and 
carry  much  of  it  away.  Snow  devised  a plan,  by  laying  boards  on  the  floor 
leading  from  the  embankment  to  the  mill  in  such  a manner  that  when  trod 
upon  they  would  give  way  and  let  the  Indians  through.  After  being  caught 
in  this  manner  several  times,  they  became  exasperated  and  determined  upon 
revenge.  Concealing  themselves  one  morning  among  bushes  that  lined  the 
creek,  they  awaited  the  departure  from  the  house  of  the  men  who  were  culti- 
vating a field  of  corn  some  distance  away.  After  they  had  gone  the  savages 
approached  the  cabins,  captured  the  women  and  children,  killed  Mrs.  Snow, 


* 

. 


Acquisition  of  Land  Titles. 


37 


who  was  too  ill  to  travel,  together  with  her  small  children,  and  carried  the 
others  captives  to  Canada,  but  they  were  subsequently  released.” 

After  the  surrender  of  Hull  the  inhabitants  of  this  region  were  in  a still 
more  defenseless  condition,  and  for  mutual  preservation  and  protection  organ- 
ized a company  of  “Rangers,”  who  were  placed  under  command  of  Captain 
Cotton  to  stand  guard  at  the  block-house  at  Huron,  and  be  in  constant  readi- 
ness for  any  emergency  that  might  arise.  They  had  not  long  to  wait,  how- 
ever, for  one  morning  there  appeared  in  the  vicinity  of  Bull’s  Island  a large 
body  of  Pottowatomies,  and,  being  anxious  to  engage  with  them,  the  Rangers 
proceeded  by  boats  to  that  place.  The  Indians  watched  them,  unperceived, 
until  they  left  the  boats  and  went  into  the  woods,  after  which  they  (the  In- 
dians) destroyed  the  boats  and  started  to  overtake  the  Rangers.  A conflict 
followed  in  which  the  savages  were  beaten  and  routed,  but  the  whites  suffered 
a serious  loss  in  the  killing  of  two  of  their  number,  Comrades  Randall  and 
Mingus,  and  the  serious  wounding  of  Jonas  Lee.  Their  boats  being  destroyed, 
the  Rangers  were  compelled  to  remain  on  the  island  for  two  days  before  relief 
boats  reached  them. 

At  the  time  of  Hull’s  surrender,  extensive  preparations  were  making  to 
relieve  him  and  other  western  posts,  particularly  those  on  the  Maumee,  at 
Fort  Wayne,  and  in  Illinois.  For  this  object  three  expeditions  were  marching, 
one  of  which  was  to  scour  the  country  hereabouts  and  drive  out  the  hostile 
Indians,  while  the  others  were  to  proceed  by  other  routes,  each  having  a com- 
mon destination — the  Rapids  of  the  Maumee. 

The  expedition,  however,  failed  of  its  purpose,  and  the  relief  hoped  for  was 
not  secured  ; and  it  is  doubtful,  indeed,  whether,  had  the  troops  accomplished 
the  march,  any  substantial  benefit  could  have  been  acquired  without  a co-oper- 
ating naval  force  on  the  lakes. 

Having  summarized  the  leading  events  of  this  locality,  it  will  not  be  nec- 
essary to  relate  the  other  incidents  that  occurred  during  this  memorable  war. 
The  main  battles  were  fought  in  the  Eastern  States,  still  the  country  of  the 
Maumee,  and  to  the  north  of  it  were  not  without  several  serious  conflicts  at 
arms.  The  sieges  of  Fort  Meigs,  and  Perry’s  splendid  achievement  on  Lake 
Erie,  about  twenty-five  miles  from  Sandusky  City,  were  the  crowning  events 
of  this  region.  The  American  arms  were,  after  three  long  years  of  strife,  vic- 
torious, and  with  the  close  of  this  struggle  America  had  fought  her  last  battle 
with  a foreign  foe. 

This  last  victory  of  the  United  States  over  Great  Britain]  brought  lasting 
peace.  Nothing  now  existed  to  disturb  and  hinder  the  tide  of  emigration  west. 
From  this  time,  substantially,  dates  the  civil  and  social  growth  and  develop- 
ment of  this  region  of  country,  although  the  formal  acts  of  civil  organization 
had,  years  before,  been  accomplished. 


6 


■ 

'Vv: 


: ' ' 


38 


History  of  Erie  County. 


CHAPTER  VII. 

The  Soil  and  Civil  Jurisdiction  of  Ohio  — The  Connecticut  Lands  — The  Western  Reserve 
— Connecticut  Sufferers’  or  Firelands  — Detailed  Record  of  Their  Organization — Laws — Acts 
and  Explanations  — Surveys  — Dissolution  of  the  Firelands  Company  — Records  Transferred 
to  Huron  County. 

THERE  is  unquestionably  no  subject  of  greater  interest  to  the  average 
resident  of  Erie  county  than  the  history  of  the  soil  and  civil  jurisdiction  of 
that  locality  already'  named.  And  inasmuch  as  this  county'  is  embraced  within 
the  limits  of  what  has  been  variously  termed  the  “ Connecticut  Lands,”  the 
“Western  Reserve,”  the  “Connecticut  Sufferers’  Lands”. or  “Firelands,”  the 
subject  becomes  doubly  important  to  those  whose  ancestors  may  have  been 
identified  with  the  events  that  led  to  the  donation  of  these  lands  for  the  pur- 
poses of  compensating  losses  suffered  at  the  hands  of  British  soldiery. 

And  it  is  believed,  too,  there  is  no  theme  that  has  been  more  thoroughly 
discussed  in  pioneer  assemblages,  no  subject  upon  which  more  has  been  writ- 
ten, and  yet  one  that  is  as  little  understood  as  that  — the  leading  subject  of  this 
chapter. 

In  order  to  make  a clear  and  intelligent  explanation  of  this  important  and 
interesting  subject,  there  must  be  laid  a proper  foundation,  which  necessitates 
reference  to  the  events  of  years  much  earlier  than  those  in  which  the  losses 
were  suffered  that  gave  rise  to  the  names  by  which  this  region  is  designated. 

In  the  following  pages  liberal  quotations  are  made  from  such  standard  au- 
thorities as  are  extant  upon  the  subject,  and  as  much  of  the  history  bearing  up- 
on it  as  is  a matter  of  established  law,  those  laws  will  be  copied  fully  and  free- 
ly whenever  necessary,  whether  specially  referred  to  at  the  time  or  not 

The  first  claimant  to  the  soil  of  Ohio,  and  not  only  that  but  of  America,  as 
well,  was  the  kingdom  of  France.  This  was  a claim  by  right  of  discovery  and 
exploration  made  by  the  adventurous  M.  de  La  Salle,  who  traversed  the  coun- 
try far  and  wide,  taking  possession  of  each  region  in  the  name  of  his  king. 

England  set  up  a like  claim  and  finally'  the  two  became  involved  in  the 
French  and  English  War,  and  by'  it  France  was  deprived  of  all  title  and  there- 
after our  country  was  under  absolute  British  rule  for  something  over  twenty 
years. 

The  result  of  the  Revolutionary  War  overthrew  and  ended  the  rule  of  Great 
Britain  and  vested  in  the  United  States,  as  conqueror,  this  vast  domain. 

But  during  the  rule  of  the  aforementioned  sovereign  powers,  charters,  grants 
and  patents  of  immense  tracts  were  made,  either  as  a reward  of  fealty  or  for 
consideration  ; and  after  the  United  States  had  become  the  acknowledged  owner 
conflicting  claims  of  title  in  many  localities  arose,  but  happily  most  of  them 


■ 


Early  Land  Claimants. 


39 


were  settled  without  recourse  to  arms.  Some  of  these  so  far  as  they  relate  to 
the  territory  of  Ohio,  it  is  proposed  to  mention.  “ Virginia  acquired  title  to 
the  great  Northwest  by  its  several  charters,  granted  by  James  I,  bearing  dates 
respectively,  April  io,  1606,  May  23,  1609,  and  March  12,  1611.  The  col- 
ony of  Virginia  first  attempted  to  exercise  authority  in  and  jurisdiction  over 
that  portion  of  its  extensive  domains  that  was  organized  by  the  ordinance  of 
’87  into  ‘the  territory  northwest  of  the  River  Ohio,’  when  in  1769,  the  House 
of  Burgess  of  that  colony  passed  an  act  establishing  the  county  of  Botetourt,  with 
the  Mississippi  River  as  its  western  boundary.”  Again  in  1778  the  Legisla- 
ture of  Virginia  subdivided  this  great  territory  by  the  erection  of  the  county 
of  Illinois,  which  included  within  its  boundaries  all  the  lands  of  Virginia  lying 
west  of  the  Ohio  River. 

But  in  1783,  in  compliance  with  the  desire  of  the  general  government,  the 
Legislature  of  Virginia  passed  an  act  authorizing  and  directing  her  representa- 
tives in  Congress  to  execute  a deed  of  cession  to  the  United  States,  of  all  her 
territory  northwest  of  the  Ohio. 

Having  thus  acquired  the  title  to  the  territory  northwest  of  the  Ohio  River, 
so  far,  at  least,  as  the  claim  of  Virginia  was  concerned,  Congress  immediately 
proceeded  to  adopt  measures  for  its  civil  government,  which  measures  resulted 
in  the  somewhat  celebrated  “ Ordinance  of ’87,”  and  which  has  otherwise  been 
known  as  the  “ Ordinance  of  Freedom.”  This  was  the  fundamental  law  of  the 
great  Northwest,  upon  which  were  based  all  territorial  enactments,  as  well  as 
subsequent  State  legislation. 

The  Commonwealth  of  Massachusetts  based  her  claim  to  the  soil  of  Ohio 
upon  royal  charter  granted  by  James  I,  in  1620,  to  the  council  of  Plymouth, 
and  embracing  all  the  territory  of  America  between  the  fortieth  and  forty- 
eighth  parallels  of  latitude,  extending  east  and  west  between  the  Atlantic  and 
Pacific  oceans  and  comprising,  in  area,  over  one  million  square  miles  of  land. 

In  1785  Massachusetts  ceded  her  claim  of  title  to  Ohio  soil  to  the  United 
States,  but  reserved  the  portion  concerning  which  she  and  New  York  were  in 
dispute. 

In  1664,  Charles  II  ceded  to  his  brother,  the  Duke  of  York,  and  afterwards 
King  James  II  of  England,  the  country  from  Delaware  Bay  to  the  river  St. 
Croix.  This  constituted  New  York’s  claim  to  the  western  territory,  of  which 
the  lands  of  the  Western  Reserve  were  a portion. 

. New  York  relinquished  her  claim  to  this  territory  in  1780,  earlier  by  some 
years  than  any  of  the  other  claimants. 

The  Connecticut  claim,  that  which  is  of  more  interest  to  the  people  of  this 
county  than  all  the  others,  was  rested  upon  royal  charter  granted  by  the  king 
in  1662  to  nineteen  patentees,  bounded  by  Massachusetts  on  the  north,  the 
sea  on  the  south,  Narragansett  Bay  oil  the  east,  but  extending  to  the  Pacific 
Ocean  on  the  west.  The  northern  and  southern  boundaries  of  this  tract  were 
the  same  as  form  the  north  and  south  bounds  of  the  Reserve. 


, 

' ' 


40 


History  of  Erie  County. 


Connecticut  last  of  all  deeded  her  claim  to  Ohio  soil,  with  reservations,  to- 
the  United  States  in  September,  1786,  which  deed  of  cession  duly  authorized 
by  the  Legislature  of  the  State,  was  as  follows: 

CESSION  FROM  THE  STATE  OF  CONNECTICUT. 

“To  all  who  shall  see  these  presents,  wet William  Samuel  Johnson  and 
Jonathan  Sturges,  the  underwritten  delegates  for  the  State  of  Connecticut  in 
the  Congress  of  the  United  States,  send  greeting:  Whereas,  the  General  As- 
sembly of  the  State  of  Connecticut,  on  the  second  Thursday  of  May,  in  the 
year  of  our  Lord  one  thousand  seven  hundred  and  eighty-six,  passed  an  act 
in  the  following  words,  viz.  : *Be  it  enacted  by  the  governor,  council , and  repre- 
sentatives in  general  court  assembled , and  by  the  authority  of  the  same , That 
the  delegates  of  this  State,  or  any  two  of  them,  who  shall  be  attending  the 
Congress  of  the  United  States,  be  and  they  are  hereby  directed,  authorized, 
and  fully  empowered,  in  the  name  and  behalf  of  this  State,  to  make,  execute, 
and  deliver,  under  their  hands  and  seals,  an  ample  deed  of  release  and  cession 
of  all  the  right,  title,  interest,  jurisdiction  and  claim,  of  the  State  of  Connecti- 
cut, to  certain  western  lands,  beginning  at  the  completion  of  the  forty-first 
degree  of  north  latitude,  one  hundred  and  twenty  miles  west  of  the  western 
boundary  line  of  the  Commonwealth  of  Pennsylvania,  as  now  claimed  by  said 
Commonwealth,  and  from  thence  by  a line  drawn  north  parallel  to,  and  one 
hundred  and  twenty  miles  west  of  the  said  west  line  of  Pennsylvania,  and  to- 
continue  north  until  it  comes  to  forty-two  degrees  and  two  minutes  north  lati- 
tude. Whereby  all  the  right,  title,  interest,  jurisdiction,  and  claim  of  the  said 
State  of  Connecticut  to  the  lands  lying  west  of  said  line  to  be  drawn  as  afore- 
mentioned, one  hundred  and  twenty  miles  west  of  the  western  boundary  line 
of  the  Commonwealth  of  Pennsylvania,  as  now  claimed  by  said  Commonwealth,* 
shall  be  included,  released  and  ceded  to  the  United  States  in  Congress  assem- 
bled, for  the  common  use  and  benefit  of  the  said  States,  Connecticut  in- 
clusive.’ Now,  therefore,  know  ye,  that  we,  the  said  William  Samuel  Johnson 
and  Jonathan  Sturges,  by  virtue  of  the  power  and  authority  to  us  committed 
by  the  said  act  of  the  General  Assembly  of  the  State  of  Connecticut,  etc.,  do,  by 
these  presents,  assign,  transfer,  quit-claim,  cede,  and  convey  to  the  United 
States  of  America,  for  their  benefit,  Connecticut  inclusive,  all  the  right,  title, 
interest,  jurisdiction,  and  claim,  which  the  said  State  of  Connecticut  hath,  in 
and  to  the  before  mentioned  and  described  territory  or  tract  of  country,  as  the 
same  is  bounded  and  described  in  the  said  act  of  Assembly,  for  the  uses  in  the 
said  recited  act  of  Assembly  declared. 

“ In  witness  whereof,  we  have  hereunto  set  our  hands  and  seals  this  thir- 
teenth day  of  September,  in  the  year  of  our  Lord  one  thousand  seven  hundred 


. 

3W  ttn  ,5Y  won x'  .anobr  ro 


. 


Early  Land  Claimants. 


4r 

-nc]  eighty-six,  and  of  the  sovereignty  and  independence  of  the  United  States- 
of  America  the  eleventh. 

“Will.  Sam.  Johnson,  [l.s.] 

“ Jonathan  Sturges,  [l.s.] 

" Signed,  sealed  and  delivered  in  the  presence  of 
“Cha.  Thompson, 

“ Roger  Alden, 

“James  Mathers.” 

It  will  be  observed  that  this  deed  of  cession,  executed  and  delivered  by  the 
proper  officers  of  the  State  of  Connecticut  to  the  United  States,  released  and 
conveyed  all  lands  claimed  by  the  State  except  that  commonly  known  as  the 
Reserve ; and  while  it  was  intended  that  the  reservation  should  be  made,  no 
provision  of  the  deed  vests  any  right  or  civil  jurisdiction  over  the  lands  of  the 
Reserve  in  the  United  States,  but  absolute  control,  not  only  of  the  title,  but 
of  jurisdiction  over  the  same  remains  in  the  State. 

By  virtue  of  an  act  of  Congress  passed  April  28,  1800,  the  president  was 
authorized  to  issue  letters  patent  to  the  governor  of  Connecticut  for  the  lands 
of  the  Reserve,  but  upon  condition  that  the  State  renounce  all  jurisdictional 
claims  over  the  same ; and  further,  that  the  State  execute  a deed  by  its  agents 
of  the  same;  also  expressly  providing  that  the  United  States  should  not  in 
any  manner  be  pledged  for  the  extinguishment  of  the  Indian  titles  to  the  lands 
of  the  Reserve.  This,  the  reader  will  understand,  was  done  on  the  authority 
and  at  the  expense  of  the  State  at  Fort  Industry,  on  the  4th  of  July,  1805,  to- 
which  full  reference  is  made  in  a preceding  chapter. 

On  the  30th  day  of  May,  1800,  the  additional  deed  was  executed  by  Gov- 
ernor Trumbull,  as  follows : 

“To  all  who  shall  see  these  presents,  I,  Jonathan  Trumbull,  governor  of 
the  State  of  Connecticut,  send  greeting  : 

“ Whereas,  the  General  Assembly  of  the  State  of  Connecticut,  at  their  ses- 
sion holden  in  Hartford,  on  the  second  Thursday  of  May,  one  thousand  eight 
hundred,  passed  an  act  entitled,  ‘An  act  renouncing  the  claims  of  this  State  to- 
certain  lands  therein  mentioned,’  in  the  words  following,  to-wit: 

“ ‘Whereas,  the  Congress  of  the  United  States,  at  their  session,  begun  and 
holden  in  the  city  of  Philadelphia,  on  the  first  Monday  of  December,  in  the 
year  one  thousand  seven  hundred  and  ninety-nine,  made  and  passed  an  act  in 
the  words  following,  to-wit:  [Act  of  Congress  of  April  28,  1800,  hereinbefore 
mentioned]  ; therefore,  in  consideration  of  the  terms,  and  in  compliance  with 
the  provisions  and  conditions  of  the  said  act,  Be  it  enacted  by  the  Governor  and 
Council , and  House  of  Representatives,  in  General  Court  assembled,  That  the 
btate  of  Connecticut  doth  hereby  renounce  forever,  for  the  use  and  benefit  of 
the  United  States,  and  of  the  several  individual  States,  who  may  be  therein 
concerned,  respectively,  and  of  all  those  deriving  claims  or  titles  from  them  or 


' 


42 


History  of  Erie  County. 


any  of  them,  all  territorial  and  jurisdictional  claims  whatever,  under  any  grant, 
charter  or  charters  whatever,  to  the  soil  and  jurisdiction  of  any  and  all  lands 
whatever  lying  westward,  northwestward,  and  southwestward,  of  those  counties 
in  the  State  of  Connecticut,  which  are  bounded  westwardly  by  the  eastern  line 
of  the  State  of  New  York,  as  ascertained  by  agreement  between  Connecticut 
and  New  York,  in  the  year  one  thousand  seven  hundred  and  thirty-three ; ex- 
cepting only  from  this  renunciation,  the  claim  of  the  said  State  of  Connecticut, 
and  of  those  claiming  from  and  under  the  said  State  of  Connecticut,  to  the  soil 
of  said  tract  of  land,  in  said  act  of  Congress  described  under  the  name  of  the 
Western  Reserve  of  Connecticut.  And  be  it  further  enacted , That  the  gov- 
ernor of  this  State  for  the  time  being,  be,  and  hereby  is,  empowered,  in  the 
name  and  behalf  of  this  State,  to  execute  and  deliver  to  the  acceptance  of  the 
president  of  the  United  States,  a deed  of  the  form  and  tenor  directed  by  the 
said  act  of  Congress,  expressly  releasing  to  the  United  States  the  jurisdictional 
claims  of  the  State  of  Connecticut,  to  all  that  territory  called  the  Western  Re- 
serve of  Connecticut,  according  to  the  description  thereof  in  said  act  of  Con- 
gress, and  in  as  full  and  ample  manner  as  therein  is  required.’ 

“ Therefore,  know  ye,  that  I,  Jonathan  Trumbull,  governor  of  the  State  of 
Connecticut,  by  virtue  of  the  powers  vested  in  me,  as  aforesaid,  do,  by  these 
presents,  in  the  name  and  for  and  on  behalf  of  the  said  State,  remise,  release, 
and  forever  quit  claim  to  the  United  States,  the  jurisdictional  claim  of  the  State 
of  Connecticut,  to  all  that  tract  of  land  called,  in  the  aforesaid  act  of  Congress, 
the  Western  Reserve  of  Connecticut,  and  as  the  same  therein  under  that  name 
is  particularly  and  fully  described. 

“ In  witness  whereof,  I have  hereunto  subscribed  my  name,  and  affixed  my 
sea1  in  the  Council  Chamber  at  Hartford,  in  the  State  of  Connecticut,  this  thir- 
teenth day  of  May,  in  the  year  of  our  Lord  one  thousand  eight  hundred,  and 
in  the  twenty-fourth  year  of  the  independence  of  the  United  States. 

“Jonathan  Trumbull,  (l.  s.)” 

Many  readers  and  not  a few  writers  have  taken  the  position  that  the  State 
of  Connecticut,  through  her  officers,  unduly  and  unwarrantably  delayed  com- 
plying with  the  desire  of  Congress,  and  the  United  States,  in  the  matter  of 
ceding  her  western  territory  to  the  general  government;  and  that  she  (Con- 
necticut) thought  that  by  retaining  possession  under  her  claim  that  it  might 
be  held  for  her  own  absolute  use  and  control.  In  this  impression  there  has 
been  a serious  error.  Connecticut  occupied  a position  in  this  matter  which  was 
certainly  peculiar,  if  not  embarrassing;  her  pledge  by  deed  was  given  and  she 
was  by  law  and  equity  bound  to  protect  those  persons  to  whom  conveyances 
had  been  made.  The  State,  also,  had  encouraged  the  purchase  and  settlement 
of  the  lands  of  the  reserve  by  her  own  people,  and  it  was  that  their  individual 
rights  might  be  upheld  and  sustained  that  she  delayed  her  deeds  of  cession  ; 
and  this  delay  was  occasioned  by  the  deliberation  and  counsel  necessary  to 
ascertain  the  best  means  of  accomplishing  the  end  sought. 


Early  Land  Claimants. 


43 


This  position  of  Connecticut  was,  so  far  as  we  have  any  established  record, 
unlike  that  of  any  other  State  claiming  these  lands,  and  the  others  had  only 
to  execute  the  deeds  of  cession  and  were  not  obliged  to  protect  the  rights  and 
interests  of  their  immediate  grantees,  having  none.  This  state  of  affairs  led  to 
the  reservation  made  by  the  State  and  gave  existence  to  that  which  for  all  sub- 
sequent years  was  known  as  the  “ Western  Reserve  of  Connecticut." 

This  vast  tract  of  land  lies  north  of  the  forty- first  parallel  and  south  of  par- 
allel forty-two  two  minutes;  therefore  a large  portion  of  Lake  Erie  comes  within 
its  boundaries.  Its  eastern  limit  is  the  Pennsylvania  line,  and  from  that  line  it 
extends  west  one  hundred  and  twenty  miles.  In  area  it  covers  an  extent  of 
about  four  million  acres  of  land.  The  entire  Western  Reserve  embraces  the 
present  counties  of  Ashtabula,  Cuyahoga,  Erie,  Geauga,  Huron,  Lake,  Lorain, 
Medina,  Portage  and  Trumbull  ; also  a major  portion  of  Mahoning  and  Sum- 
mit, and  smaller  parts  of  Ashland  and  Ottawa.  Danbury  township  represents 
the  portion  of  Ottawa  county  that  lies  within  the  reserve,  and  was  formerly  a 
part  of  Erie,  but  set  off  to  the  former  upon  the  erection  thereof  in  1840. 
Trumbull  county,  the  oldest  formed  of  the  reserve  territory,  was  erected  in 
1800,  and  included  all  the  lands  thereof. 

Having  now  sufficiently  described  the  lands  of  the  Connecticut  Western 
Reserve,  and  furnished  in  detail  the  reasons  of  its  creation,  the  next  step  brings 
the  reader  to  a large  subdivision  of  the  reserve  territory  set  apart  by  the  State 
of  Connecticut  for  purposes  therein  fully  described ; and  which  subdivision  is 
properly  known  as  the  “ Sufferers’  Land,”  but  more  commonly  designated  as 
the  “Fi relands.”  Within  this  tract  Erie  county  is  wholly  situate. 

•It  appears  that  during  the  War  of  the  Revolution  many  of  the  recruits  of 
the  State  of  Connecticut  suffered  severe  losses  of  property  at  the  hands  of  the 
British  soldiers  ; and  in  order  to  compensate  these  people  the  State  set  apart 
of  its  Western  Reserve,  a large  tract  of  land,  embracing  half  a million  acres,  to 
be  divided  pro  rata  among  them  as  their  respective  losses  might  appear. 

The  impression  had  gone  abroad  among  many  people  that  the  losses  re- 
ferred to  were  suffered  by  people  who  were,  during  the  Revolutionary  War, 
residents  of  the  reserve,  and  one  writer  has  asserted  in  his  work  that  such  was 
the  case,  as  the  following  extract  will  show : “ During  the  Revolutionary  War 
the  inhabitants  through  this  region,”  etc.  Of  course  this  is  a wrong  impres- 
sion, and  it  is  safe  to  say  that  during  that  war  there  was  not  a single  perma- 
nent resident  from  Connecticut  or  elsewhere  upon  the  soil  of  the  reserve,  at 
least  a thorough  search  fails  to  disclose  such  an  one.  Soon  after  the  close  of 
the  war  these  sufferers  presented  a petition  to  the  State  of  Connecticut  asking 
that  compensation  be  awarded  them  for  their  losses,  which  petition  was  re- 
ferred to  a committee  appointed  by  the  Assembly.  The  action  of  the  Legis- 
lature of  the  State  will  be  fully  and  clearly  shown  by  their  resolution,  passed 
May  io,  1792,  as  follows: 


' 


44 


History  of  Erie  County. 


“ Upon  the  memorial  of  the  inhabitants  of  the  towns  of  Fairfield  and  Mo- 
hawk showing  to  this  Assembly  that  many  of  the  inhabitants  of  said  towns 
suffered  great  losses  by  the  devastations  of  the  enemy  during  the  late  war, 
praying  a compensation  therefor ; and  on  report  of  a committee  appointed  by 
this  Assembly  at  their  sessions  held  in  Hartford  in  May,  1791,  to  ascertain 
from  documents  in  the  public  offices  the  amount  of  the  losses  of  the  said  mem- 
orialists, and  others  under  similar  circumstances,  which  had  been  estimated 
conformably  to  acts  of  this  Legislature,  being  such  as  were  incurred  by  incur- 
sions .of  the  enemy  during  the  late  war,  distinguishing  the  losses  of  buildings 
and  necessary  furniture  from  those  of  other  articles  by  said  documents,  or 
otherwise ; and  also  to  ascertain  the  advancements  which  have  been  made  to 
the  sufferers  by  abatement  of  taxes,  or  otherwise  ; and  report  the  same  with 
their  opinion  relative  to  the  ways  and  means  of  affording  further  relief  as  per 
memorial  and  report  on  file. 

“ Resolved  by  this  Assembly , That  there  be,  and  there  hereby  is,  released 
and  quit-claimed  to  the  sufferers  hereafter  named,  or  their  legal  representa- 
tives, when  they  are  dead,  and  to  their  heirs  and  assigns  forever,  five  hundred 
thousand  acres  of  the  lands  belonging  to  this  State,  lying  west  of  the  State  of 
Pennsylvania,  and  bounding  northerly  on  the  shore  of  Lake  Erie,  beginningat 
the  west  line  of  said  lands,  and  extending  eastward  to  a line  running  northerly 
and  southerly,  parallel  to  the  east  line  of  said  tract  of  land  belonging  to  this. 
State,  and  extending  the  whole  width  of  said  lands,  and  easterly,  so  far  as  to 
make  said  quantity  of  five  hundred  thousand  acres  of  land,  exclusive  of  any 
lands  within  said  bounds,  if  any  be,  which  may  have  been  heretofore  granted 
to  be  divided  to  and  among  the  said  sufferers,  and  their  legal  representatives, 
where  they  are  dead,  in  proportion  to  the  several  sums  annexed  to  their  names, 
as  follows,  in  the  annexed  list.” 

It  is  not  thought  to  be  of  sufficient  importance  to  this  chapter  that  there 
should  be  appended  the  names  of  individual  sufferers  to  whom  lands  were 
awarded.  There  were  many  of  them,  several  hundred,  and  the  losses  ranged 
from  a few  shillings  to  nearly  two  thousand  pounds.  It  will  be  understood  by 
the  reader  that  few,  comparatively  few,  of  these  people  ever  became  actual 
residents  of  the  Firelands.  There  were  many  who  were  entitled  to  but  very 
little  land,  and  in  nearly  every  such  case  the  person  sold  out  his  claim  or 
award  to  another  who  was  entitled  to  a larger  tract,  and  thus  the  greater 
absorbed  the  less.  More  than  this,  speculators  and  land  operators  became 
owners  of  large  tracts  for  the  purpose  of  gain,  and  they  sold  to  the  person  of- 
fering the  largest  price.  Again,  at  that  time,  the  Indian  title  to  the  Sufferers’ 
Lands  had  not  been  extinguished,  nor  was  this  done  until  thirteen  years  later. 
Neither  had  they  been  surveyed,  nor  was  provision  made  therefor  until  the 
year  1806.  There  was  very  little  inducement  for  people  to  settle  in  the  re- 
gion, and  those  owning  tracts  held  them  at  such  extravagant  figures  as  to 


Early  Land  Claimants. 


45 


a!arm  the  few  pioneers  that  came  to  the  region  from  other  places,  so  they 
passed  further  west,  and  to  the  south,  where  equally  good  lands  could  be  pur- 
chased and  at  half  the  price  demanded  for  those  of  the  Firelands.  This  proved 
a great  hindrance  to  the  early  growth  of  Erie  county,  and  even  at  a much  later 
dav  Sandusky  city’s  growth  was  much  retarded  from  like  causes.  While  it  is 
not  deemed  advisable  to  give  the  names  of  the  sufferers,  a mention  of  the  Con- 
necticut towns  in  which  the  losses  were  incurred  may  properly  be  made. 
They  were:  Greenwich,  Norwalk,  F'airfield,  Danbury,  New  Haven  and  East 
Haven,  New  London,  Ridgefield  and  Groton.  These  names  were  given  to 
townships  of  Erie  and  Huron  counties  (this  being  formerly  a part  of  Huron), 
upon  their  organization,  respectively  : thus  preserving  and  carrying  to  this  re- 
gion the  names  of  townships  of  Connecticut  in  which  losses  were  suffered. 

An  act  of  the  Legislature  of  Connecticut,  passed  May,  1795,  provided, 
“That  all  deeds  conveying  any  of  said  lands,  shall  be  recorded  in  the  town 
clerk’s  office  in  the  town  or  towns  where  the  loss  or  damage  of  the  original 
grantee  or  grantees,  mentioned  in  said  grant,  was  sustained,  by  the  town  clerk 
of  such  town,  in  a book  to  be  by  him  kept  for  that  purpose  only.”  This  act, 
however,  was  revised  by  the  act  of  1808. 

By  virtue  of  an  act  of  the  Connecticut  Legislature,  passed  in  1799,  and  re- 
vised in  1808,  it  was  provided  : “That  the  proprietors  of  said  lands  be  a body 
corporate  and  politic,  and  they  are  hereby  ordained,  constituted  and  declared 
to  be  a body  corporate  and  politic,  for  the  purposes  herein  mentioned,  in  fact 
and  in  name,  and  shall  be  known  and  called  by  the  name  of  ‘ The  Proprietors 
of  the  Half  Million  Acres  of  Land  lyi?ig  south  of  Lake  Erie'  and  by  that  name 
they  and  their  heirs  and  assigns  may,  and  shall,  have  succession,  and  shall  be 
persons  known  in  law,  capable  of  suing  and  being  sued,  of  pleading  and  being 
impleaded.” 

In  May,  1797,  the  same  Legislature  passed  an  additional  and  amendatory 
act,  which  also  was  revised  in  1808,  but  containing  no  provisions  of  impor- 
tance bearing  on  these  lands  that  needs  a mention  here, 

To  digress  briefly  from  these  events  and  look  to  the  progress  of  Ohio  to- 
ward a State  formation,  it  may  be  stated  that  in  1798  the  territory  reached  the 
second  grade  of  territorial  government,  having  been  found  to  contain  “ five 
thousand  free  male  inhabitants,  of  full  age.”  Upon  this  fact  being  made  to 
appear  to  the  satisfaction  of  the  governor,  on  the  29th  of  October,  of  that  year, 
his  proclamation,  directing  the  holding  of  an  election  for  territorial  represent- 
atives, was  issued,  and,  on  the  third  Monday  of  December  thereafter,  officers 
were  chosen  “ to  constitute  the  popular  branch  of  the  Territorial  Legislature 
for  the  ensuing  two  years.” 

The  third  session  of  the  Territorial  Legislature  continued  from  the  24th  of 
November,  1801,  until  the  23d  day  of  January,  1802,  when  it  adjourned  to 
meet  at  Cincinnati  on  the  fourth  Monday  of  November  following,  “ but  that 
7 


■ 


46 


History  of  Erie  County. 


fourth  session  was  never  held,  for  reasons  made  obvious  by  subsequent  events.” 
By  an  act  of  Congress,  passed  April  30,  1802,  entitled  “An  act  to  enable  the 
people  of  the  eastern  division  of  the  territory  northwest  of  the  river  Ohio  to 
form  a constitution  and  State  government,  and  for  the  admission  of  such  State 
into  the  Union  on  an  equal  footing  with  the  original  States,  and  for  other  pur- 
poses.” 

In  pursuance  of  this  enactment  an  election  was  held,  and  members  of  a 
constitutional  convention  chosen,  the  first  meeting  of  which  convention  was 
held  at  Chillicothe,  in  November,  1802. 

The  Territorial  government  of  Ohio  was  ended  by  the  organization  of  the 
State  government,  March  3,  1803,  pursuant  to  the  provisions  of  the  constitu- 
tion framed  the  year  before.  Therefore,  when  the  Ohio  Legislature  passed  an 
act  (which  she  soon  did),  relative  to  the  Sufferers’  Lands,  that  was  the  first 
measure  adopted  by  the  State  of  Ohio  bearing  upon  the  subject  under  consid- 
eration. 

The  first  official  action  by  the  Legislature  of  Ohio  after  her  admission  into  the 
Union,  that  had  any  bearing  upon  the  Firelands,  was  the  passage  of  an  act  on 
the  15th  of  April,  1803,  entitled,  “An  act  to  incorporate  the  owners  and  pro- 
prietors of  (the)  half  million  acres  of  land,  lying  south  of  Lake  Erie,  in  the 
county  of  Trumbull.” 

Section  1 of  the  act  provides,  “ That  the  owners  and  proprietors  of  said 
half  million  acres  of  land  be,  and  they  hereby  are,  ordained  and  constituted  a 
body  politic  and  corporate,  in  fact  and  in  name,  by  the  name  of  ‘ The  Proprie- 
tors of  the  half  million  acres  of  land,  lying  south  of  Lake  Erie,  called  Sufferers’ 
Land,’  and  by  that  name  they,  their  heirs  and  assigns,  may  and  shall  have 
succession,  capable  of  suing  and  being  sued,  of  pleading  and  being  impleaded.” 

Section  2 provides  for  a board  of  directors,  consisting  of  nine  persons,  one 
to  represent  each  of  the  suffering  towns  of  Connecticut,  except  the  town  of 
New  London,  which  shall  have  two  votes,  besides  other  provisions. 

Section  3,  “That  Jabez  Fitch  of  Greenwich,  Taylor  Sherwood  of  Norwalk, 
Walter  Bradley  of  Fairfield,  Philip  B.  Bradley,  of  Ridgefield,  James  Clark  of 
Danbury,  Isaac  Mills  of  New  Haven  and  East  Haven,  Elias  Perkins  and  Guy 
Richards  of  New  London,  and  Star  Chester  of  Groton,  be  and  they  are  hereby 
constituted  and  appointed  the  first  directors  for  said  company,  and  may  hold 
their  first  meeting,  after  passing  of  this  act,  at  such  time  and  place  as  any  five 
or  more  of  said  directors  shall  appoint,”  etc. 

Very  soon  after  the  conclusion  of  the  treaty  with  the  several  Indian  tribes, 
and  even  before  the  same  had  been  confirmed  and  ratified  by  the  United  States, 
the  proprietors  of  the  Sufferers’  Land  took  steps  to  have  the  same  surveyed  in- 
to townships,  and  for  that  purpose  authorized  Tailor  Sherman,  one  of  their 
body,  to  negotiate  for  and  make  the  necessary  arrangements.  An  agreement 
was  made  by  Mr.  Sherman,  for  and  on  behalf  of  the  proprietors,  with  John 


. 


- 


Early  Land  Claimants. 


47 


McLean  and  James  Clark,  both  of  Danbury,  Conn.,  and  they  employed  Almon 
Ruggles  to  superintend  the  work. 

According  to  the  terms  of  their  agreement  McLean  and  Clark  were  to  re- 
ceive the  sum  of  two  dollars  for  each  mile  surveyed,  and  an  additional  fifty 
cents  per  mile  should  the  work  be  found  to  be  performed  satisfactorily,  and, 
unless  the  treaty  be  not  confirmed,  the  survey  was  to  be  completed  within  one 
year.  But,  as  frequently  occurs  where  separate  parties  are  interested,  and  one 
depends  upon  the  other,  the  government  surveyors  failed  to  run  the  south  line 
of  the  reserve  in  time,  therefore  an  extension  of  one  year  was  granted  McLean 
and  Clark,  thus  giving  them  until  June  I,  1807. 

By  an  agreement  entered  into,  February,  1806,  between  the  Connecticut 
Land  Company  and  the  Proprietors  of  the  Sufferers’  Lands,  it  was  agreed  that 
the  half  million  acres  should  include  the  territory  of  Johnson’s  Island,  but  not 
the  waters  of  the  bay  between  that  island  and  the  main  land. 

The  south  or  base  line  of  the  reserve  was  surveyed  and  marked  by  Seth 
Pease,  he  acting  under  orders  from  the  secretary  of  the  treasury.  This,  except 
fifty  miles  next  west  of  the  Pennsylvania  State  line,  was  performed  in  June, 
1806.  This  being  done  the  survey  and  subdivision  of  the  Sufferers’  Lands  was 
resumed  in  the  last  named  year,  1806,  and  completed  in  about  one  year  there- 
after. In  some  manner  in  running  the  base  line  Air.  Pease  made  an  error  and 
this  resulted  in  some  temporary  difficulty,  which,  however,  was  afterward  ad- 
justed. The  survey  and  subdivision  of  the  half  million  acre  tract  was  made  by 
Almon  Ruggles,  he  using  and  relying  upon  the  lines  and  corners  established 
by  the  government  surveyor,  but,  through  the  error  therein,  this  work  was  re- 
quired to  be  done  a second  time.  In  his  centennial  address  Mr.  Schuyler  re- 
marks that  the  southeast  corner  of  the  Firelandswas  fixed  on  the  Ludlow  line, 
“twenty-eight  chains  and  sixty-eight  links  west  from  the  ninety-fourth  mile 
post  from  the  Pennsylvania  line.  The  line  ran  from  that  point  north  four  de- 
grees forty  seconds  west  to  the  lake,  to  a point  forty-three  links  east  of  a black 
oak  tree  marked  ‘ J.  Snow,’  on  the  east  side,  and  ‘A.  R.’  on  the  west  side,  and 
standing  near  the  bank  of  the  lake  and  near  the  first  perpendicular  bluff  of 
rocks,  east  of  the  Vermillion  River.  On  computation  of  the  survey,  afterwards, 
it  was  found  that  the  quantity  of  land  so  cut  off  was  five  hundred  thousand  and 
twenty-seven  acres.” 

From  east  to  west  the  breadth  of  the  “Sufferers’  Land”  was  found  to  be 
twenty- five  miles,  fifty-one  chains  and  thirty-two  links,  and  by  the  apportion- 
ment of  the  overplus,  each  township  was  five  miles  and  two-fifteenths  east  and 
west  measurement.  The  townships  bordering  on  the  bay  and  lake  were,  of 
course,  fractional. 

The  survey  of  the  Firelands  being  completed,  the  next  move  made  by  tiie 
proprietors  was  the  partition  and  division  thereof  among  those  entitled  to  lands 
thereon  according  to  their  several  interests,  which  was  in  this  wise:  The  whole 


i.  !•/.  ! ■ ' » *>i!:  iif*  ;u  ?!>nf>qob 

-• 

* 


48 


History  of  Erie  County. 


tract  contained  thirty  townships,  and  there  being  four  sections  to  each,  made 
an  aggregate  of  one  hundred  and  twenty  sections.  Upon  this  basis  the  whole 
loss  was  divided  into  one  hundred  and  twenty  parts,  each  part  representing  one 
thousand  three  hundred  and  forty-four  pounds  and  seven  shillings;  therefore, 
.each  separate  section  represented  that  amount  in  value.  For  the  one  hundred 
and  twenty  sections  that  number  of  tickets  were  prepared,  on  each  of  which 
was  written  the  names  of  the  donees  arranged  in  such  manner  that  each  ticket 
should  represent  a loss,  as  near  as  possible,  of  one  thousand  three  hundred  and 
fifty-four  pounds  and  seven  shillings.  These  tickets  were  grouped  in  fours, 
each  group  to  represent  a township,  the  value  of  which,  it  will  be  seen,  aggre- 
gated five  thousand  three  hundred  and  seven  pounds,  and  eight  shillings. 
These  were  then  deposited  in  a box  from  which  they  were  drawn  by  some  per- 
son not  interested  in  the  proceeding;  and  in  this  manner  the  lands  were  appor- 
tioned, there  being  no  possible  chance  for  any  person  to  select  particular  lands, 
and  therefore  no  charge  of  favoritism  was  ever  made,  and  each  person  was 
bound  to  accept  lands  in  whatever  locality  fortune  or  luck  placed  him.  In  fact, 
there  was  but  little  choice  in  the  lands  except  that  possibly  those  bordering 
upon  the  lake,  bay,  or  the  larger  streams  of  the  tract  were  the  most  desirable. 

The  duties  of  the  proprietors  were  now  nearly  ended.  With  the  funds  in 
their  hands  they  caused  to  be  constructed  a road  leading  from  the  lake  south, 
along  the  east  side  of  the  Huron  River  to  a point  “near  the  center  of  the  north 
line  of  the  township  of  Norwalk,  and  thence  southward  on  a line  as  near  the 
center  of  the  other  townships  as  the  grounds  will  admit.”  This  work  was  per- 
formed under  the  direction  of  William  Eldridge,  and  cost  eight  hundred  dollars 
or  thereabouts. 

Subsequently  other  thoroughfares  were  ordered  to  be  laid  and  constructed: 
One  near  the  line  between  ranges  twenty  and  twenty-one,  running  north  and 
south,  one  leading  east  and  west,  and  a continuation  of  that  marked  out  to  be 
constructed  through  lands  of  the  Connecticut  Land  Company,  on  the  Reserve ; 
one  running  west  on  the  south  line  of  Norwalk  township,  and  continuing  west 
on  other  township  lines  as  near  as  could  be  done ; another  running  west  on 
the  south  line  of  Fairfield  township.  The  last  two  commenced  at  the  north 
and  south  road  and  continued  west  to  the  county  line,  that  is,  the  west  line  of 
the  Sufferers’  Lands.  Other  roads  were  also  provided  for  before  the  final  meet- 
ing of  the  board  of  directors  of  the  proprietors,  noticeable  among  which  was  one 
leading  from  Norwalk  to  Sandusky  Bay,  and  another  in  the  township  of  Dan- 
bury, on  the  peninsula,  now  in  Ottawa  county. 

As  shown  by  the  report  of  the  treasurer,  Joseph  Darling,  the  total  receipts 
of  the  corporation  up  to  October  io,  1809,  was  $47,775.77,  and  that  the  ex- 
penditures had  been  $44,206.66,  leaving  an  unexpended  balance  in  his  hands 
$3,569. u.  This  balance  was  further  reduced  by  appropriations  for  various 
purposes  until  exhausted. 


Early  Land  Claimants. 


49 


The  final  meeting  of  the  board  was  held  at  New  Haven,  Conn.,  on  the  28th 
, f August  181 1,  there  being  present:  Guy  Richards  and  William  Eldridge  rep- 
resenting New  London  ; Ebenezer  Avery,  jr.,  for  Groton  ; Ebenezer  Lessup  for 
J- airfield;  Taylor  Sherman  for  Norwalk;  Philip  B.  Bradley  for  Ridgefield,  and 
Lpaphras  W.  Bull  for  Danbury.  A petition  was  there  prepared,  addressed  to 
the  General  Assembly  of  Ohio,  making  report  of  their  proceedings,  and  asking 
that  their  acts  be  declared  legal  by  the  State,  and  their  records  kept  and  pre- 
served in  Huron  county.  This  county  had  been  erected  two  years  before. 

The  reader  will  bear  in  mind  the  fact  that  down  to  the  time  of  the  final  re- 
port and  dissolution  of  the  body  corporate  known  as  “ the  proprietors  of  the 
half  million  acres  of  land  lying  south  of  Lake  Erie,  called  Sufferers’  Land,”  all 
the  business  and  proceedings  thereof  were  transacted  in  the  State  of  Connecti- 
cut; all  records  were  kept  in  the  towns  in  which  the  “Sufferers”  respectively 
resided,  and  in  books  especially  provided  therefor ; all  taxes  were  payable  and 
receivable  there.  In  fact  all  matters  relating  to  these  lands  were  performed  in 
the  same  manner  as  if  the  Sufferers’  Lands  were  a part  and  parcel  of  Connecti- 
cut, except  that  the  records  and  proceedings  were  specially  and  separately  kept. 

Upon  the  petition  of  the  directors  mentioned  above  the  Legislature  of  the 
State  of  Ohio,  on  the  20th  day  of  February,  1812,  passed  an  act  of  which  the 
following  is  a copy  : 

“Whereas,  it  is  represented  to  this  General  Assembly  by  the  directors  of 
the  proprietors  of  the  half  million  acres  of  land  lying  south  of  Lake  Erie  called 
4 Sufferers’  Land,’  incorporated  by  that  name  by  an  act  of  the  General  Assem- 
bly of  this  State,  passed  the  15th  day  of  April,  one  thousand  eight  hundred 
and  three,  that  by  virtue  of  the  authority  vested  in  them  by  said  act,  the  said 
proprietors  have  extinguished  the  Indian  Claim  of  title  to  said  lands,  surveyed 
and  located  the  same  into  townships  and  sections,  made  an  exact  partition 
thereof  to  and  among  the  proprietors,  and  used  the  surplus  monies  which  re- 
mained in  the  hands  of  their  treasurer  after  the  Indian  title  was  extinguished, 
and  partition  of  said  lands  was  made,  amounting  to  two  thousand  six  hundred 
dollars,  for  laying  out  and  improving  the  public  roads  in  said  tract,  and  have 
now  fully  done  and  completed  all  and  singular  the  matters  and  things  which 
the  interest  of  said  proprietors  required,  and  agreeably  to  the  provisions  and 
requirements  of  said  act  of  incorporation. 

“And  whereas,  it  is  further  represented  by  the  said  directors,  that  in  trans- 
acting the  business  of  said  company,  under  the  provisions  of  the  act  aforesaid, 
they  have  caused  their  clerk  to  make  and  keep  a true  entry  and  record  of  all 
the  votes  and  doings  of  the  directors,  agreeably  to  the  requirements  of  said  act, 
and  that  said  company  have,  in  consequence  thereof,  two  record  books,  one  of 
'-‘•'hich  contains  the  votes  and  proceedings  of  the  directors,  and  a record  of  the 
field  minutes  of  the  survey  of  said  land  ; and  the  other,  a complete  partition  of 
the  whole  of  said  half  million  acres,  both  of  which  record  books  are  certified  to 


' 

. 

■■■  .'■■v.  . . 


50 


History  of  Erie  County. 


be  the  records  of  said  company,  by  Isaac  Mills,  esq.,  their  clerk,  and  deposited 
in  the  hands  of  the  recorder  of  Huron  county,  where  the  directors  of  said  com- 
pany pray  they  be  and  remain  as  a part  of  the  records  of  said  county — There- 
fore, 

“Sec.  i.  That  the  record  books,  aforesaid,  containing  the  votes  and  pro- 
ceedings of  the  directors  of  said  company,  and  records  of  the  field  minutes  of 
said  survey  of  said  half  million  acres,  and  the  records  of  partition  thereof,  be 
kept  by  the  recorder  of  Huron  county  and  his  successors  in  office,  and  that  said 
record  books  be  and  remain  a part  and  parcel  of  the  records  of  said  county, 
and  that  any  certified  copies  therefrom,  which  may  hereafter  be  made  by  the 
recorder  of  said  county,  may  be  used  and  read  as  legal  evidence  in  all  courts  of 
record  or  elsewhere;  and  it  shall  be  the  duty  of  the  recorder  of  Huron  county, 
to  give  a certified  copy  of  any  part  of  said  records,  to  any  person  demanding 
the  same,  for  which  he  shall  be  entitled  to  the  same  fees  as  are  provided  for  by 
law  for  copies  of  other  records. 

“Sec.  2.  That  the  expenditure  of  said  sum  of  two  thousand  six  hundred 
dollars  surplus  money,  in  laying  out  and  improving  the  public  roads  on  said 
lands,  as  before  mentioned,  be,  and  the  same  is  hereby  ratified  and  confirmed. 

“This  act  to  take  effect  from  and  after  the  passage  thereof.” 


CHAPTER  VIII. 

Organization  of  Counties  on  the  Reserve  — Botetourt  — Trumbull  — Geauga — Cuyahoga. 
— Huron  — Proceedings  to  Erect  Huron  County  — The  County  Seat  at  Milan  Changed  to  Nor- 
walk— Officers  — Erie  County  Erected  — Acts  Regarding  It — County  Civil  List. 

THE  reader  will  remember  that  reference  has  heretofore  been  made  in  this 
work  to  the  claims  of  the  older  States  and  colonies  to  the  territory  northwest 
of  the  Ohio  River,  and  will  also  recall  the  fact  that  the  colony  of  Virginia  first 
exercised  authority  of  that  territory  by  the  establishment  by  the  House  of  Bur- 
gess, of  the  county  of  Botetourt  in  the  year  1769,  long  years  before  the  “ Re- 
serve,” as  such,  was  known. 

In  the  act  that  established  the  county  of  Botetourt  it  is  stated  that,  “ whereas, 
the  people  situated  on  the  Mississippi  will  be  very  remote  from  the  court-house,” 
etc.  This  was  an  undoubted  fact ; the  people  were  certainly  very  remote  from 
the  county  seat,  as  the  whole  territory  from  the  Ohio  to  the  Mississippi  was  in- 
cluded in  the  county  so  erected. 

But  after  the  war  of  the  Revolution  was  passed  and  the  United  States  es- 
tablished, Virginia  quit-claimed  this  whole  county  to  the  general  government,. 


Erection  of  Counties. 


5i 


thus  extingnishing  the  county  of  Botetourt,  which,  in  fact,  never  had  an  or- 
ganization more  than  in  name. 

The  next  organization  of  which  Erie  county  at  one  time  formed  a part,  was 
Trumbull,  which  embraced  the  whole  of  the  Connecticut  Western  Reserve.  It 
was  erected  December  6,  1800,  while  Ohio  was  yet  territorial  land. 

Trumbull  county  now  bears  no  resemblance  to  its  original  size  or  descrip- 
tion as  by  the  surrender  of  her  territory  to  subsequent  organizations  there  now 
occupies  the  soil,  either  in  whole  or  in  part,  thirteen  separate  and  distinct  coun- 
ties. 

The  first  county  erection  that  called  for  a surrender  of  the  territory  of 
Trumbull  was  that  of  Geauga,  under  an  act  passed  December  31,  1805,  and 
entitled  “ An  act  for  the  division  of  Trumbull  county.” 

It  has  been  generally  supposed,  and  by  all  writers  it  has  been  generally  con- 
ceded that  Geauga  county  originally  embraced  a part  of  the  Firelands.  This 
may  be  true,  but  there  exists  a serious  question  as  to  the  fact.  The  act  that 
brought  Geauga  county  into  existence  declares  “ that  all  that  part  of  the  county 
of  Trumbull  lying  north  and  east  of  a line  beginning  on  the  east  line  of  said 
county,  on  the  line  between  the  townships  number  eight  and  nine,  as  known  by 
the  survey  of  said  county,  and  running  west  on  the  same  to  the  west  line  of 
range  number  five;  thence  south  on  said  west  line  of  range  five  to  the  north- 
west corner  of  township  number  five,  thence  west  on  the  north  line  of  town- 
ship number  five,  to  the  middle  of  the  Cuyahoga  River,  where  the  course  of 
the  same  is  northerly  ; thence  up  the  middle  of  said  river  to  the  intersection 
of  the  north  line  of  township  number  four  to  the  west  line  of  range  fourteen, 
wherever  the  same  shall  run  when  the  county  west  of  the  Cuyahoga  River  shall 
be  surveyed  into  townships  or  tracts  of  five  miles  square  each,  and  thence  north 
to  Lake  Erie,  shall  be,  and  the  same  is  hereby  set  off  and  erected  into  a new 
county  by  the  name  of  Geauga.” 

This  misunderstanding  unquestionably  arises  from  the  fact  that  by  a sup- 
plemental act  passed  February  10,  1807,  which  declares  “That  all  that  part  of 
the  Connecticut  Western  Reserve,  which  lies  west  of  the  Cuyahoga  River,  and 
north  of  the  townships  numbered  four,  shall  belong  to  and  be  a part  of  the 
county  of  Geauga,  until  the  county  of  Cuyahoga  shall  be  organized,”  etc. 

This  implies  that  Cuyahoga’s  organization  was  under  way  and  not  perfected 
and  that  some  disposition  must  be  made  of  that  part  of  the  reserve  lands,  which 
was  done.  The  act  also  provides  that  the  moneys  derived  from  taxes  on  that 
land  shall  be  used  by  the  commissioners  of  Geauga  county  in  “ laying  out  and 
making  roads  and  erecting  bridges  within  the  boundaries  of  said  district  west 
of  the  Cuyahoga.”  It  will  be  seen  that  this  attachment  was,  at  best,  but  tem- 
porary and  not  intended  as  making  the  western  district  a part  of  Geauga  county 
except  for  the  purpose  therein  specified. 

Portage  county  was  organized  February  10,  1807,  out  of  the  older  county 


V 

I 


52 


History  of  Erie  County. 


of  Trumbull  by  taking  all  thereof  that  lay  west  of  the  fifth  range  of  the  Re- 
serve townships. 

Huron  county  came  into  life  under  and  by  virtue  of  an  act  of  the  General 
Assembly  passed  February  7,  1809,  and  entitled,  “ An  act  to  set  off  a part  of 
the  Connecticut  Western  Reserve,  into  a separate  county.”  By  the  act  it  was 
provided  “That  that  part  of  the  Connecticut  Reserve  called  the  Firelands,  be- 
ginning at  the  southwest  corner  of  said  reserve,  then  north  to  the  north  bound- 
ary line  of  the  United  States;  then  easterly  along  said  line  to  where  the  east 
line  of  the  twentieth  range  would  intersect  said  boundary  line;  thence  south 
along  the  line  of  the  twentieth  range  to  the  south  line  of  the  said  reserve,  which 
east  line  of  the  twentieth  range  is  the  east  line  of  the  Firelands,  so  called  ; then 
west  along  the  south  line  of  said  reserve  to  the  place  of  beginning,  be  and  is 
hereby  erected  into  a county  by  the  name  of  Huron,  to  be  organized  whenever 
the  Legislature  shall  think  proper,  but  to  remain  attached  to  the  counties  of 
Portage  and  Geauga,  as  already  by  law  provided,  except  as  hereinafter  pro- 
vided.” 

As  is  very  well  known  Erie  county,  prior  to  its  separate  organization,  formed 
an  integral  part  of  Huron  county  ; but  at  the  time  of  the  formation  of  Erie,  by 
the  terms  of  the  act  creating  it,  it  was  taken  from  the  two  counties,  Huron  and 
Sandusky.  It  was  created  wholly  of  what  has  been  termed  the  Firelands. 
Prior  to  that  separate  organization  the  history  of  Erie  county  was  the  history 
of  Huron  county.  Its  townships  were  all  formed  some  years  earlier  than  the 
erection  of  either,  and  settlement  was  commenced  while  it  was  a part  of  the 
Western  Reserve  and  before  either  of  the  counties  was  contemplated. 

The  next  legislative  action  affecting  Huron  county  was  the  passage  of  an 
act  January  16,  1810,  providing,  “That  the  county  of  Huron  (as  designated 
by  an  act  of  the  Legislature,  passed  the  7th  day  of  February,  1809),  and  also 
the  lands  lying  north  of  township  number  four,  and  west  of  the  fourteenth 
range  of  townships,  and  east  of  said  Huron  county,  shall  be  attached  to,  and 
be  a part  of  the  county  of  Cuyahoga,  until  the  same  shall  be  organized  into  a 
separate  county,  or  be  otherwise  disposed  of  by  law.” 

The  full  and  complete  civil  organization  of  Huron  county  was  accomplished 
by  an  act  of  the  Legislature,  passed  January  31,  1815,  whereby  it  was  pro- 
vided “ that  the  county  of  Huron  be,  and  the  same  is  hereby  erected  into  a 
separate  county ; provided,  that  all  suits  and  actions,  whether  of  civil  or  crim- 
inal nature,  which  shall  be  pending,  and  all  crimes  which  shall  have  been  com- 
mitted shall  be  prosecuted  to  final  judgment  and  execution  in  the  county  of 
Cuyahoga,  as  though  the  county  of  Huron  had  not  been  organized.” 

The  second  section  of  the  same  act  provides,  “ That  on  the  first  Monday 
in  April  next,  the  legal  voters  residing  in  the  county  of  Huron  shall  assemble 
in  their  respective  townships,  at  the  usual  place  of  holding  elections  in  said 
townships,  and  elect  their  several  county  officers,  who  shall  hold  their  offices 
until  the  next  annual  election.” 


. 

■ •••  • ..  ■ ...  • ’ ••  Vi 


Erection  of  Counties. 


53 


Section  three  provides  for  the  annexation  of  certain  other  lands  to  Huron 
county.  The  first  county  officers,  so  far  as  their  names  are  accurately  ascer- 
tainable, were:  Abiiah  Comstock,  treasurer;  Nathan  Strong,  recorder;  David 
Abbott,  clerk  of  the  courts;  Lyman  Farvvell,  sheriff;  Caleb  Palmer,  Charles 
Parker  and  Eli  S.  Barnum,  county  commissioners. 

The  Legislature,  in  January,  i S 1 1 , appointed  Ephraim  Ouinby,  of  Trum- 
bull county,  Joseph  Clark,  of  Geauga  county,  and  Solomon  Griswold,  of  Ash- 
tabula county,  as  commissioners  to  decide  upon  a location  for  the  county  seat. 
In  their  report  they  selected  a site  on  the  farm  of  David  Abbott,  in  Avery 
(now  Milan)  township,  and  not  far  distant  from  the  village  of  Milan.  Hon. 
George  Tod  held  the  first  Court  of  Common  Pleas  at  this  place,  and  other 
courts  were  held  there  until  the  Legislature,  in  January,  1 8 1 8,  appointed  three 
other  commissioners,  William  Wetmore,  of  Portage,  Elias  Lee,  of  Cuyahoga, 
and  Abraham  Tappan,  of  Geauga,  to  view  the  locality  in  Avery  township, 
hear  the  numerous  complaints  that  were  being  made  against  it  on  account  of 
its  inconvenient  situation,  hear  the  arguments  presented  in  favor  of  other 
localities,  and,  should  they  become  convinced  that  the  best  interests  of  the 
county  required  a change,  they  were  authorized  and  empowered  to  make  it. 
The  commissioners  decided  that  Norwalk  would  be  a much  better  location, 
whereupon  the  county  seat  was  removed  to  that  place. 

From  the  time  of  the  complete  organization  of  Huron  county,  January  31, 
1815,  until  the  subdivision  thereof  by  the  erection  of  Erie  county,  March  15, 
1838,  the  latter  formed  a part  of  the  former  (excepting  the  small  portion  taken 
from  Sandusky  county),  and  the  whole  was  under  the  control  of  and  governed 
bv  the  same  officers.  And  it  is  appropriate  that,  before  leaving  this  branch  of 
the  subject  and  confining  this  narrative  substantially  to  Erie  county  and  its 
history,  that  a record  should  be  made  of  those  who  were  connected  with  the 
county  government  in  the  administration  of  its  affairs.  This  civil  list  of  county 
officers  is  compiled  from  the  records  of  Huron  county: 

County  Auditors — Asa  Sanford,  Moses  Kimball,  James  Williams,  Cyrus 
Butler,  John  Kennan. 

Treasurers — Abijah  Comstock,  David  Abbott,  Ichabod  Marshall,  Cyrus 
Butler,  Ichabod  Marshall,  Henry  Buckingham,  George  Sheffield,  John  V.  Yre- 
denburg,  William  H.  Caswell. 

Clerks  of  the  Courts — David  Abbott,  James  Williams,  David  Gibbs. 

Recorders — Almon  Ruggles,  Nathan  Strong,  Ichabod  Marshall,  Paul  G. 
Smith,  Woodward  Todd. 

Sheriffs — Lyman  Farwell,  D.  W.  Hinman,  Enos  Gilbert,  H.  G.  Morse, 
Enos  Gilbert,  Philo  Adams,  John  Miller,  William  Karkhuff. 

County  Commissioners — 1815,  Nathan  Cummins,  Frederick  Falley,  Bildad 
Adams 18 16,  Falley,  Adams  and  Ebenzer  Merry;  1817,  Adams,  Joseph 
Reed  and  Joseph  Strong;  1818,  Adams,  Reed  and  Strong ; 1819,  Adams, 
8 


■ 


54 


History  of  Erie  County. 


Strong  and  Lyman  Farvvell ; 1820,  Adams,  Strong  and  Eli  S.  Barnum ; 1821, 
Barnum,  Robert  S.  Southgate  and  Amos  Woodward;  1822—23,  Barnum, 
Southgate  and  Woodward;  1824,  Barnum,  Woodward  and  Schuyler  Van 
Rensselaer;  1825,  Barnum,  Van  Rensselaer  and  George  W.  Choate;  1826, 
Van  Rensselaer.  Choate  and  Frederick  Forsythe;  1827-28,  Choate,  Forsythe 
and  Bradford  Sturtevant;  1829-30,  Choate,  Sturtevant  and  M.  McKelvey; 
1831,  Sturtevant,  McKelvey  and  George  Hollister;  1832,  Sturtevant,  Hollister 
and  George  W.  Choate;  1833,  Hollister,  Choate  and  Samuel  B.  Carpenter; 
1834,  Choate,  Carpenter  and  W.  C.  Spaulding;  1835,  Carpenter,  Spaulding 
and  John  Dounce;  1836,  Spaulding,  Dounce  and  Benjamin  Cogswell;  1837,. 
Spaulding,  Cogswell  and  John  Miller. 

ERECTION  AND  ORGANIZATION  OF  ERIE  COUNTY. 

Without  question  the  most  important  event  in  connection  with  the  history 
of  Erie  county  was  the  action  of  the  State  Legislature  that  gave  the  county  an 
existence — the  action  that  separated  it  from  Huron  and  Sandusky  counties — 
that  enabled  it  to  elect  its  own  officers  and  administer  its  own  affairs. 

The  preliminary  discussion  that  led  to  this  separate  organization  was  not 
of  spontaneous  origin ; it  was  not  the  result  of  a pet  scheme  on  the  part  of  a 
few  persons  ; it  was  not  undertaken  through  any  feeling  of  jealous  rivalry 
between  the  leading  towns  of  Huron  county,  Norwalk,  and  Sandusky  city. 
To  be  sure  there  was  a rivalry,  a growing  friendly  competition  between  these 
municipalities,  each  striving  to  outstrip  the  other  in  point  of  population,  of  in- 
dustry, of  internal  welfare,  of  thrift  and  all  the  essential  requisites  of  a well- 
appointed  and  well-ordered  city;  a commendable  and  unselfish  interest  shown 
or.  the  part  of  the  people  representing  the  northern  and  southern  sections  of 
Huron  county. 

Again,  about  this  time,  there  seemed  a general  tendency  throughout  the 
State  to  new  and  additional  county  organizations,  by  a reduction  of  the  territory 
of  the  larger  counties.  This  was  not  the  only  reason  why  the  residents  of 
Northern  Huron  county  asked  to  be  set  off.  Such  action  had  become,  at  that 
time,  a positive  necessity.  Sandusky  city  had  become  the  natural  center  of 
extensive  and  rapidly  increasing  business  interests — manufacturing,  shipping 
and  mercantile.  She  had,  moreover,  become  tributary  to  a large  area  of  agri- 
cultural country,  so  that  by  every  necessary  consideration  she  was  justly  en- 
titled to  become  the  county  seat  of  a new  county. 

As  might  naturally  be  expected,  the  proposition  for  the  new  county  erec- 
tion was  not  accepted  by  the  whole  people  without  strong  opposition,  and 
while  the  measure  was  very  generally  supported  by  the  inhabitants  in  the 
northern  part  of  the  county,  a strong  opposition  developed  in  the  southern 
townships,  and  in  others  that  were  liable  to  be  affected  by  the  change. 

The  petition  for  the  new  county  was  met  by  a strong  remonstrance,  and 


. 

/• 


Erection  of  Counties. 


55 


for  a time  it  seemed  doubtful  whether  the  measure  would  be  carried.  Nor- 
walk, the  county  seat  of  Huron  county,  might  well  object  for  her  interests 
more  thm  any  other  locality  would  suffer  in  losing  the  trade  of  so  prosperous 
a locality  as  was  comprised  by  the  townships  proposed  to  be  taken. 

At  length,  after  the  matter  had  been  thoroughly  agitated  and  discussed, 
for  and  against,  the  Legislature  of  the  State,  on  the  15th  day  of  March,  1838, 
passed  an  act  entitled,  “ An  act  to  erect  the  county  of  Erie,”  as'follows: 

“ Sec.  1.  Be  it  enacted,  etc.,  That  such  parts  of  the  counties  of  Huron  and 
Sandusky,  as  are  embraced  by  the  boundaries  hereinafter  described,  be,  and 
the  same  are  hereby  erected  into  a separate  and  distinct  county,  which  shall 
be  known  by  the  name  of  the  county  of  Erie,  and  the  seat  of  justice  in  and  for 
said  county,  shall  be,  and  is  hereby  fixed  and  established  at  Sandusky  City, 
to-wit : Beginning  at  a point  on  the  east  line  of  Oxford  township,  in  the  county 
of  Huron,  one  mile  north  of  the  southeast  corner  thereof,  thence  northerly  on 
the  said  east  line  and  in  the  same  direction,  to  the  Canada  line;  thence  west- 
erly along  said  Canada  line  to  a point  therein  directly  opposite  the  west  line  of 
the  township,  in  Sandusky  county;  thence  southerly,  parallel  with  the  east 
line  of  said  Sandusky  county,  to  the  northwest  corner  of  the  township  of 
Townsend,  in  Sandusky  county  ; thence  east  to  the  west  boundary  of  Huron 
county;  thence  south  on  said  west  boundary  of  Huron  county  to  a point  one 
mile  north  of  the  south  line  of  the  township  of  Groton,  in  said  county  of 
Huron  ; and  from  thence  to  the  piace  of  beginning : provided,  and  it  is  hereby 
declared,  that  if  the  east  line  of  said  county  of  Erie,  as  above  described,  will 
not  include  the  whole  of  Cunningham’s  Island  in  Lake  Erie,  then,  and  in  that 
case,  said  line  shall  be  so  far  varied  from  the  south  shore  of  the  said  lake  to 
the  said  Canada  line  that  it  will  embrace  the  whole  of  said  Cunningham’s 
Island. 

“Sec.  2.  That  the  said  county  of  Erie  be,  and  remain  attached  to  the 
counties  from  which  it  is  taken,  until  the  same  be  organized  by  the  Legislature.” 

But  the  people  of  the  newly  erected  county  had  not  long  to  wait  for  the 
complete  organization  thereof,  as,  on  the  day  next  succeeding  that  on  which 
the  above  act  was  passed,  the  Legislature  adopted  another  measure,  entitled, 
“ An  act  to  organize  the  county  of  Erie.”  It  was  as  follows  : 

“ SEC.  1.  Be  it  enacted,  etc.,  That  the  county  of  Erie  is  hereby  organized 
into  a separate  and  distinct  county. 

“ Sec.  2.  That  all  justices  of  the  peace  and  constables  residing  within  the 
territory  taken  from  the  counties  of  Huron  and  Sandusky,  and  embraced  within 
the  limits  of  the  county  of  Erie,  shall  continue  to  discharge  the  duties  of  their 
repective  offices  until  their  commissions  or  terms  of  office  shall  expire,  and 
their  successors  are  chosen  and  qualified ; and  suits  commenced  before  the 
taking  effect  of  this  act  shall  proceed  and  be  prosecuted  as  though  this  act  had 
not  been  passed,  notwithstanding  the  parties,  or  either  of  them,  may  reside 


56 


History  of  Erie  County. 


without  the  limits  of  the  said  county  of  Erie,  except  that  writs  and  process 
issuing  after  the  first  of  April  next  shall  be  styled  of  Erie  county,  instead  of 
Huron  or  Sandusky  county. 

“ SEC.  3.  That  on  the  first  Monday  of  May  next,  the  legal  voters  residing 
within  the  limits  of  the  county  of  Erie  shall  assemble  in  their  respective  town- 
ships, at  the  usual  places  of  holding  elections,  and  proceed  to  elect  their  dif- 
ferent county  officers  in  the  manner  pointed  out  in  the  act  to  regulate  elections, 
who  shall  hold  their  offices  until  the  next  annual  election,  and  until  their  suc- 
cessors are  chosen  and  qualified. 

“ Sec.  4.  That  the  county  of  Erie,  for  judicial  purposes,  is  hereby  attached 
to  the  second  judicial  circuit,  and  the  first  court  of  common  pleas  held  in 
said  county  shall  commence  its  session  in  the  city  of  Sandusky  on  the  second 
Monday  of  December  next.” 

In  this  manner,  then,  and  by  these  proceedings,  was  Erie  county  brought 
into  existence,  and  thus  was  provision  made  for  civil,  internal  government  and 
control.  But,  two  years  later,  1840,  by  a further  act  of  the  State  Legislature, 
certain  territory  was  added  or  attached  to  Erie  county,  and  other  lands  at  the 
same  time  were  taken  from  it.  This  change  was  made  by  the  erection  of  the 
county  of  Ottawa,  March  6,  1840,  the  leading  clause  of  which  was  as  follows: 

“ That  a new  county,  to  be  called  Ottawa,  be,  and  the  same  is  hereby 
formed  out  of  the  north  part  of  Sandusky  and  Erie,  and  the  eastern  part  of 
Lucas  county,  commencing  at  a point  two  miles  north  of  the  southeast  corner 
of  the  surveyed  township  number  sixteen,  called  Bay  township,  Sandusky 
county,  running  thence  west  on  section  lines  to  the  western  boundary  line  of 
said  county;  thence  north  to  the  Lucas  county  line;  thence  east  six  miles; 
thence  north  till  it  intersects  the  Michigan  line ; thence  with  said  line  until  it 
intersects  the  line  between  the  British  and  American  governments  in  Lake 
Erie ; thence  down  the  lake  with  said  line,  so  that  a line  to  the  mouth  of  San- 
dusky Bay  will  include  Cunningham’s  Island ; thence  up  Sandusky  Bay  to  the 
place  of  beginning.” 

This  act,  it  will  be  seen,  took  from  Erie  county  the  township  of  Danbury  on 
the  peninsula,  between  the  bay  and  the  lake ; also  the  islands,  the  principal  of 
which  was  Cunningham’s,  afterwards  known  as  Kelley’s  Island,  both  of  which 
were  set  off  to  the  county  of  Ottawa. 

But  in  order  to  give  Erie  county  an  equivalent  for  the  territory  so  taken, 
a further  section  of  the  act  provided,  “ That  all  the  territory  now  in  the  county 
of  Huron  north  of  the  north  line  of  the  townships  of  Wakeman,  Townsend, 
Norwalk,  Ridgefield  and  Lyme,  which  includes  the  townships  of  Vermillion, 
Florence,  Berlin,  Milan  and  Huron,  and  also  a strip  from  off  the  south  side  of 
the  townships  oi  Oxford  and  Groton,  one  mile  in  width,  be,  and  the  same  is 
hereby  attached  to  the  county  of  Erie.” 

Cunningham’s  Island,  or,  as  it  became  known  on  its  organization  as  a 


Erection  of  Counties. 


* 


57 


township  of  Ottawa  county,  January  21,  1840,  “ Kelley’s  Island,”  remained  a 
part  of  and  was  under  the  civil  control  and  jurisdiction  of  the  officers  of  Ot- 
tawa county  until  the  year  1845,  when,  upon  the  petition  of  its  inhabitants, 
setting  forth  their  reasons,  chiefest  among  which  was  the  great  incovenience 
occasioned  by  their  being  compelled  to  transact  their  legal  and  county  business 
at  Port  Clinton,  the  county  seat  of  Ottawa  county,  while  all  their  other  busi- 
ness and  social  relations  were  associated  with  Erie  county,  the  Legislature 
in  February  of  that  year  passed  an  act  to  “set  off”  that  tract  and  territory 
of  land  known  as  the  township  of  Kelley’s  Island  into  the  county  of  Erie. 
Thenceforth  Kelley’s  Island  became  one  of  the  townships  of  Erie  county. 
These  several  acts,  recited  in  detail,  established  the  territory  and  boundaries 
of  Erie  county  as  it  now  exists.  It  parted  company  with  Danbury  township 
in  1840,  upon  the  organization  o£  Ottawa  county,  and  that  was  the  only  con- 
siderable section  of  her  territory,  a part  of  the  original  Firelands,  of  which 
she  has  been  deprived.  And  inasmuch  as  Danbury  now  forms  a part  of  an- 
other county,  and  its  history  has  been  for  nearly  a half  century  associated  with 
such  other  county,  no  chapter  of  this  work  will  be  devoted  thereto,  but  rather 
to  the  things  and  events  of  the  territory  that  now  comprises  the  county  of 
Erie. 

It  is  appropriate  in  this  connection  to  furnish  a civil  list  of  those  who  at 
Various  times  have  been  identified  with  the  administrative  affairs  of  the  county. 

CIVIL  LIST  OF  COUNTY  OFFICERS. 

Auditors. — 1838  to  1840,  H.  W.  Conklin;  1840  to  1841,  William  Neill; 
1841  to  1846,  Orlando  McKnight ; 1846  to  1850,  George  W.  Smith;  1850  to 
1852,  F.  M.  Follett ; 1852  to  1856,  Charles  H.  Botsford ; 1856  to  i860,  F.  M. 
Follett ; i860  to  1867,  George  W.  Smith;  1867  to  1881  Ebenezer  Merry; 
1881  to  1884,  Thomas  McFall ; 1884  to  1888,  William  J.  Bonn,  the  present 

incumbent. 

Treasurers . — 1838  to  1841,  William  B.  Smith;  1841  to  1843,  Horace  Al- 
pin  ; 1843  to  1845,  Samuel  Johnson  ; 1845  to  1 849,  Earl  Bill  ; 1849101854 
John  B.  Wilbur;  1851  to  1853,  John  W.  Sprague  ; 1853  to  1855,  Thomas  S. 
Fuller;  1855  to  1857,  Holly  Skinner;  1857  to  1861,  Thomas  S.  Fernald  ; 1861 
to  1865,  W.  H.  McFall;  1865  to  1871,  James  D.  Chamberlain  ; 1871  to  1873,. 
James  S.  Chandler;  1873  to  1877,  James  D.  Chamberlain;  1877  to  1 88 1 ‘ 
Reuben  Turner ; 1881  to  1883,  James  Alder;  1883  to  1887,  William  Zimmer- 
man ; 1887  to  1889,  James  Alder,  the  present  incumbent. 

Probate  Judges. — This  became  an  elective  office  under  the  new  constitution 
of  1852.  1852  to  1855,  Ebenezer  Andres  ; 1855  to  1858,  A.  H.  Striker  ; 1 8 5 8- 

to  January,  1861,  Rush  R.  Sloane  ; January,  1861  to  November.  1861,  F.  D. 
Parish;  November,  1861,  to  November,  1863,  George  Morton;  November, 
1863,  to  February,  1870,  A.  W.  Hendry;  February,  1870,  to  February,  1879, 
E.  M.  Colver;  February,  1879,  to  1888,  A.  E.  Merrill 


' 


58 


History  of  Erie  County. 


Recorders. — 1838  to  1840,  Horace  Alpin  ; 1840  to  1844,  C.  B.  Squire;  1844 
to  1850,  Ebenezer  Merry;  1850  to  1854,  Charles  Wilbur;  1854  to  1862,  James 
W.  Cook  ; 1862  to  1868,  John  W.  Reid  ; 1868  to  1880,  William  A.  Till ; 1880 
to  1887,  James  Flynn ; 1887  to  1889,  John  Strickland,  the  present  incumbent. 

Sheriffs. — 1838-40,  Harvey  Long;  1840-42,  Zalmuna  Phillips;  1842-46, 
Ebenezer  Warner  ; 1846—48,  Isaac  Fowler;  1848-50,  Henry  D.  Ward  ; 1850- 
54,  George  W.  Smilfh  ; 1854-58,  G.  B.  Gerrard  ; 1858-60,  Frederick  F.  Smith  ; 
i860— 64,  David  S.  Worthington  ; 1864-66,  Jesse  S.  Davis  ; 1866-70,  David  S. 
Worthington;  1870-72,  Charles  H.  Botsford ; 1872— 76,  David  S.  Worthing- 
ton; 1876-80,  M.  L.  Starr;  1880—84,  John  Strickland;  1884-88,  Thomas  A. 
Hughes,  the  present  incumbent. 

Clerks  of  the  Courts. — 1838-39,  Zenas  W.  Barker  ; 1839-55,  Rice  Harper; 
1855-61,  Horace  N.  Bill;  1861-62,  John  J.  Penfield ; 1862-64,  George  W. 
Penfield  ; 1864-70,  George  O.  Selkirk;  1870— 75,  O.  C.  McLouth ; 1875-78, 
F.  W.  Alvord ; 1878-85,  W.  J.  Affieck  ; 1885-89,  Silas  E.  Bauder,  the  latter 
being  the  present  incumbent. 

Prosecuting  Attorneys. — 1838-40,  John  S.  Campbell  ; 1840-42,  Francis  D. 
Parish;  1842-44,  Morris  Homan;  1844—48,  S.  F.  Taylor;  1848-52.  A.  W. 
Hendry;  1852-56,  John  Mackey;  1856— 60,  O.  C.  McLouth  ; 1860-72,  F.  W. 
Cogswell;  1872-77,  Benjamin  F.  Lee  ; 1877-79,  Walter  W.  Bowen;  1879-80, 
Herman  Ohly ; July,  1880,  to  January,  1881,  Walter  W.  Bowen;  1881-83, 
Grayson  Mills;  1883-88,  Cyrus  B.  Winters,  the  present  incumbent. 

Surveyors. — 1838-40,  S.  H.  Smith;  1840-41,  W.  H.  Smith;  1841-45,  J. 
B.  Darling;  1845-47,  Alvin  Brooks;  1847-50,  J.  B.  Darling;  1850—52,  A.  B. 
Foster;  1852-54,  Joel  Smith;  1854-61,  J.  B.  Darling;  1861-63,  H.  C.  Jones, 
•sen.;  1863-76,  J,  B.  Darling;  1876-79,  George  Morton  ; 1879—85,  Albert  W. 
Judson;  1885-87,  Charles  S.  Ferguson;  1887-89,  Albert  W.  Judson. 

Commissioners. — Samuel  B.  Carpenter,  Nelson  Taylor,  William  B.  Craig- 
bill,  John  Fuller,  William  Gill,  Isaac  Fowler,  Philo  Adams,  Harley  Long,  Ben- 
jamin D.  Turner,  Ezra  Sprague,  Bourdette  Wood,  Harvey  Fowler,  Elihu  P. 
Hill,  Harry  Sprague,  Myron  Sexton,  Joseph  Otis,  John  P.  Dego,  John  Sum- 
mers, C.  Beardsley,  Rice  Harper,  Isaac  McKesson,  Robert  Bennett,  G.  M. 
Darling,  Calvin  Caswell,  D.  G.  Taylor,  William  H.  Crane,  E.  White,  William 
S.  Webb,  Louis  Wells,  Stark  Adams,  W.  W.  Miller,  Gustavis  Graham,  George 
W.  Cleary,  Henry  Kelley,  James  Douglass,  C.  Victor  Turner,  John  Homegard- 
ner,  John  L.  Hall,  William  Zimmerman. 

Present  County  Officers. — Probate  judge,  Albert  E.  Merrill;  recorder,  John 
Strickland;  auditor,  William  J.  Brown;  treasurer,  James  Alder;  clerk  of  the 
courts,  Silas  E.  Bauder  ; sheriff,  Thomas  A.  Hughes  ; prosecuting  attorney, 
Cyrus  B.  Winters;  surveyor,  Albert  W.  Judson;  coroner,  Louis  Szendery ; 
commissioners,  James  Douglass,  John  L.  Hull,  William  Zimmerman;  infirmary 
directors,  John  Holahan,  Thomas  McVeigh,  J.  W.  Lyles  ; superintendent  of 
infirmary,  Alex  Motry. 


; fusmoH 

■ 


Topography  and  Geography. 


59 


CHAPTER  IX. 


A General  Topographical  and  Geographical  View  of  Erie  County  — Its  Situation  and 
Boundaries  — Civil  Divisions. 

HE  county  of  Erie  occupies  a central  position  between  the  east  and  west 


boundary  lines  of  Ohio,  and  is  one  of  the  seven  counties  of  the  State  that 


border  on  Lake  Erie ; and  of  these  counties  Erie  holds  that  portion  of  the  lake 
front  that  reaches  the  farthest  south.  Sandusky  county  has  a frontage  on  the 
bay,  but  nowhere  does  her  territory  touch  the  lake  proper. 

Erie  county  has  no  specially  distinguishing  physical  features.  The  surface, 
generally,  is  even,  but  here  and  there  exist  evidences  of  the  fact  that  its  whole 
surface  was  at  one  time  covered  with  water;  and  that  these  waters,  gradually 
receding,  left  what  is  known  as  a “ drift,”  or  sand  ridge.  These  ridges,  al- 
though not  numerous,  are  found  in  several  townships  of  the  county. 

The  evenness  of  the  surface  of  the  land  throughout  the  county  is  the  rule, 
and  the  exceptions  are  few.  The  most  marked  depression  exists  in  the  town- 
ship of  Huron,  where  a large  area  of  the  land  surface  lies  below  the  water  level 
of  the  lake,  and  is  subject  to  overflow  with  a rise  of  the  lake  waters  or  those 
of  the  Huron  River.  Other  than  this  there  is  but  comparatively  little  swamp 
land,  and  where  this  class  has,  in  the  past,  been  found  to  exist,  it  is  easily 
drained  into  the  streams  with  which  \he  county  is  well  supplied,  and  thus 
emptied  into  the  lake. 

Erie  county  is  bounded  on  the  north  by  Lake  Erie.  But  from  this  state- 
ment must  be  excepted  Kelley’s  Island,  which  now  forms  one  of  the  county’s 
townships,  and  which  is  situate  some  sixteen  miles  from  Sandusky  City,  ac- 
cording to  the  usual  route  of  boat  travel.  It  lies  nearly  due  north  from  the 
city.  The  county  is  otherwise  bounded,  east  by  Lorain  county ; south  by 
Huron  county,  the  bounding  townships  thereof  being  Lyme,  Ridgefield,  Nor- 
walk, Townsend,  and  Wakeman,  and  on  the  west  by  Sandusky  county. 

As  originally  created  the  county  contained  eleven  townships,  but  two  years 
later  Danbury  was  set  off  to  the  formation  of  Ottawa  county,  as  was  Kelley’s 
Island,  but  the  latter  was  erected  into  a township  while  attached  to  Ottawa, 
and  was,  at  a still  later  day  reannexed  to  Erie  agreeably  to  the  prayer  of  the 
petition  of  its  inhabitants  ; therefore  this  island  now  forms  a part  of  Erie 
county,  although  situate  some  sixteen  miles  distant  therefrom. 

Portland  township,  one  of  the  original  subdivisions  of  the  county,  and  one 
of  the  most  important  sections  of  the  same,  has  lost  all  existence  as  a town- 
ship, having  been  absorbed  by  the  extension  of  the  city  limits  of  the  county 
seat. 

Margaretta  township  occupies  the  northeast  corner  position  of  the  county 


History  of  Erie  County. 


and  is  larger  in  area  than  any  of  the  others.  It  represents,  in  part,  Sandusky 
county’s  contribution  to  the  formation  of  Erie  county.  Its  settlement  was 
commenced  in  1810.  Its  position,  according  to  the  original  survey,  is  town 
six,  range  twenty- four.  The  township  has  a front  on  Sandusky  Bay.  Its  sur- 
face is  inclined  to  be  rolling  or  undulating,  but  in  no  place  can  it  be  said  to  be 
hilly.  Besides  the  bay,  there  are  several  streams  that  receive  the  drainage  or 
surface  water,  the  largest  of  which  are  Mill’s  Creek  and  Cold  Creek.  This 
stream  crosses  the  township  in  a course  generally  northeast,  and  discharges  its 
waters  into  the  bay  within  the  corporate  limits  of  Sandusky  City. 

Cold  Creek  is  the  largest  of  the  streams  of  the  township,  and  lies  almost  if 
not  quite  wholly  therein.  Its  course  is  exceedingly  tortuous,  thus  affording 
•drainage  to  a large  amount  of  the  township’s  area.  Little  Cold  Creek  is  trib- 
utary to  the  greater  stream,  but  an  attempt  to  utilize  their  united  waters  for 
milling  purposes  some  years  ago,  made  the  larger  tributary  to  the  less.  This 
was  the  result  of  building  a dam  across  Cold  Creek.  Margaretta  is  bounded 
north  by  Sandusky  Bay;  east  by  Sandusky  City  (formerly  Portland  township) 
and  Perkins  township;  south  by  Groton  township,  and  west  by  Sandusky 
county,  and  in  part  by  the  irregular  shore  line  of  the  bay.  The  township,  is, 
perhaps,  more  irregular  in  formation  than  any  of  the  county’s  subdivisions, 
having,  at  the  extreme  northwest  corner  a projecting  strip  of  land,  running 
westward,  and  from  one  to  two  miles  in  width. 

Groton  township  lies  south  of  Margaretta,  east  of  Sandusky  county,  north 
of  Lyme  township,  of  Huron  county,  and  west  of  Oxford.  In  the  survey  it 
appears  as  town  number  five,  range  twenty-four.  The  surface  is  as  level,  gen- 
erally, as  any  part  of  the  county,  having  much  of  a prairie  appearance.  It  is 
drained  almost  wholly  by  Mill’s  Creek,  which  stream  has  its  source  in  Huron 
county,  crosses  this  township  in  a course  substantially  northeast,  and  passes 
into  Margaretta  township  on  the  north. 

Portland  township,  the  smallest  in  area  of  Erie  county,  but  of  as  great  im- 
portance as  any,  is  to  the  county  a thing  of  the  past.  Its  whole  area  is  now 
included  within  the  limits  of  Sandusky  city.  The  surface  is  quite  level,  but  from 
the  lake  shore  is  a gradual  ascent  as  a south,  course  is  pursued.  Mill’s  Creek, 
is  the  main  water  course  of  Portland  and  near  its  mouth  forms  a small  bay, 
from  which  its  waters  reach  the  greater  bay.  Old  Portland,  for  it  may  now 
be  so  called,  is  south  of  Sandusky  Bay,  west  of  Huron,  north  of  Perkins  and 
•east  of  Margaretta. 

Perkins  township  lies  immediately  south  of  Sandusky  City,  and  in  the  sur- 
vey of  the  Firelands  is  town  number  six,  range  twenty-three.  Its  surface  is  quite 
as  level  as  any  of  the  townships  of  the  county.  The  land  is  slightly  undulating 
with  a long  and  steady  roll  on  the  summits,  if  such  they  may  be  called,  well 
defined  though  not  extensive  sand  ridges.  The  most  depressed  localities  are 
swale-like  but  there  are  no  swamp  lands  unfit  for  agricultural  purposes.  Perkins 


' 


Topography  and  Geography. 


6 


is  watered  and  drained  by  the  waters  of  two  or  three  small  streams,  the  largest 
of  which  is  Mill’s  Creek,  and  this  in  extremely  dry  weather  is  barren  of  water. 
The  boundaries  of  Perkins  township  are,  north,  Portland  and  Sandusky  City; 
east,  Huron  ; south,  Oxford,  and  west  Margaretta.  The  township  is  in  a near- 
ly square  form,  its  former  irregular  lines  having  been  made  straight. 

Oxford  lies  south  of  Perkins,  east  of  Groton,  north  of  Huron  county  (Ridge- 
field township)  and  west  of  Milan  township.  Its  surface  formation  is  much  like 
that  of  Perkins,  except  that  its  streams  are  larger  and  in  the  vicinity  of  them 
the  land  is  more  uneven.  The  Huron  River  crosses  the  southeast  corner  and 
the  township  is  otherwise  watered  by  Crab  Apple  Creek  in  the  western  and  Mill’s 
Creek  in  the  northern  part.  Range  twenty-three,  township  number  five  is  the 
geographical  position  of  Oxford  in  the  original  survey. 

Huron  township  borders  upon  the  lake  and  in  east  and  west  measurement 
is  as  great  as  any  of  the  county.  It  has  the  outline  form  of  a trapezoid,  the 
east  and  west  boundaries  being  parallel.  Huron  formerly  comprised  a vast 
tract  of  swamp  or  marsh  lands,  but  ditching  and  draining  have  relieved  it  of 
much  of  its  swampy  characteristics,  still  there  is  a large  tract  of  unavailable  land 
within  its  bounds,  especially  situate  along  the  bay  and  lake  front  and  the  valley 
of  the  Huron  River.  This  stream  is  the  most  important  of  the  county.  Its 
source  is  in  Crawford,  Richland  and  Huron  counties  ; thence  it  crosses  the  last 
named,  enters  Erie  in  the  southern  part  of  Oxford  township,  courses  east  by 
north  into  Milan  which  it  intersects,  running  northeasterly  and  enters  Huron 
township,  which  it  crosses  in  a course  generally  north,  though  exceedingly  de- 
vious and  winding  in  some  localities,  and  discharges  its  waters  into  Lake  Erie  at 
the  site  of  the  village  of  Huron.  Saw-mill  Creek,  so  named  from  the  utiiiza- 
ation  of  its  waters  for  saw- mill  and  other  manufacturing  purposes,  is  the  only 
other  stream  of  note  within  the  township.  It  was  formerly  fed  by  drainage 
water  from  the  lands  bordering  upon  it,  but  when  ditching  and  draining  was  re- 
sorted to  as  a means  of  carrying  off  drain  water  quickly,  much  of  the  utility  of 
Saw-mill  Creek  was  destroyed.  Huron  township  lies  north  of  Milan  and  Berlin, 
east  of  Perkins  and  Portland,  south  of  the  bay  and  lake,  and  west  of  that  por- 
tion of  Berlin  that  extends  to  the  lake.  Huron  is  in  range  twenty-two  and 
numbered  town  six.  Milan  township  occupies  a position  in  the  county  nearly 
in  its  geographical  center,  and  is,  moreover,  one  of  the  most  important  of  the 
county’s  townships.  It  became  prominent  when  this  was  a part  of  Huron 
county,  from  the  fact  of  its  being  the  location  of  the  county  seat.  In  the  Fire- 
lands  survey  it  was  town  number  five,  range  twenty- two.  Its  surface  is  uni- 
form with  a gradual  roll  except  in  the  valley  of  Huron  River  and  the  several 
rivulets  of  the  township  that  empty  into  that  river.  These  afford  an  excellent 
natural  drainage  for  the  surplus  waters  of  the  territory  ; therefore  but  compar- 
atively little  artificial  draining  and  ditching  has  been  found  necessary.  The 
Huron  enters  the  township  from  Huron  county  near  the  south  west  section,  thence 

9 


. 


62 


History  of  Erie  County. 


flows  in  a generally  northeast  direction,  intersecting  the  township,  and  passes 
into  Huron  township  near  Milan’s  northeast  quarter.  The  course  of  the  Huron 
is  sufficiently  tortuous  to  drain  a large  area  of  the  township.  The  boundaries 
of  Milan  township  are  as  follows:  North,  Huron;  east,  Berlin;  south,  Huron 
county,  and  west,  Oxford  township  of  Erie  county. 

The  township  of  Berlin,  number  five  in  range  twenty-one,  occupies  a strip 
or  tract  of  land  extending  from  the  lake  on  the  north  to  the  north  line  of  Huron 
county  on  the  south  ; therefore  it  covers  the  entire  north  and  south  measure- 
ment of  Erie  county.  The  township  was  originally  known  as  Eldridge, 
so  named  for  one  of  the  original  proprietors  of  the  land,  but  on  account  of 
some  questionable  transactions  on  the  part  of  that  person  the  name  was 
changed,  the  people  thereof  not  wishing  their  territory  to  be  named  for  one 
to  whom  any  odium  was  attached.  In  the  first  survey  Berlin  contained 
twenty-five  square  miles,  but  by  the  acquisition  of  a block  of  land  on  the 
north  its  territory  was  extended  to  Lake  Erie,  thus  giving  the  township  a 
lake  front.  Its  north  boundary  is  Lake^Erie  ; east,  the  townships  of  Vermil- 
lion and  Florence  ; south,  Huron  county,  and  west  the  townships  of  Huron  and 
Milan  of  this  county.  In  the  lake  region  the  land  surface  is  broken,  rugged 
and  slightly  inclined  to  be  hilly,  not  naturally  so,  however,  but  by  the  ages  of 
time  during  which  the  waters  of  the  lake  have  left  their  mark,  and  gradually 
receding  have  given  this  locality  the  appearance  of  being  hilly.  This  action 
of  time  and  the  elements  is  also  noticeable  in  the  vicinity  of  the  streams  of  the 
locality  which  have  cut  and  washed  their  way  down  into  the  soft  soils  of  the 
township.  There  are  points  in  Berlin  township  where  the  land  has  an  altitude 
of  nearly  one  hundred  feet  above  the  present  lake  level,  but  at  these  places  is 
also  discernible  the  drift  formation  showing  the  action  of  the  waters  hundreds 
of  years  ago.  The  principal  water  courses  of  the  township  are  La  Chapelle  and 
Old  Woman’s  Creeks. 

Vermillion  is  the  northeast  corner  township  of  Erie  county.  While  gen- 
erally its  surface  maybe  classed  as  level,  there  are  nevertheless  areas  of  broken 
and  uneven  lands  clearly  showing  the  drift  formation  on  the  ridges  left  by  re- 
tiring waters.  Elsewhere  are  what  are  known  as  lowlands.  Vermillion  abuts 
upon  Lake  Erie,  which  forms  its  north  boundary.  In  this  locality  the  most 
broken  and  rugged  lands  of  the  township  exist.  The  Vermillion  River,  the 
main  stream  of  the  township,  has  its  headwaters  in  Ashland  and  Huron  counties 
whence  it  flows  across  the  southeastern  part  of  Florence  township  and  thence 
passes  into  Lorain  county  on  the  east.  Here  it  curves  gradually  to  the  north 
and  northeast  and  returns  again  to  this  county,  entering  Vermillion  in  its  north- 
east section  and  discharges  into  Lake  Erie  at  the  village  of  Vermillion.  The 
township  is  traversed  by  two  other  and  smaller  streams,  La  Chapelle  and  Sugar 
Creeks.  In  the  survey  Vermillion  is  numbered  town  six  of  range  twenty.  Its 
north  boundary  is  Lake  Erie  ; east,  Lorain  county  ; south,  Florence  and  a part 
of  Berlin,  and  west  Berlin  township. 


■ 


Locating  the  County  Seat. 


63 


The  township  of  Florence,  the  most  remote  from  the  county  seat  of  any  of 
the  subdivisions  of  Erie  county  excepting  only  Kelley’s  Island,  is  located  in 
the  southeast  corner  of  the  county,  being  bounded  on  the  east  by  Lorain 
county,  south  by  Huron  county,  west  by  Berlin  township,  and  north  by  Ver- 
million township.  In  the  survey  it  is  town  number  five  of  range  twenty.  Its 
physical  features  are  not  materially  different  from  other  townships  in  this  re- 
gion, gently  rolling  but  with  no  hill-like  formations.  Sand  ridges  crown  the 
higher  elevations,  and  are  elsewhere  noticeable.  The  streams  of  Florence  are 
the  Vermillion  River,  which  crosses  its  southeastern  portion,  the  creek  La  Cha- 
pelle,  and  a few  small  runs  of  no  prominence. 

Kelley’s  Island  became  a township  of  Erie  county  in  the  year  1845.  Prior 
thereto  it  formed  a part  of  Ottawa  county,  and  while  so  attached  was  made  a 
township.  After  being  annexed  to  Erie  county  the  island  was  made  a munici- 
pality, and  as  such  now  exists.  It  was  originally  called,  and  elsewhere  in  this 
work  is  referred  to  as  Cunningham’s  Island.  This  forms  no  part  of  the  old 
Firelands,  but  comes  into  prominence  as  the  “Vineyard  of  the  Lake.”  It  is  sit- 
uated in  north  latitude  forty-one  degrees  and  thirty- five  minutes,  and  west  lon- 
gitude from  Washington,  D.  C.,  five  degrees  and  forty-two  minutes.  It  is  well 
located,  well  watered,  well  improved  and  well  populated. 

This  island  and  the  other  civil  divisions  of  the  county  are  each  Jmade  the 
subjects  of  special  chapters  in  this  work,  where  they  and  their  people,  their 
manufactories  and  productions  will  be  fully  mentioned  and  described. 


CHAPTER  X. 

Locating  the  County-Seat  — Sites  Offered  — Incidents  — Sandusky  Chosen  — The  First 
Court-house  — Change  of  County-Seat  Threatened  — Permanent  House  of  Justice  Provided — 
The  Tardy  Proprietors  — Some  Notable  Cases  Tried  — The  First  and  Only  Murderer  Execut- 
ed in  Erie  County  — The  Old  Jail — Present  County  Buildings. 

THE  location  of  the  seat  of  justice  of  Erie  county  at  Sandusky  City  was 
more  the  result  of  accident  than  otherwise.  Some  people  are  inclined  to 
remember  it  as  a providential  act,  while  others,  more  practical,  perhaps,  have 
chosen  to  attribute  its  location  at  that  place  to  good  luck.  Whichever  may  be 
correct  is  of  no  material  importance  now,  but  the  incident  at  the  time  was  of 
the  most  vital  importance  to  the  town. 

Three  places  were  presented  to  the  consideration  of  the  commission  — San- 
dusky, Huron  and  Milan.  The  first — Sandusky — claimed  it  on  the  ground  that 
that  place  was  the  metropolis  of  the  county,  having  the  greatest  population,  be- 


■ 

< 


■ 


64 


History  of  Erie  County. 


ing  more  accessible,  and  having  facilities  by  land  and  by  water  that  were  pos- 
sessed by  no  other  location.  The  people  of  Huron  argued  that  their  town  was 
even  better  than  Sandusky,  their  location  equally  central,  their  lake  advantages 
better,  and  the  site,  by  every  necessary  consideration,  much  more  desirable  than 
the  others.  Milan,  or  Abbott’s  Corners,  sought  through  the  efforts  of  the  people 
of  that  neighborhood  to  impress  the  commissioners  with  the  availability  of  their 
site,  and  not  without  sound  argument.  This  had  been  fora  short  time  the  seat 
of  justice  of  Huron  county.  It  was  more  central  than  the  other  towns  sug- 
gested, and  was  equally  accessible  by  water  through  the  canal,  and  more  ac- 
cessible by  land  as  it  lay  nearer  the  geographical  center  of  the  county. 

In  due  course  of  time  the  worthy  commissioners  visited  the  several  sites 
proposed,  and  it  was  while  on  this  tour  of  investigation  that  the  events  occurred 
that  turned  the  tide  of  sentiment  in  favor  of  the  village  of  Sandusky.  Milan, 
or  Abbott’s  Corners,  was  out  of  the  question.  While  at  Huron,  so  it  is  said, 
the  champions  of  that  site  showed  the  commissioners  the  beauties  and  natural 
advantages  of  the  town  and  location,  and  endeavored  to,  and  in  fact  did  im- 
press them  favorably.  The  harbor  was  all  it  was  represented  to  be,  but  unfort- 
unately, while  urging  their  own  as  the  best  location  they  correspondingly  en- 
larged upon  the  disadvantages  of  Sandusky,  so  that  when  the  commissioners 
came  here  they  did  so  with  a prejudice  against  it.  And  it  is  a known  fact  that 
at  least  two  of  the  three  commissioners  were  in  favor  of  Huron  as  against  San- 
dusky. But  while  viewing  the  attractions  of  Huron  and  vicinity  a hard  wind 
storm,  a genuine  “ nor’  easter”  suddenly  arose  and  blew  the  lake  waters  back 
into  the  channel  of  Huron  River,  thus  flooding  the  locality,  and  for  a time  mak- 
ing it  impossible  for  the  worthy  site  finders  to  reach  their  hotel. 

This  trio  next  visited  Sandusky,  but  as  has  been  stated,  with  a prejudice 
against  the  place.  There  was  in  fact  a somewhat  unfortunate  condition  of  affairs 
here  regarding  the  lands.  They  were  in  dispute,  and  while  there  was  no  open 
rupture,  there  were  threatenings  of  litigation  in  certain  quarters,  enough  to  make 
doubtful  the  feasibility  of  locating  upon  them  the  county- seat.  But  at  Huron 
the  commission  had  been  informed  that  the  waters  of  the  bay  were  shallow;  too 
shallow  to  make  Sandusky  a safe,  snug  harbor  for  the  lake  vessels,  and  this  was 
the  objection  in  part  raised  by  the  Huron  people.  These  objections  were  fixed 
in  the  minds  of  the  commissioners,  and  were  of  such  a nature  as  required  evi- 
dence to  remove. 

But  the  same  gale  of  wind  that  injured  Huron  had  favored  Sandusky.  Dur- 
ing its  greatest  severity  the  brig  Julia  Palmer  had  sought  refuge  in  the  bay 
of  Sandusky,  the  waters  of  which  were  swollen  by  the  force  of  the  wind,  and 
when  the  next  morning  the  commissioners  looked  from  their  hotel  windows  out 
upon  the  waters  there  stood,  safely  moored,  the  brig.  Where,  then,  was  the  ob- 
jection raised  by  the  Huron  people?  The  Julia  Palmer  was  one  of  the  larg- 
est of  the  lake  vessels,  and  still  she  rode  safely.  This  fact,  with  a more  potent 


Locating  the  County  Seat. 


65 


influence  (a  rare  imported  brand),  brought  to  bear  by  Major  Camp,  soon  settled 
the  question  in  favor  of  Sandusky  as  the  county-seat  of  the  county  of  Erie.  ‘But 
again,  the  land  proprietors  here,  during  the  days  in  which  the  subject  of  erect- 
ing a new  county  was  being  discussed,  were  making  provision  for  the  same  and 
the  consequent  county  buildings,  as  will  be  shown  by  a promise  in  writing  made 
by  them  in  October,  1835,  three  years  before  the  act  creating  the  county  was 
passed.  It  read  as  follows  : 

“ The  subscribers  do  hereby  pledge  themselves  that  in  case  a new  county  be 
organized  with  the  seat  of  justice  established  at  Sandusky,  we  will  furnish  all 
necessary  public  buildings  for  the  use  of  said  new  county,  free  of  all  expense  to- 
the  county,  for  five  years  next  following  its  organization.”  Signed  by  John  G. 
Camp,  Thomas  Neill,  William  I.  Reece,  Isaac  Mills,  Z.  Wildman ; all  per  J.  G. 
Camp. 

One  of  the  first  duties  that  devolved  upon  the  board  of  commissioners  was 
to  make  some  provision  for  a building  for  the  purpose  of  holding  courts,  and 
for  quarters  for  county  officers.  The  officers  were  chosen  on  the  day  fixed  for 
the  first  election,  May  7,  1838,  and  Samuel  B.  Carpenter,  Nelson  Taylor  and 
William  B.  Craighill  were  elected  commissioners  ; Hiram  W.  Conklin,  auditor; 
William  B.  Smith,  treasurer. 

At  one  of  the  first  meetings  of  the  commissioners  the  following  resolution 
was  adopted : 

“WHEREAS,  The  commissioners  of  Erie  county  have  understood  that  the 
proprietors  of  the  town  of  Sandusky  have  promised  and  agreed  to  furnish  build- 
ings for  county  purposes  for  the  county  of  Erie  for  the  term  of  five  years. 

“And,  whereas,  the  situation  of  the  affairs  of  said  county  in  relation  to- 
count}'-  buildings  requires  that  we  should  know,  if  any,  what  agreements  and 
arrangements  have  been  made  by  said  proprietors,  and  what  they  are  willing 
to  do  in  relation  thereto,  therefore, 

“ Resolved , That  the  auditor  of  Erie  county  is  hereby  directed  to  corre- 
spond with  said  proprietors  in  relation  to  their  furnishing  buildings;  what  steps 
they  have  taken  to  furnish  the  same,  and  what  they  are  willing  to  do;  and  that 
said  auditor  report  the  same  to  the  commissioners  on  the  first  Monday  in  June 
next.” 

In  compliance  with  this  direction  the  auditor  did  correspond  with  the  pro- 
prietors, which  resulted  in  the  renewed  promise  or  pledge  heretofore  referred 
to,  but  not  until  some  delay  had  been  made. 

The  first  Court  of  Common  Pleas  of  the  county  was  ordered  by  the  Legis- 
lature to  be  held  on  the  second  Monday  in  December  next  following  the  time 
of  the  passage  of  the  act  that  created  the  county,  and  against  this  time  the  com- 
missioners must  provide  a place  for  the  holding  thereof. 

The  First  Court-House. — There  was  built  just  west  of  the  present  High 
School,  some  years  earlier  than  the  period  the  events  of  which  we  have  been 


' 

....  *i  1.  -T,  » U"4  V.  -Itfim-n  in)  ViniJOD  10l  *Sfll 


' 


66 


History  of  Erie  County. 


discussing,  intended  at  the  time  to  be  put  to  be  put  to  the  uses  of  education,  a 
stone  building  of  fair  proportions,  two  stories  in  height,  but  in  1838  in  an  in- 
complete state. 

The  worthy  land  proprietors  of  Sandusky  were  great  projectors  ; they 
wished  to  encourage  growth,  development,  industry  and  all  public  improve- 
ments, but  when  it  came  to  putting  their  individual  shoulder  to  the  wheel  and 
furnishing  means  for  the  carrying  out  of  any  enterprise  they  were  decidedly 
wanting ; they  wished  everything  to  be  done  but  disliked  to  do  anything. 
And  it  was  this  unfortunate  inactivity  on  their  part  that  came  near  losing  to 
Sandusky  city  the  original  location  of  county  buildings,  and  two  years  later 
was  the  cause  of  much  further  agitation  of  the  question  of  removal;  and  it  was 
only  through  the  prompt  and  decisive  action  of  the  residents  of  the  town  that 
the  county  seat  was  retained  in  its  present  city. 

The  stone  building  referred  to  was  projected  in  part  by  the  proprietors,  and 
in  part  by  the  enterprising  residents  of  Sandusky,  who  desired  a commodious 
school-house  or  academy  in  a central  location.  To  its  construction  the  peo- 
ple largely  contributed.  At  the  time  of  the  location  of  the  county  seat  this 
building  was  not  finished,  only  the  lower  floor  being  completed,  in  which  school 
was  held.  It  was  this  structure,  then,  that  was  proposed  to  be  used  for  court- 
house and  county  purposes. 

The  first  term  of  court  was  held  in  December,  1838,  as  provided  by  the  act 
of  the  Legislature  organizing  the  county.  And  while  this  building  was  so 
used  for  a period  of  two  years,  or  perhaps  a little  less,  there  was  no  move  on 
the  part  of  the  proprietors  to  vest  the  title  to  the  same  in  the  county.  This 
led  to  further  discussion  and  agitation  of  the  question  of  removal  of  the  county 
seat  to  some  other  point;  and,  moreover,  led  to  the  passage  of  an  “ enabling 
act  ” authorizing  such  removal,  but  coupled  with  a condition,  as  will  be  seen 
by  the  act  itself,  as  follows  : 

“There  shall  be  commissioners  appointed  agreeably  to  an  act  entitled  ‘An 
act  for  the  establishment  of  seats  of  justice,’  to  review  the  seat  of  justice  of  Erie 
county  and  remove  the  same,  if  in  their  opinion  the  public  interest  requires  it; 
but  it  shall  not  be  lawful  for  said  commissioners  to  locate  the  seat  of  justice  at 
anyplace  other  than  its  present  location  unless  the  proprietors  of  the  lands,  or 
individuals,  shall  furnish  the  county  of  Erie  with  a good  and  valid  title,  in  fee 
simple  to  such  lands,  as  may  be  necessary  for  the  erection  of  all  public  build- 
ings ; and  shall  also  erect  good  and  suitable  public  buildings,  equal  to  those  in 
Elyria,  Lorain  county,  without  expense  or  levy  of  a tax  in  said  county  of 
Erie.” 

This  act  seems  to  have  somewhat  opened  the  eyes  of  the  tardy  proprietors, 
but  not  until  the  citizens  had  come  to  the  rescue,  and  by  their  bond  pledged 
themselves  to  provide  for  the  necessities  of  the  county.  At  a meeting  of  the 
county  commissioners  held  June  3,  1840,  the  following  journal  entry  appears: 


■ 


' 


■ 


Locating  the  County  Seat. 


67 


“ Whereas,  the  commissioners  appointed  by  the  Legislature  of  this  State 
to  review  and  remove  the  seat  of  justice  of  Erie  county,  if,  in  their  opinion, 
the  public  interests  required  it,  have  on  full  examination  decided  and  found 
that  the  public  interests  did  and  does  not  require  such  removal,  and 

“ Whereas,  in  order  to  prevent  the  removal  of  the  seat  of  justice  by  said 
commissioners,  F.  D.  Parish,  A.  H.  Barber,  Charles  Barney,  Samuel  Moss, 
Moses  Farewell,  John  Wheeden,  W.  H.  Hollister,  William  B.  Smith,  L.  S. 
Beecher,  John  Beatty,  John  G.  Camp,  E.  Cook,  S.  B.  Caldwell  and  David 
Campbell  executed  and  delivered  to  the  commissioners  of  the  said  county  of 
Erie  their  joint  and  several  bond  in  the  sum  of  fifteen  thousand  dollars,  dated 
May  11,  1840,  conditioned  for  the  furnishing  to  and  for  the  said  county,  with- 
in two  years  from  April  1,  1840,  good  and  sufficient  public  buildings,  such  as 
a court-house,  public  offices  and  jail,  without  expense  or  the  levy  of  a tax  in 
said  county,  and, 

“ Whereas,  the  most  of  the  proprietors  of  the  stone  building  now  occupied 
by  the  county  as  and  for  a court-house  and  offices,  situate  on  the  east  block 
of  the  land  appropriated  and  set  apart  by  the  original  proprietors  of  Sandusky 
city  for  county  and  other  public  buildings,  have  this  day  delivered  to  the  com- 
missioners of  said  county  a deed  of  conveyance  of  said  building,  to  be  holden 
and  used  by  said  county  for  a court-house  and  offices  forever,  containing  a 
covenant  of  warranty  of  the  title  of  the  same  against  all  claims  whatsoever. 

“ Now,  therefore,  we,  the  commissioners  of  the  county  of  Erie  aforesaid,  do 
now  accept  and  receive  for  the  county,  for  a court-house  and  offices,  the  said 
building  in  fulfillment  and  satisfaction  of  the  condition  of  the  above  mentioned 
bond  of  F.  D.  Parish  and  others,  so  far  as  the  same  has  reference  to  and  stip- 
ulates for  the  furnishing  of  a court-house  and  public  offices,  and  land  on  which 
to  erect  the  same,  on  condition  that  the  obligors  of  said  bond  shall  erect  a 
portico  across  the  north  side  of  said  building,  not  less  than  twelve  feet  wide, 
and  extend  up  to  the  floor  of  the  third  story,  and  covered  with  a deep  floor,  and 
surrounded  with  a hand-rail  and  bannisters,  and  a portion  to  be  enclosed  at 
each  end,  and  stairs  to  be  erected  to  extend  from  the  first  to  the  second  story; 
and  subject  to  such  other  internal  arrangements  as  the  commissioners  shall 
hereafter  direct  and  adopt ; and  also  remove  the  partition  in  the  second  story, 
and  lay  a floor  over  the  present  stairway  so  that  the  court-room  will  extend 
over  the  whole  of  the  second  story.” 

The  latter  portion  of  this  instrument  was  subsequently  modified  in  rela- 
tion to  the  construction  of  the  “ portico  ” and  stairways,  and  provision  made 
for  a semi-circular  portico  with  circular  stairs. 

The  deed  from  the  proprietors  of  the  land  and  the  shareholders  of  the 
“ stone  building,”  bears  the  date  of  May  14,  1842,  and  is  made  upon  the  ex- 
press condition  that  the  county  seat  be  not  removed  from  Sandusky  city. 
The  deed  was  signed  and  executed  by  the  following  named  persons : W.  H. 


History  of  Erie  County. 


<58 


Mills,  David  Campbell,  S.  B.  Caldwell,  A.  P.  Tower,  William  B.  Smith,  Will- 
iam H.  Hunter,  I.  N.  Davidson,  G.  S.  Dowel,  Josiah  W.  Hollister,  James  Hol- 
lister, by  attorney,  R.  I.  Jennings,  M.  A.  Bradley,  S.  C.  Moss,  Elentheros 
Cooke,  Moses  Farewell,  John  N.  Sloane,  L.  S.  Beecher,  John  G.  Camp,  F.  D. 
Parish,  F.  S.  Wildman,  Nathan  Starr,  John  Wearn,  Thomas  Neill,  Isaac  Mills, 
by  attorney,  J.  A.  Mills,  James  Foman,  Thomas  T.  White,  William  Null,  Oran 
Follett,  E.  S.  Gregg,  Burr  Higgins,  W.  Townsend,  L.  B.  Johnson,  Martin  Ellis 
and  I.  Darling. 

These,  then,  were  the  vicissitudes  and  vexations  experienced  by  the  inhab- 
itants of  Sandusky  before  the  seat  of  justice  became  permanently  eatablished 
at  that  city.  For  a period  of  nearly  fifty  years  this  building,  though  not  orig- 
inally intended  as  such,  served  the  purposes  of  the  county  as  a hall  of  justice. 
Could  a record  of  each  and  every  case,  civil  and  criminal,  tried  and  argued 
within  its  walls  be  made,  what  an  interest  would  it  create.  Here  was  tried, 
convicted  and  sentenced  to  be  hanged  the  only  murderer  ever  executed  within 
the  bounds  of  Erie  county.  James  Evans,  a crippled  tailor,  was  the  man,  and 
the  sentence  of  death  was  executed  upon  him  for  the  wilful,  deliberate  murder 
of  John  Ritter.  Counsellor  L.  S.  Beecher  defended  this  man,  while  the  firm 
of  Parish  & Sadler  were  special  prosecutors  for  the  people.  The  case  is  well 
remembered  by  old  lawyers. 

Then,  again,  was  the  famous  case  of  Lockwood  and  others  against  Wild- 
man and  others,  involving  the  title  to  the  lands  on  which  stands  the  city  of 
Sandusky.  This  was,  perhaps,  the  most  important  civil  case  ever  tried  in  Erie 
county.  For  the  plaintiff's  were  counsellors  C.  L.  Boalt,  George  Reber  and 
Judge  Peter  Hitchcock,  while  the  defendants’  interests  were  guarded  by  Messrs. 
Parish  & Sadler,  L.  S Beecher,  Pitt  Cook  and  others.  The  case  was  reviewed 
by  the  Appellate  Court  in  1844,  and  a decree  granted  for  the  plaintiffs,  but 
there  being  other  questions  and  considerations  arising  in  the  case  that  were  not 
tried  and  reviewed,  a compromise  was  effected  and  the  case  settled  notwith- 
standing the  decree  of  the  Supreme  Court  sitting  in  bank. 

The  case  of  Lockwood  against  Mitchell  was  one  that  attracted  considera- 
ble attention  at  the  time,  and  was  on  the  docket  for  nearly  twenty  years.  This 
was  a land  case  and  involved  the  title  of  a tract  in  Milan  township.  The  plain- 
tiff was  represented  by  Judge  Stone  and  Judge  Swaine,  while  the  defendant’s 
attorney  was  Homer  Goodwin,  esq. 

The  Lake  Shore  and  Michigan  Southern  Railroad  Company  and  the  Cleve- 
land, Sandusky  and  Cincinnati  Railroad  Company  became  involved  in  a liti- 
gation over  the  question  of  the  right  of  one  railway  to  lay  a track  across  that 
of  another.  This  case  will  be  remembered  as  one  of  the  most  closely  con- 
tested of  the  many  tried  in  this  county.  The  plaintiffs  were  virtually  success- 
ful. Their  interests  were  represented  by  Homer  Goodwin,  associated  with 
Counsellor  Mason,  and  Messrs.  Bowman,  Prindle  & Scott  represented  the  other 
side. 


• ■ 


Locating  the  County  Seat. 


69 


In  the  action  of  Sloane  versus  Beimiller,  the  issue  involved  the  question  of 
the  right  of  a shore  owner  to  control  the  fishing  privileges  of  the  bay  or  lake 
waters  opposite  his  property.  The  decision  was  that  he  had  no  right  to  so 
control.  In  this  case  Mr.  Goodwin  appeared  for  the  plaintiff,  and  Counselors 
Dougherty  and  Root  for  the  defense. 

Another  important  action  was  that  growing  out  of  the  loss  in  a terrible 
storm  on  Lake  Erie,  of  the  schooner  Ellen  Marr,  laden  at  this  port  with  wheat 
consigned  to  Buffalo.  The  owner  of  the  wheat  sued  the  owners  of  the  boat 
for  the  loss  of  the  cargo,  upon  the  ground  that  the  loss  was  in  consequence  of 
over-loading,  which  was,  they  claimed,  mismanagement,  and  for  which  they 
were  liable.  Not  only  was  the  boat  and  cargo  lost  but  the  entire  crew  per- 
ished with  her.  In  this  case  were  Parish  & Sadler,  and  Beecher  & Campbell, 
they  being  about  the  only  practicing  lawyers  in  the  county  at  the  time,  Mr. 
Elentheros  Cooke  having  practically  retired  from  the  profession  to  engage  in 
politics,  and  in  this  field  he  was,  for  many  years,  a prominent,  central  figure. 

Another  of  the  early  and  somewhat  important  criminal  cases  was  the  Bris- 
tol robbery  case,  out  of  which  grew  three  trials,  and  created  considerable  in- 
terest at  the  time.  This  was  during  the  incumbency  of  Counsellor  F.  W. 
Cogswell  in  office  of  district  attorney  of  the  county.  The  prisoners,  of  whom 
there  were  four  or  five,  were  defended  by  Counselors  Homer  Goodwin  and 
North  way. 

The  State  against  Gilchrist,  the  prisoner  being  charged  with  the  murder  of 
one  Philo,  was  another  of  the  thousands  of  cases  tried  in  the  old  court-house. 
In  this  the  county’s  prosecutor  was  assisted  by  C.  B.  Squire,  esq.,  an  attorney 
during  the  infant  days  of  the  county,  while  the  defense  was  conducted  by 
Messrs.  L.  S.  Beecher  and  J.  M.  Root.  The  prisoner  was  indicted  for  murder, 
but  the  court  accepted  a plea  of  guilty  to  a crime  of  less  magnitude.  The  de- 
fendant, Gilchrist  was  sentenced  to  imprisonment  for  a term  of  years. 

Such,  then,  is  a brief  mention  of  a few  of  the  thousands  of  cases  that  have 
occupied  the  time  and  attention  of  the  court,  the  counselors  and  the  juries  that, 
from  time  to  time,  have  been  connected  with  the  old  court-house,  now  a thing 
of  the  past.  The  old  building  is  gone  and  not  a trace  of  its  existence  is  now 
visible,  save  only  in  its  past  record. 

But  it  was  not  alone  the  court- house  building  that  engaged  the  attention 
of  the  first  board  of  county  commissioners,  as  provision  had  to  be  made  for  a 
place  of  confinement  for  offenders  ; and  this  was  one  of  the  things  for  the  fur- 
nishing of  which  the  proprietors  and  likewise  the  citizens  were  pledged.  For 
this  purpose  on  the  8th  day  of  November,  1841,  Isaac  Mills,  one  of  the  pro- 
prietors, executed  his  deed  of  conveyance  to  the  county,  for  jail  purposes,  a 
lot  on  Jackson  street,  numbered  eighteen.  This  deed,  however,  was  not  pre- 
sented to  the  commissioners  until  the  2 1st  of  January,  1842.  On  this  lot  was 
built  the  first  county  jail.  It  was  erected  at  the  expense,  mainly,  of  the  citi- 
10 


. 


History  of  Erie  County. 


70 

zens  of  the  town  of  Sandusky,  and  was  accepted  by  the  commissioners  on  July 
2,  1842.  This  property  was  sold  in  1883  to  George  Brown  and  Adam  Feick, 
for  the  sum  of  three  thousand  four  hundred  dollars. 

At  length,  as  the  population  and  wealth  of  the  city  increased,  it  became 
necessary  that  new  county  buidings  should  be  provided  ; buildings  more  in 
keeping  with  the  modern,  substantial  and  elegant  structures  of  various  kinds 
that  were  then -standing  around  the  public  square  and  other  business  streets  of 
the  city  ; such  as  would  not  only  be  an  ornament  but  an  honor  to  the  county 
seat  and  to  the  county. 

The  New  Court-House. — The  first  definite  action  looking  to  this  end  was 
taken  by  the  board  of  county  commissioners  at  their  meeting  held  January  4, 
1871,  upon  which  occasion  that  body  declared  their  intention  of  building  a 
new  court-house  on  the  site  of  the  old  building  unless  some  other  location  be 
agreed  upon  ; and  inviting  petitions  and  remonstrances  regarding  the  matter, 
to  be  heard  and  acted  upon  on  the  7th  of  March  following. 

Upon  the  occasion  designated  the  board  proceeded  to  examine  the  several 
communications  presented,  of  which  there  were  five,  containing  an  aggregate 
of  three  hundred  and  forty- five  signatures,  all  in  favor  of  the  contemplated 
erection  and  none  opposed  thereto.  One  of  these  bore  the  names  of  sixteen 
members  of  the  legal  profession.  From  that  time  the  various  proceedings  of 
the  commissioners  in  the  matter  may  be  summarized  as  follows : 

March  9,  1871.  Commissioners  direct  William  S.  Webb  and  the  county 
auditor,  Ebenezer  Merry,  to  visit  different  county  seats  and  examine  county 
buildings  with  a view  to  the  selection  of  a suitable  model  for  that  of  Erie 
county,  and  report  the  result  of  their  investigations. 

May  31,  1871.  The  board  visited  Mansfield,  O.,  to  examine  the  court- 
house at  that  place. 

June  5,  1871.  The  board  adopted  the  plan  offered  by  Myers  & Holmes, 
of  Cleveland,  and  made  contract  with  them  to  furnish  plans  and  specifications 
upon  which  the  work  should  be  done. 

July  21.  William  S.  Webb  directed  to  proceed  to  Cincinnati  and  ascer- 
tain and  report  the  best  system  for  heating  the  new  court-house. 

August  10.  Plans  and  specifications  of  Myers  & Holmes  adopted  and  ap- 
proved, after  examination  by  the  commissioners,  clerk,  sheriff  and  probate 
judge.  Paid  Myers  & Holmes  one  thousand  dollars  in  part  payment  on  con- 
tract. Advertised  for  proposals  from  contractors  to  build  court-house. 

For  the  work  several  bids  were  received,  all  of  which  were  examined  and 
discussed  from  time  to  time,  and  finally,  October  3,  1871,  the  board  decided  to 
reject  all  as  provided  by  a clause  in  the  public  notice  reserving  a right  so  to  do. 

It  seems  that  there  was  some  technical  error  in  the  specifications,  and  the 
action  of  the  board  was  in  part  on  that  account.  Further  than  this,  about  this 
time  the  disastrous  Chicago  fire  occurred,  and  it  was  suggested  that  this  build- 


. 

■ 


' 


Locating  the  County  Seat. 


7* 


ing  should  be  made  as  near  fire-proof  as  possible.  This  would  occasion  ma- 
terial alterations  in  the  plans,  and  it  became  necessary  that  the  matter  should 
have  full  consideration.  However,  on  the  5th  of  December,  the  commission- 
ers again  advertised  for  proposals  to  build  which  were  opened  on  the  6th  of 


February,  1872.  They  were  as  follows  : 

Aggregate  bid  of  Philander  Gregg, $127,526  00 

“ Carpenter  & Matthewson, 129,729  00 

‘‘  “ Carr,  Merry  & Nason, 125,588  54 

“ “ Miller,  Frayer& Sheets 123,913  57 

“ “ Janies  Campbell, 138,842  65 

“ “ Beaver  & Butts 125,675  91 

“ “ Simon  Harrold, 127,305  50 


Besides  these  there  were  other  bids  for  special  departments  of  the  work,  a 
detail  of  which  is  not  important  in  this  connection. 

The  firm  of  Miller,  Frayer  & Sheets,  of  Mansfield,  O.,  being  the  lowest 
bidders  for  the  work,  the  contract  was  accordingly  let  to  them  by  an  agree- 
ment executed  on  February  24,  1872. 

Although  the  plans  and  specifications  had  once  been  materially  changed, 
no  less  than  five  further  alterations  were  subsequently  made  thereto  that  en- 
tailed additional  labor  and  its  consequent  expense  ; so  that,  when  a final  set- 
tlement was  had  with  the  contractors,  it  was  found  that  the  total  cost  of  the 
building  amounted  to  one  hundred  and  forty- two  thousand  twenty-six  and 
forty-five  one- hundredths  dollars,  including  furnishing,  added  to  which  was  the 
architect’s  account,  per  agreement,  $4,361.29. 

The  building  was  occupied  by  county  officers  on  the  4th  day  of  December, 
1874. 

This  new  Erie  county  court-house  is  a model  of  beauty  and  modern  archi- 
tecture, and  does  honor  not  only  to  those  engaged  in  its  construction  but  to 
the  county.  Its  location,  on  the  west  block  of  the  public  square,  was  exceed- 
ingly well  chosen,  as  from  all  sides  a full  view  of  its  grand  proportions  is  ob- 
tained. The  effort  at  elaborate  ornamentation  was  completely  successful,  and 
here  does  not  appear  at  any  point,  evidences  of  needless  display. 

This  imposing  structure  needs  no  further  description  in  these  pages.  It 
stands  a lasting  monument  to  the  liberality  and  public-spiritedness  of  the  peo- 
ple of  the  whole  county. 

The  New  Jail. — And  still  there  remained  to  be  built  after  the  completion 
of  the  court-house,  another  county  building,  and  although  of  less  proportions 
is  none  the  less  attractive  in  appearance  and  substantially  built.  This  is  the 
new  stone  jail  on  Adams  street. 

On  the  29th  of  March,  1882,  the  commissioners  of  the  county  entered  into 
an  agreement  with  Adam  Feick  & Brother  for  the  erection  of  a county  jail  on 
lot  number  thirteen,  situate  on  the  south  side  of  Adams  street.  The  contract 
called  for  a twenty-six  cell  jail  and  sheriffs  residence,  and  the  consideration 


' 


72 


History  of  Erie  County. 


paid  them  for  its  construction  was  $45,750.  It  was  built  within  the  contract, 
there  being  no  extra  work  done  that  made  an  additional  expense.  In  addi- 
tion to  the  original  work  heating  apparatus  was  placed  in  the  building,  which 
cost  something  like  one  thousand  dollars  additional. 

The  County  Infirmary. — In  the  township  of  Perkins  a short  distance  from 
the  south  boundary  of  Sandusky  City  is  located  a farm  of  goodly  proportions 
and  in  a finely  improved  condition  and  upon  which  is  built  a large  stone  struc- 
ture. This  is  the  home  for  aged,  indigent  persons  of  Erie  county,  and  is  known 
as  the  County  Infirmary.  This  building  was  erected  in  the  year  1886,  by 
George  Phillip  Feick  under  a contract  made  with  the  commissioners  of  the 
county.  Mr.  Feick  was  the  lowest  bidder  for  this  work,  his  proposal  being 
twenty- four  thousand  one  hundred  and  sixty-eight  dollars.  An  engine  house 
and  smokestack  were  subsequently  erected  by  John  H.  Smith,  at  an  expense  of 
fifteen  hundred  and  thirty-seven  dollars  and  fifty  cents. 

The  building  that  previously  occupied  this  site  was  burned  during  the  latter 
part  of  November,  1885,  and  with  its  destruction  five  inmates  were  burned  to 
death. 

The  early  proceedings  for  the  establishing  of  a county  infirmary  were  had 
in  the  year  1855,  and  on  the  29th  of  June  of  that  year  Walter  D.  Beall,  John 
W.  Sprague  and  John  G.  Pool  were  appointed  a board  of  infirmary  directors, 
who,  with  their  successors  in  office  have  ever  since  had  control  of  that  arm  of 
the  county  government. 

The  present  directors  are  John  Holahan,  Thomas  McVeigh  and  J.  W.  Lyles. 
The  superintendent  is  Alexander  Motry. 


CHAPER  XI. 

GEOLOGY  OF  ERIE  COUNTY. 

THE  labors  of  those  who  during  the  last  two  hundred  years  have  devoted 
themselves  to  the  study  of  the  structure  of  the  globe,  and  the  claim  which 
this  department  of  human  knowledge  has  to  the  name  of  science,  depends  up- 
on the  symmetry  which  has  been  found  to  prevail  in  the  arrangement  of  the 
materials  composing  the  crust  of  the  earth. 

By  the  slow  process  of  adding  fact  to  fact  and  by  comparing  the  observa- 
tions of  the  devotees  of  the  science  in  different  lands,  it  has  been  found  that  the 
rocky  strata  of  the  earth  hold  a definite  relation  to  each  other  in  position,  and 


. 


Geology  of  Erie  County. 


73 


hence  in  age  ; that  many  of  them  are  distinguished  by  constant  or  general  min- 
eral features,  and  contain  characteristic  or  peculiar  remains  of  plants  or  ani- 
mals by  which  they  may  be  recognized  wherever  found. 

It  is  now  well  understood,  not  only  that  these  fossil  remains  are  safe  and  con- 
venient guides  in  studying  the  relations  and  distribution  of  the  rocks  contain- 
ing them,  but  that  their  assistance  is  indispensable,  and  that  no  conclusions  can 
be  regarded  as  accurate  and  trustworthy  unless  confirmed  by  their  evidence. 

The  observations  of  geologists  have  shown  that  the  materials  which  com- 
pose the  earth’s  crust  form  three  distinct  classes  of  rocks  : those  that  are  the 
direct  product  of  fusion,  called  igneous ; those  that  have  been  made  up  of  de- 
posits of  sediment,  called  sedimentary ; and  those  that  have  been  changed  in  their 
structure  and  texture,  called  changed  or  metamorphic  rocks. 

The  igneous  rocks  are  subdivided  into  two  groups,  the  volcanic  and  plu- 
tonic,  of  which  the  first  includes  lava,  pumice,  obsidian,  etc.;  the  latter,  plutonic, 
comprises  those  massive,  rocky  formations  which  are  without  distinct  bedding, 
having  apparently  been  completely  fused,  and  yet  were  probably  never  brought 
to  the  surface  by  volcanoes.  Having  consolidated  under  great  pressure,  they 
are  dense  and  compact  in  structure,  never  exhibiting  the  porous  and  incoher- 
ent condition  which  is  so  characteristic  of  purely  volcanic  rocks.  The  plutonic 
rocks  are  granite  in  some  of  its  varieties,  syenite,  porphyry  and  part  of  basalts, 
diorites  and  dolerites  (greenstones). 

None  of  these  igneous  rocks  are  found  in  place  in  the  State  of  Ohio,  though 
they  exist  in  vast  quantities  in  the  western  mining  districts  and  on  the  shores 
of  Lake  Superior. 

It  is  supposed  that  these  igneous  rocks  were  the  first  formed  and  that  they 
constituted  the  primeval  continents.  As  soon,  however,  as  these  rocks  were 
exposed  to  the  action  of  the  elements  they  began  to  be  worn  down  and  washed 
away,  and  the  materials  derived  from  them  were  deposited  as  sediments  in  the 
first  existing  water  basins.  That  process  has  been  going  on  through  all  sub- 
sequent ages,  so  that  by  far  the  larger  part  of  the  rocks  which  we  now  encoun- 
ter in  the  study  of  the  earth  belongs  to  the  class  of  sedimentary  deposits.  These 
are  known  to  us  as  sandstone,  shale,  limestone  etc.,  the  consolidation  of  the 
comminuted  materials  having  been  effected  by  both  chemical  and  physical  agen- 
cies. The  differences  which  we  discover  in  these  sedimentary  rocks  are,  for 
the  most  part,  dependent  on  very  simple  causes,  such  as  we  now  see  in  opera- 
tion upon  every  coast.  The  showers  that  fall  on  land  give  rise  to  rivers,  and 
these  on  their  way  to  the  sea  excavate  the  valleys  through  which  they  flow, 
transporting  the  materials  taken  into  suspension  to  the  point  where  the  motion 
of  their  currents  is  arrested  and  their  power  of  suspension  ceases,  in  the  water 
basins  where  they  empty.  In  the  gradual  arrest  of  the  motion  of  river  currents 
the  coarsest  and  heaviest  materials  first  sink  to  the  bottom,  then  in  succession 
the  finer  and  still  finer,  until  all  are  thrown  down. 


■ 

' 

. 

. 


74 


History  of  Erie  County. 


Shore  waves  are  still  more  potent  agents  in  the  distribution  of  sediments. 
Whether  they  break  on  cliff  or  beach  they  are  constantly  grinding  up,  and  by 
their  undertow  carrying  away  the  barriers  against  which  they  beat.  Nothing 
can  resist  their  force  and  ceaseless  industry. 

On  every  shore  where  the  wash  of  the  land  accumulates,  we  shall  find  a de- 
posit of  gravel  and  sand  which  forms  the  beach,  a little  off  shore  a belt  of  finer 
sand  and  clay,  while  in  the  depths  of  the  ocean  are  deposited  only  organic  sed- 
iments. 

When  consolidated  these  materials  form  rocks  with  which  we  are  all  fa- 
miliar— the  gravel,  conglomerate;  the  sand,  sandstone;  the  clay,  shale;  the 
calcareous  sediment,  limestone. 

We  have  also  everywhere  evidence  that  what  we  know  as  terra  firma,  is  a 
type  of  instability  ; that  all  lands  are  constantly  undergoing  changes  of  level, 
and  that  over  all  our  continent  the  sea  has  rolled,  not  once,  but  many  times. 

The  grinding  effect  of  shore  waves  can  be  witnessed  on  every  coast.  In 
the  submergence  of  a continent,  all  portions  of  its  surface  must  in  succession 
come  under  the  influence  of  this  agency.  By  its  action  the  solid  and  superfi- 
cial materials  lying  above  the  sea  level,  the  rocks,  sand,  gravel,  and  soil,  would 
be  ground  up  and  washed  away,  the  greater  part  forming  mechanical  sedi- 
ments and  distributed  according  to  the  law  of  gravitation,  the  soluble  portions 
taken  into  solution  and  carried  out  to  impregnate  the  ocean  waters,  and  to 
supply  material  to  the  myriads  of  organisms  that  have  the  power  to  draw  from 
this  solution  their  solid  parts.  In  the  advance  inland  of  the  shore  line,  the 
first  deposit  from  the  sea  would  be  what  may  be  termed  an  unbroken  sheet  of 
sea  beach,  which  would  cover  the  rocky  substructure  of  all  portions  of  the  con- 
tinent brought  beneath  the  ocean.  Over  this  coarser  material  would  be  depos- 
ited a sheet  of  finer  mechanical  sediments,  principally  clay,  laid  down  just  in 
the  rear  of  the  advancing  beach  ; and  finally  over  all,  a sheet  of  greater  or 
lesser  thickness  of  calcareous  material,  destined  to  form  limestone  when  consol- 
idated, the  legitimate  and  only  deposit  made  from  the  waters  of  the  open  ocean. 

Upon  the  retreat  of  the  sea,  the  surface  of  the  land  would  again  be  covered 
with  vegetation,  acted  upon  by  atmospheric  erosion,  washed  into  hills  and  val- 
leys, and  locally  covered  with  sand  or  clay,  the  products  of  this  local  washing. 

Another  invasion  of  the  sea  would  leave  similar  records  of  a similar  history, 
with  this  difference  only,  that  the  tribes  of  animals  and  plants  inhabiting  the 
land  and  water  would,  in  the  lapse  of  ages,  have  experienced  marked  changes. 
Perhaps  in  the  interval,  the  old  types  of  animals  and  plants  would  have  entirely 
disappeared  and  others  have  succeeded  them.  So  that  the  new  sediments 
would  include  only  relics  of  the  new  races. 

Such  is  the  order  of  the  events  that  have  given  rise  to  the  most  of  the 
phenomena  of  geology,  and  will  serve  to  explain  how  it  happens  that  we  so 
frequently  find  sandstones  and  conglomerates  followed  by  shales  or  soft  clay 


Geology  of  Erie  County. 


75 


rocks,  and  these  again  overlaid  by  limestones  ; and,  that  in  the  different  strata 
we  have  different  groups  of  fossils.  In  the  sandstones  and  conglomerates 
which  are  the  direct  debris  of  the  land,  we  naturally  find  almost  nothing  but 
the  remains  of  terrestrial  plants.  In  the  limestones  we  find  mainly  the  remains 
of  marine  organisms,  corals,  shells,  Crustacea,  and  fishes. 

All  the  rocks  of  Ohio  belong  to  this  class  of  sedimentary  strata,  and  in- 
clude abundant  examples  of  each  subdivision  of  the  two  great  groups,  the 
mechanical  and  organic  sediments. 

To  the  list  of  sedimentary  rocks  belongs  another  kind  of  deposits,  to  wit, 
the  chemicals,  and  are  such  as  have  been  plainly  precipitated  from  chemical 
solution,  and  include  rock  salt,  gypsum,  materials  which  form  mineral  veins, 
and  those  deposited  by  mineral  springs,  beds  of  ochre,  and  iron  ore.  Some  of 
these  owe  their  accumulation  to  the  action  of  organic  matter,  but  not  having 
distinctly  formed  any  animal  or  plant  tissue  they  cannot  be  classed  as  organic 
sediments. 

In  all  parts  of  the  world  rocky  masses  are  met  with  which  would  not  at 
first  sight  be  referred  to  either  of  the  classes  above  named.  These  are  usually 
found  in  sheets  of  greater  or  lesser  thickness,  resting  in  regular  sequence  one 
upon  another,  as  though  they  had  once  been  sediments,  but  now  upheaved 
and  contorted,  sometimes  standing  nearly  vertical,  and  greatly  changed  both 
in  their  structure  and  texture.  They  have  been  called  metamorphic  or  changed 
rocks.  They  compose  most  mountains  and  have  been  hardened  and  made 
crystalline  by  the  forces  that  have  acted  upon  them  in  their  upheaval  ; they 
usually  bear  evidence  of  having  been  highly  heated,  and  in  some  cases  even 
fused  in  the  process,  so  that  some  of  them  can  hardly  be  distinguished  from 
members  of  the  class  of  igneous  rocks. 

They  form  all  of  the  mountain  chains  of  our  country,  and  underlie  most  of 
New  England  and  much  of  Canada.  We  have  no  representatives  of  them  in 
Ohio,  except  such  as  have  been  brought  by  the  Drift  agencies. 

These  are  the  materials  with  which  we  have  to  do  in  the  study  of  the  gen- 
eralities of  geology.  The  sedimentary  rocks  underlying  the  earth’s  surface 
form  what  is  known  as  the  geological  column,  that  is,  they  are  arranged  in  a 
regular  sequence  which  holds  good  over  all  the  earth’s  surface.  It  is  true, 
however,  that  in  no  one  place,  so  far  as  has  been  observed,  is  every  member  of 
this  series  present ; for  the  reason  that  while  any  one  formation  was  accumu- 
lating in  a sea  basin,  which  occupied  only  a limited  portion  of  the  earth’s  sur- 
face, dry  land  existed  at  the  same  time  in  great  areas,  and  there  no  sediments 
could  be  deposited.  All  sedimentary  rocks  have  been  formed  in  oceanic  basins. 

The  oldest  rocks  of  which  geologists  have  any  knowledge  are  those  com- 
posing the  Canadian  Highlands,  and  those  exposed  on  the  northern  shores  of 
Lake  Huron.  These  are  metamorphic  rocks,  and  underlie  a broad  belt  in 
Canada  extending  from  Labrador  to  the  Lake  of  the  Woods,  and  thence  to  the 


• • 

{ 


History  of  Erie  County. 


76 

Arctic  Sea.  From  the  circumstance  of  this  area  bordering  the  St.  Lawrence 
River,  the  name  Laurentian  has  been  given  to  the  first  named  group.  These 
rocks  also  form  the  Adirondacks,  a part  of  the  Allegheny  belt,  the  Ozark 
Mountains,  reappear  in  Texas,  the  Black  Hills  of  Nebraska,  and  in  some  of 
the  mountains  of  Arizona. 

Bordering  and  partially  overlaying  these  rocks,  are  a series  of  sandstones, 
limestones,  etc.,  accumulated  in  the  sea  surrounding  this  ancient  Laurentian 
continent,  and  made  up  of  materials  derived  from  that  continent.  These  strata 
form  what  is  called  the  Silurian  system,  from  their  exposure  in  a part  of  Great 
Britain  once  inhabited  by  the  ancient  Silures. 

The  lowest  member  of  this  system  is  the  Potsdam  sandstone,  appearing  in 
a belt  around  the  southern  margin  of  the  Laurentian  area  in  Canada,  the 
Adirondacks,  and  the  region  about  Lake  Superior,  concealed  at  the  Mississippi 
and  reappearing  further  west.  It  has  been  reached  in  deep  borings  at  Colum- 
bus, O.,  at  St.  Louis,  and  other  places,  showing  that  it  underlies  in  an  un- 
broken sheet  the  valley  of  the  Mississippi.  The  fossils  of  this  rock  are  not 
numerous,  and  from  the  fact  that  no  land  plants  have  left  their  traces  here,  it 
is  supposed  that  terrestrial  vegetation  was  then  exceedingly  scanty  if  not 
wholly  wanting. 

Resting  on  this  sandstone,  and  forming  by  its  outcrop  a parallel  belt  of 
exposure,  is  a rock  consisting  of  a mixture  of  lime  and  sand  called  calciferous 
sandrock,  and  from  evidence  underlies  the  surface  of  an  area  nearly  equal  to 
the  Potsdam.  This  rock  holds  the  lead  of  Missouri.  The  most  characteristic 
fossils  are  graptolites. 

On  this  sandrock  are  found  a series  of  limestones  called  Chazy,  Birdseye, 
Black  River,  and  Trenton.  They  contain  the  remains  of  shells,  corals,  trilo- 
bites,  and  crinoids,  and  undoubtedly  are  the  result  of  the  accumulation  of 
organic  matter  at  the  bottom  of  the  great  Silurian  Sea,  when  its  waves  rolled 
over  the  old  continent.  This  group  is  exposed  in  New  York,  Canada,  about 
Lake  Superior  and  on  the  Upper  Mississippi,  where  one  of  its  members  holds 
the  lead  of  the  Galena  district. 

On  this  limestone  are  found  rocks  composed  of  mixed  lime  and  clayey  sed- 
iments, containing  graptolites  as  the  most  characteristic  fossils.  These  are 
slates,  and  are  called  the  Hudson  group.  The  outcrop  of  this  group  forms  a 
belt  parallel  with  and  more  southerly  than  those  of  the  older  Silurian  rocks. 
In  the  Cincinnati  rocks  are  found  so  large  a number  of  Trenton  fossils  that, 
though  the  rocks  there  are  usually  regarded  as  equivalents  of  the  Hudson, 
they  are  considered,  in  parts  at  least,  the  representatives  of  the  Trenton. 

In  the  successive  strata  so  far  we  have  an  illustration  of  the  sequence  of 
deposits  made  in  every  submergence  of  the  land — first,  mechanical  (sandstone), 
then  mixed  (lime  and  sand),  and  then  organic  sediments  (Trenton).  The 
earthy  limestones  of  the  Hudson  group  indicate  a shallowing  and  retreating 


■ 


. 


Geology  of  Erie  County. 


77 


sea,  an  approach  to  land  conditions,  and  the  completion  of  one  circle  of  depo- 
sition. These  strata  are  called  the  Lower  Silurian  series , and  of  these  the  two 
latter  are  of  interest  in  Ohio,  because  they  are  the  oldest*  rocks  exposed  in  the 
State.  They  are  brought  to  the  surface  about  Cincinnati  by  an  axis  of  up- 
heaval reaching  from  Nashville  to  Lake  Erie,  in  the  region  of  the  islands,  par- 
allel to  the  Alleghenies,  but  of  more  ancient  date.  They  contain  a large 
amount  of  bituminous  matter,  and  are  the  source  of  oil  and  gas.  In  boring 
for  natural  gas  at  Sandusky  the  Trenton  rock  was  reached  at  a depth  of  2,315 
feet 

The  rocks  next  above  the  Lower  Silurian  series  are  called  the  Upper  Silu- 
rian series.  They  have  been  most  carefully  studied  in  New  York,  where  they 
have  received  their  names.  The  first  is  the  Oneida  conglomerate,  a rock  com- 
posed of  coarse  materials,  conglomerate  and  sandstone,  and  marks  a period  of 
land  subsidence,  or  water  elevation,  which  apparently  involved  only  a portion 
of  the  continent,  and  during  which  a long  line  of  shore  was  thickly  overspread 
with  coarse  materials  torn  from  the  coast  by  shore  waves. 

On  this  conglomerate  lies  the  Medina  sandstone,  composed  of  sandstone 
and  shales,  having  a little  wedge-shaped  brachiopod  and  a sea- weed  as  its  most 
characteristic  fossils.  In  New  York  it  is  300  to  400  feet  thick.  It  thins  and 
becomes  finer  toward  the  west.  Its  prevailing  color  is  red.  It  has  been  found 
in  Northern  Ohio  in  boring  for  oil. 

Next  is  the  Clinton  group,  consisting  of  shales  and  limestones,  mixed 
mechanical  and  organic  sediments  and  containing  a peculiar  bed  of  iron  ore 
called  fossil  ore,  which  forms  a stratum  two  to  ten  feet  thick,  traceable  from 
Wisconsin  to  New  York,  thence  southward  to  Alabama.  In  Ohio  it  is  repre- 
sented by  a limestone  in  the  region  about  Cincinnati.  Where  most  calcareous 
it  contains  many  fossils,  the  most  interesting  of  which  are  two  graptolites,  the 
last  of  the  group  found  in  ascending  the  geological  column. 

We  now  come  to  a rock  composed  of  nearly  equal  masses  of  limestone 
and  shale,  and  forms  the  ledge  over  which  the  Niagara  River  pours,  and  is 
hence  called  the  Niagara  group.  It  is  not  exposed  in  this  county.  In  the 
southwestern  part  of  the  State  the  lowest  stratum  of  the  Niagara  is  known  as 
the  Dayton  stone,  one  of  the  best  building  stones  in  the  State.  It  underlies 
Chicago,  and  from  it  is  derived  “ Athens  marble.” 

In  Northern  Ohio  the  rock  overlying  the  Niagara  is  that  which  contains 
gypsum.  It  is  called  the  Salina  from  the  fact  that  it  is  the  source  of  the  salt 
obtained  at  Syracuse.  The  New  York  geologists  call  it  the  Onondaga  salt 
group.  It  is  composed  of  many  alternations  of  colored  marls  and  shales  and 
some  impure  limestones  containing  gypsum.  It  is  not  exposed  in  this  county. 
North  of  Sandusky  Bay,  in  Ottawa  county,  a bed  of  gypsum  is  worked  by  Mr. 
E.  H.  Marsh,  of  Sandusky.  The  gypsum  lies  covered  by  a few  feet  of  drift. 
In  boring  for  gas  at  Sandusky  gypsum  was  found  at  a depth  of  about  three 
11 


' 


I 


78  History  of  Erie  County. 

hundred  feet.  There  is  gypsum  on  the  lake  bottom  south  of  Put-in-Bay 
Island. 

Next  over  the  Salina  is  a group  of  rocks  that  form  a considerable  portion 
of  the  Helderberg  Mountains  in  New  York,  and  are  called  the  Helderberg 
group.  It  is  there  made  up  of  several  distinct  strata,  mostly  earthy  limestones. 
Its  lower  subdivision  is  the  water-lime.  It  may  be  identified  by  its  ever  pres- 
ent and  characteristic  fossil,  leperditia  alta.  The  water-lime  is  exposed  on  the 
peninsula  in  Ottawa  county,  and  forms  Put-in-Bay  and  other  islands  in  that 
vicinity. 

At  Castalia  a large  volume  of  water  flows  up  from  orifices  in  the  limestone 
rock,  called  Castalia  Springs.  It  maintains  an  equable  temperature  and  vol- 
ume throughout  all  seasons,  except  that  a protracted  drought  affects  its  vol- 
ume. The  water  is  highly  charged  with  lime,  and  incrusts  any  object  covered 
by  it,  and  has  deposited  a sheet  of  travertine,  over  a large  area  in  the  vicinity. 
The  subterranean  channels  of  the  stream  are  in  the  water  lime,  the  uppermost 
member  of  the  Silurian  system. 

This  group  forms  the  summit  of  the  Upper  Silurian  system  and  completes 
a circle  of  sediments  which  corresponds  with  that  of  the  Lower  Silurian.  The 
history  recorded  in  each  case  is  the  same : a submergence  of  such  portions  of 
the  continental  surface  as  now  carry  the  sedimentary  strata  enumerated ; in 
the  progress  of  each  submergence,  the  spread  of  shore  materials  over  all  the 
surface  covered  by  the  advance  of  the  sea;  this  sheet  being  followed  first  by 
mixed  mechanical  and  organic  sediments,  then  by  those  almost  purely  calca- 
reous deposits  from  the  open  ocean,  and  finally  earthy  limestones,  indicating  a 
retreating,  shallowing  sea,  and  a return  to  land  conditions,  during  which  no  de- 
positions would  be  made  on  the  surface,  but  which  was  the  necessary  starting 
point  for  a new  circle  of  deposits.  One  difference  in  the  sediments  of  these 
Silurian  oceans  is,  that  the  limestones  of  the  Trenton  group  are  nearly  pure 
carbonate  of  lime,  while  those  of  the  Niagara  series  (the  Clinton,  Niagara,  and 
water-lime)  are  highly  magnesian.  The  animal  life  of  the  two  seas  was  entirely 
different,  except  two  or  three  mollusks ; and  this  probably  is  the  reason  for  the 
distinctive  chemical  characters  exhibited  by  the  organic  sediments  of  these 
seas.  In  the  Silurian  rocks  we  find  a great  number  and  variety  of  the  lower 
order  of  animals  and  abundant  traces  of  marine  plants,  but  in  America  no  ver- 
tebrates and  no  land  plants  have  been  discovered  in  them,  while  in  Europe 
remains  of  both  land  plants  and  fishes  occur  in  the  rocks  of  the  Upper  Silurian. 

In  this  country  remains  of  fishes  are  first  met  with  in  the  Devonian  system 
of  rocks,  which  are  those  next  above  the  Silurian.  This  system  is  called  the 
age  of  fishes,  as  the  Silurian  is  the  age  of  mollusks.  The  name  Devonian 
comes  from  Devonshire,  England,  where  these  recks  are  prevalent.  They 
form  an  important  part  of  the  geology  of  our  country  and  of  the  world,  occu- 
pying a large  area  of  the  surface,  include  one  of  our  most  valuable  mineral 


Geology  of  Erie  County. 


79 


staples  (petroleum)  as  a characteristic  ingredient,  and  contain  many  strange 
forms  of  ancient  life. 

The  lowest  formation  of  the  Devonian  system  is  the  Oriskany  sandstone 
(so  named  from  a New  York  locality),  and  is  a coarse  mechanical  sediment.  A 
thin  belt  of  sandstone  seen  near  Castalia  and  on  the  peninsula  in  Ottawa  county 
is  the  equivalent  of  the  Oriskany. 

Over  the  Oriskany  is  a calcareous  sandstone  from  which  the  lime  is  dis- 
solved by  exposure,  leaving  it  a rough  porous  rock  resembling  the  Oriskany, 
but  containing  different  fossils.  It  is  called  the  Schoharie  grit.  It  is  not  found 
here.  > * 

The  most  interesting  member  of  the  Devonian  system  is  the  Corniferous 
limestone  — so  called  from  the  balls  of  hornstone  contained  in  it.  It  is  a mass- 
ive, calcareous  rock,  containing  a very  small  percentage  of  earthy  matter,  and 
abounding  in  fossils,  especially  corals,  which  in  some  places  may  be  regarded 
as  ancient  coral  reefs.  In  this  State  it  forms  two  belts  of  outcrops  on  opposite 
sides  of  the  Cincinnati  upheaval.  It  is  an  open  sea  deposit,  the  calcareous  cen- 
ter of  a group  of  sediments,  the  product  of  a great  submergence  in  the  Devon- 
ian age ; the  counterpart  in  its  general  features  to  those  which  are  found  in  the 
parallel  deposits  of  the  Upper  and  Lower  Silurian  series. 

The  fossils  of  the  Corniferous  are  very  numerous  and  of  unusual  interest,  the 
most  striking  being  the  remains  of  huge  ganoid  fishes,  similar  in  general  char- 
acter to  those  of  the  Old  Red  Sandstone  of  Scotland.  This  is  the  most  inter- 
esting and  important  rock  in  this  county.  It  is  the  rock  on  which  the  City  of 
Sandusky  stands,  and  that  which  forms  Marblehead  and  Kelly’s  Island. 

At  Sandusky  the  upper  layers  of  the  Corniferous  formation  are  composed 
of  a blue  limestone  of  from  twenty  to  t went}'- five  feet  thick,  and  is  known  to 
the  geology  of  the  State  as  the  Sandusky  stone.  It  is  largely  used  for  building 
and  flagging.  The  High  School  building  is  of  this  stone  and  numerous  other 
buildings  and  dwellings  in  the  city.  It  makes  an  excellent  flag-stone  but  long 
wear  renders  it  dangerously  smooth.  The  lime  industry  at  Sandusky  is  large. 
The  lime  is  made  from  the  lower  courses  of  the  Corniferous  exposed  at  Mar- 
blehead, and  is  burned  there  and  at  Sandusky.  This  stone  is  white  and  has  a 
larger  percentage  of  lime  than  even  the  Kelly  Island  stone,  which  is  the  same. 
The  white  limestone  lies  too  deep  at  Sandusky  for  economical  purposes. 

Overlying  the  Corniferous  is  a series  of  shales  and  limestones  called  the 
Hamilton  group.  In  Ohio  is  usually  a soft  blue  limestone.  In  this  county  it 
can  be  seen  at  Prout’s  Station  on  the  Baltimore  and  Ohio  Railroad.  It  under- 
lies a narrow  belt  of  territory  extending  southwesterly  from  the  lake  shore  at  a 
point  half  way  between  Sandusky  and  Huron  to  the  Lake  Shore  Railway,  be- 
tween Monroeville  and  Bellevue. 

The  Hamilton  is  overlaid  by  a great  mass  of  black  shales  called  the  Huron 
shales.  It  forms  the  banks  of  the  Huron  River  at  Monroeville  and  below.  It 


- 


8o 


History  of  Erie  County. 


can  be  seen  a few  miles  east  of  Sandusky  in  Huron  township,  on  the  Lake  Shore 
Railway  at  what  is  called  the  “Slate  Cut.”  In  some  places  it  is  interstratified 
with  clayey  matter.  It  is  highly  bituminous,  containing  about  ten  per  cent,  of 
combustible  matter.  From  this  bitumen,  by  slow,  spontaneous  distillation,  pe- 
troleum is  evolved,  and  flows  out  in  springs  at  a number  of  localities.  The  pro- 
cess of  distillation  also  gives  rise  to  gas  springs,  which  are  found  over  the  out- 
crop of  this  formation.  This  shale  in  some  places  contains  concretions  of  im- 
pure limestone,  seen  along  the  Huron  River  where  this  shale  forms  the  banks,, 
being  washed  out  by  the  action  of  the  water.  These  concretions  are  sometimes 
almost  absolutely  spherical.  Some  of  them  contain  the  bones  or  teeth  of  huge 
fishes.  The  Huron  shale  forms  a belt  of  outcrop  running  across  the  State  from 
the  lake  to  the  River  near  Portsmouth. 

Above  the  Huron  shale  lies  a series  of  green  and  blue  shale  called  the  Erie, 
the  lower  of  which  are  somewhat  interstratified  with  the  upper  Huron.  The 
Erie  shales  form  the  lake  shore  from  the  Pennsylvania  line  to  Erie  county.  It 
does  not  appear  further  west. 

We  now  reach  the  highest  group  of  rocks  found  in  the  State,  called  the 
Carboniferous  system,  because  it  holds  nearly  all  the  beds  of  coal  that  have 
been  worked  in  this  country  and  in  Europe.  We  have  in  this  county  only  the 
ower  strata  of  this  system,  called  the  Waverly  group,  the  lowest  of  which  is 
the  Cleveland  shale.  This  can  be  seen  in  the  banks  of  the  Vermillion  River. 
It  is  black  and  bituminous.  It  is  unusually  well  exposed  in  the  vicinity  of 
Cleveland,  whence  its  name.  In  its  lithological  character  it  is  hardly  to  be  dis- 
tinguished from  the  Huron  shale.  The  fossils,  however,  are  bones,  scales,  and 
spines  of  fish  of  small  size,  and  of  Carboniferous  types,  while  the  Huron  contains 
the  remains  of  fishes  of  enormous  size,  and  of  most  peculiar  structure,  and  such 
as  belong  to  the  forma  of  the  Old  Red  Sandstone. 

Next  above  the  Cleveland  shale  is  a bed  of  shale  sometimes  blue  or  banded 
in  color,  but  more  generally  red.  This  is  called  the  Bedford  shale,  and  is  con- 
spicuously shown  in  the  valley  of  the  Vermillion  River,  and  is  exposed  at  many 
places  in  this  section  immediately  underlying  the  Berea  sandstone.  It  serves 
as  an  important  guide  to  those  seeking  that  stone. 

The  Berea  sandstone  is,  geologically,  the  highest  stone  in  the  county,  the 
outcrop  of  which  enters  the  county  on  the  east  line  about  half  a mile  from  the 
lake  shore,  thence  it  sweeps  round  to  the  south  and  west,  passing  through  Ber- 
linville  and  a little  east  of  Norwalk.  Within  the  area  lying  south  and  east  ot 
this  line,  the  Berea  underlies  most  of  the  surface,  but  is  very  generally  covered 
and  concealed  by  the  drift  materials,  and  it  is  only  where  its  more  compact  and 
massive  portions  have  resisted  the  action  of  erosive  agents,  that  these  have  been 
left  in  relief — that  it  projects  above  the  surface.  The  hills  in  which  the  Am- 
herst and  Brownhelm  quarries  are  located,  and  the  elevation,  Berlin  Heights* 
are  all  masses  of  this  character.  They  were  once  bluffs  on  the  lake  shore,  aim 


. 

- 

• .... 


Geology  of  Erie  County. 


8i 


everywhere  show  marks  of  the  action  of  water  and  ice.  This  stone  is  largely 
quarried  in  the  county,  and  some  grindstones  are  made. 

Above  the  Berea  is  a limestone,  a conglomerate  and  the  coal  measures,  the 
balance  of  the  Carboniferous  system,  but  they  nowhere  appear  in  this  county 
— we  therefore  have  no  coal  in  this  county. 

We  have  no  representatives  in  this  State  of  the  age  of  reptiles,  the  periods 
of  which  are  Triassic,  Jurassic  and  Cretaceous.  They  are  found  in  some  parts 
of  the  continent. 

Above  these  are  formations  and  deposits  of  what  is  called  the  age  of  Mam- 
mals, consisting  of  two  periods,  the  Tertiary  and  Quaternary.  No  representa- 
tives of  the  former  are  found  in  the  State,  but  of  the  latter  we  have  abundant. 
They  consist  of  Glacial  Drift,  Erie  Clay.  Forest  Bed,  Iceberg  Drift,  Terraces 
and  Beaches. 

The  latter  period  presents  a complete  change  in  the  physical  condition  of  our 
continent,  and  apparently  of  the  whole  northern  hemisphere;  a change  not  ex- 
ceeded by  that  which  takes  place  upon  our  surface  in  the  alternation  from  mid- 
summer to  mid  winter.  We  have  evidence  that  during  what  is  called  the  Drift 
period,  the  climate  had  changed  from  that  of  an  all-pervailing  warmth  to  an 
arctic  cold.  While  in  the  Tertiary  the  climate  of  the  Southern  States  was  car- 
ried to  Greenland.  In  the  Drift  period  the  present  climate  of  Greenland  was 
brought  as  far  south  as  the  Ohio  River.  Greenland  is  now  nearly  buried  under 
snow  and  ice,  and  in  a large  part  of  the  coast,  access  to  the  interior  is  barred 
by  the  great  glaciers  which  flow  from  the  interior  to  the  sea.  Precisely  such 
must  have  been  the  condition  of  much  of  North  America  during  the  glacial  pe- 
riod, for  we  find  evidence  that  glaciers  covered  the  greater  part  of  the  surface 
down  co  the  latitude  of  about  forty  degrees. 

The  materials  known  as  the  Drift  deposits  are  beds  of  sand,  gravel  and  boul- 
ders, and  have  received  the  name  of  Drift,  because  they  have  been  transported 
or  drifted  from  their  places  of  origin. 

The  most  important  facts  which  the  study  of  the  drift  has  brought,  are  that 
in  most  localities  where  the  nature  of  the  underlying  rocks  is  such  as  to  retain 
inscriptions  made  upon  them,  the  upper  surface  of  these  rocks  is  planed,  fur- 
rowed or  excavated  in  a peculiar  and  striking  manner,  evidently  by  the  action 
of  one  great  denuding  agent.  Examples  of  this  planing  are  abundant  about 
Sandusky  and  on  the  islands.  A good  specimen  can  be  seen  at  Monk’s  ship- 
yard, and  almost  anywhere  where  the  upper  surface  of  the  coniferous  lime- 
stone is  exposed  at  Sandusky. 

Beneath  the  drift  deposits  the  rock  surfaces  are  in  many  localities  excavated 
to  form  a system  of  basins  and  channels,  often  cut  several  hundred  feet  below 
tne  lakes  and  rivers  that  now  occupy  them.  The  Vermillion  and  Huron  Riv- 
ers exhibit  this  phenomenon  and  prove  that  the  surface  of  the  lake  was  once 
at  least  one  hundred  feet  lower  than  now. 


82 


History  of  Erie  County. 


Upon  the  glacial  surface  are  found  unconsolidated  materials,  the  lowest  of 
which  is  blue  clays,  stratified  in  thin  layers  containing  no  fossils,  but  conifer- 
ous wood  and  leaves;  after  the  clay,  sand,  gravel  and  boulders  in  large  quan- 
tities were  transported  from  the  region  north  of  the  lakes  and  spread  over  a 
large  area  south  of  them  ; these  were  floated  to  their  places  by  ice  bergs. 

Following  the  water  period  ensued  an  era  of  continental  elevation,  which 
progressed  until  the  present  level  was  reached  and  the  drift  deposits  raised 
several  hundred  feet  above  the  ocean  level.  This  took  place  slowly  and  was 
marked  by  periods  of  repose.  In  these  intervals  of  rest  our  terraces  and  lake 
ridges  were  formed.  These  ridges  mark  old  shore  lines  — such  is  now  being 
formed  at  Cedar  Point.  The  “ridge  roads”  are  well  known  and  mark  the  lines 
of  the  principal  ridges.  No  boulders  are  found  on  the  ridges,  so  that  they  are 
of  more  recent  date  than  the  action  that  deposited  the  boulders.  In  some  of 
the  ridges  in  this  county  is  found  a yellow  sand,  light  and  loamy,  and  largely 
used  as  a moulding  sand. 

The  drift  deposits  have  been  removed  from  a great  part  of  Erie  county. 
In  the  southern  part  of  the  county  the  boulder  clay  is  found  covering  the 
rock  surface.  This  is  blue,  or  where  exposed  and  its  iron  oxidized,  reddish 
yellow  unstratified  clay,  thickly  set  with  angular  fragments  of  shale  taken 
from  the  lake  basin.  With  these  are  small  boulders  usually  ground  and 
striated,  derived  from  the  old  rocks  north  of  the  lakes. 

In  this  part  of  the  county  are  also  found  beds  of  sand  and  the  lake  ridges 
which  rest  on  the  boulder  clay.  These  ridges  are  the  effect  of  shore  waves 
and  are  old  beaches  formed  when  the  lake  stood  much  higher  than  it  does  now 
and  in  the  same  manner  that  Cedar  Point  sand  ridge  is  now  forming,  and 
which  will  ultimately  dike  out  the  lake.  The  part  of  the  county  north  of  the 
last  lake  shore,  which  is  the  ridge  at  Castalia,  and  thence  east  imperfectly  par- 
allel with  the  present  shore,  from  which  the  drift  has  been  removed,  is  covered 
by  a fine  sediment  mixed  with  vegetable  remains,  making  a remarkably  rich 
soil,  having  the  characteristics  of  the  prairie  soils  of  the  West. 

The  formation  of  the  lake  ridges  was  the  last  in  the  sequence  of  events 
which  make  the  history  of  our  surface  geology,  and  brings  us  down  to  the 
present  time,  which  seems  a period  of  rest ; but  every  day  sees  something 
taken  from  the  barrier  of  Niagara  and  at  no  distant  day,  geologically  speaking. 
Lake  Erie  will  have  shared  the  fate  of  all  lakes  and  have  been  drained  to  its 
bottom. 

The  solid  earth  under  our  feet  has  a history  as  well  as  the  people  who  have 
lived  on  its  surface.  We  learn  that  once  a great  part  of  this  country  was 
buried  under  ice  like  Greenland.  Earlier  still  it  had  jungles  of  palms  and 
other  tropical  plants  ; yet  further  back  it  lay  beneath  a wide  ocean  ; and  be- 
yond that  time  can  be  traced  many  still  more  remote  periods,  when  it  was 
forest-covered  land  or  wide  marshy  plains,  or  again  buried  under  the  great 


' 

:>£  bio  ^rii  i " 


Agriculture  of  Erie  County. 


83 


sea.  Step  by  step  we  may  follow  this  strange  history  backwards  and  with  as 
much  certainty  we  trace  the  doings  of  Julius  Caesar  or  William  the  Conqueror. 

Every  quarry  and  ravine  where  the  naked  rock  comes  to  view  offers  an 
attraction  if  we  seek  to  find  there  the  remains  of  some  of  those  lost  forms  of 
plants  which  covered  the  land  or  of  those  long  extinct  tribes  of  animals  which 
once  tenanted  the  sea.  These  fossils  will  become  not  mere  things  to  wonder 
at.  We  learn  what  they  most  resemble  in  the  present  living  world  and  will 
not  rest  content  until  we  have  seen  all  that  we  can  discover  of  the  light  which 
they  throw  upon  the  former  condition  of  the  district  in  which  we  find  them. 
Geology  thus  becomes  not  a task  to  be  conned  from  books,  but  a delightful 
companion  in  every  walk  and  ramble,  when  we  find 

“ Tongues  in  trees,  books  in  running  brooks, 

Sermons  in  stones  and  good  in  everything.” 


CHAPTER  XII. 

AGRICULTURE  OF  ERIE  COUxYTY. 

A GRICULTURE  is  the  pioneer  of  civilization.  It  levels  the  forest,  plants  its 
i 1 home  in  the  wilderness,  upturns  the  primal,  fertile  soil  of  the  prairie,  and 
makes  alike  the  “ wilderness  and  solitary  place  to  blossom  as  the  rose.”  But 
very  little  attention  has  been  paid  in  the  past  to  the  agricultural  history  of 
Erie  county.  A history  fragrant  with  noble  sacrifices,  privations  untold  and 
daring  heroic  deeds  unselfishly  performed  by  the  early  pioneers.  They  builded 
wiser  than  they  knew.  Their  wildest  dreams  could  not  have  pictured  the  ex- 
tent, the  grandeur  and  prosperity  of  the  agriculture  of  to-day.  The  crude  im- 
plements of  those  early  times,  the  wooden,  mold- board  plow,  the  sickle,  the 
flail,  the  scythe,  have  been  replaced  with  riding  silver  steel  plows,  the  self  binder, 
the  steam  thresher  and  mower  of  to-day.  The  log  house  has  long  been  a thing 
of  the  past,  and  in  its  stead  rises  the  stately  mansion  richly  upholstered  and 
furnished,  of  the  wealthy  farmers  of  this  age.  The  scrubby  live  stock  of  years 
ago  has  been  wonderfully  metamorphosed  into  sleek  Herefords,  creamy  Jer- 
5eys,  prancing  Hotspurs  and  black  shining  Berkshires  grunting  out  their  sat- 
isfaction at  the  present  state  of  things. 

The  improvement  in  the  farmer’s  home  life  has  been  still  more  marked  as 
the  grandest  result  of  this  new  order  of  things.  The  farmer  of  to-day,  for  at 
least  a part  of  the  year,  is  a man  of  leisure,  in  fact  he  is  becoming  a man  of  in- 


' 


d 


*4 


History  of  Erie  County. 


telligence.  He  reads  the  best  books  relating  to  his  calling,  the  daily  papers, 
the  leading  magazines  and  works  of  the  best  literature.  Through  the  Grange 
and  kindred  organizations  he  is  becoming  versed  in  parliamentary  law,  skilled 
in  expressing  his  thoughts  in  debate  and  fitted  for  the  highest  duties  of  citizen- 
ship. Life  means  much  more  to  him  than  to  father  and  grandfather  before  him. 
His  horizon  has  been  infinitely  expanded,  his  opportunities  for  improvement 
multiplied,  and  his  enjoyments  proportionately  increased. 

Erie  county  is  emphatically  calculated  for  every  variety  of  husbandry.  Its 
location  on  the  south  side  of  Lake  Erie  very  much  modifies  its  temperature, 
while  its  variety  and  fertility  of  soil  make  it  possible  to  cultivate  any  crop  or 
fruit  usually  raised  in  the  lake  regions,  with  quite  reasonable  hope  of  success. 

Beginning  at  the  lake,  the  limestone  crops  out  near  the  surface  and  the  soil, 
a rich,  black  loam,  is  admirably  adapted  for  wheat,  grapes  and  other  fruits.  A 
few  miles  south  a sandy  ridge  is  very  well  adapted  to  produce  potatoes  and  gen- 
eral farm  crops,  and  still  farther  south  the  rich  prairie  produces  corn,  oats, 
wheat  and  grass  in  native  luxuriance.  Erie  county  is  the  banner  wheat  county 
of  Ohio,  having  produced  in  one  year  an  average  yield  of  25.2  bushels  per  acre 
for  the  entire  wheat  acreage,  the  largest  yield  produced  by  any  county  in  the 
State.  Its  total  wheat  produced  that  year  was  657,100  bushels.  The  average 
crop  of  corn  aggregates  700,000  bushels,  and  oats  400,000  bushels.  Erie 
county  is  one  of  the  foremost  in  the  yield  of  potatoes,  ranking  fourth  in  the 
State  and  all  kinds  of  vegetables  grow  rankly.  It  has  over  4000  acres  in  orch- 
ards. Its  annual  apple  crop  in  fair  seasons  is  one  half  million  bushels.  Peaches 
are  a leading  fruit  crop.  The  grape  crop  is  second  only  to  one  county  in  the 
State  and  averages  about  four  million  pounds  annually,  while  its  wine  manu- 
facture has  reached  colossal  proportions.  Unsurpassed  shipping  facilities, 
thorough  cultivation,  a fertile  soil,  nearness  to  market,  make  the  farm  lands  of 
Erie  county  exceptionably  valuable. 

The  wooded  portions  of  the  county  have  not  materially  changed  in  the 
past  few  years.  There  is  a disposition  to  stay  the  farther  devastation  of  the 
forests.  Careful  underdraining  has  done  much  to  redeem  the  waste  places  ahd 
make  highly  profitable  farm  operations,  where  in  swales  and  low  swamps  mias- 
matic diseases  prevailed.  It  is  safe  to  say  that  one-half  of  the  farm  lands  of 
Erie  County  are  thoroughly  underdrained.  From  the  latest  statistics  at  our 
command  we  find  that  there  are  in  Erie  county  158,435  acres  of  farming  land 
exclusive  of  towns  and  villages;  at  seventy-five  dollars  per  acre  would  be 
worth  in  round  numbers  about  $12,000,000.  Number  of  horses  5781,  value 
$500,000  ; cattle  9476,  value  $190,000  ; mules  50,  value  $5,000  ; sheep  30,000, 
value  $90,000;  hogs  S943,  value  $50,000  ; carriages  1134,  value  $75,000; 
watches  446;  value  $10,000;  other  farm  property  $500,000. 

Let  us  look  a moment  at  the  productions  of  the  farm  lands  of  the  county 
for  1886.  Wheat,  247,824  bushels;  rye,  2,477  bushels;  buckwheat,  10,943 


»}s  >•  : Lr,  . 

. 


Agriculture  of  Erie  County. 


85 


bushels;  oats,  294,676  bushels  ; barley,  36,2 19  bushels  ; corn,  564,863  bush- 
els; butter,  394,117  pounds;  potatoes,  301,306  bushels,  ranking  third  county 
in  the  State;  apples,  76,749  bushels;  wool,  606,665  pounds;  eggs,  197,245 
dozen;  grapes,  2,571,045  pounds;  wine,  71,170  gallons  pressed.  While  the 
above  figures  are  not  absolutely  accurate  they  are  a close  approximation  to 
the  amount  of  farm  products  for  the  main  crops  for  the  above  named  year. 

agricultural  societies. 

Closely  identified  with  the  agricultural  prosperity  and  growth  of  the  county, 
are  the  different  farmers’  societies  that  have  had  a wonderful  influence  in  up- 
lifting and  elevating  the  masses  by  bringing  people  of  all  classes  together  and 
infusing  a spirit  of  mutual  dependence  and  interest  in  each  other.  Prominent 
among  these  is  the  Erie  County  Agricultural  Society. 

Its  history  properly  antedates  the  formation  of  Erie  county  it  having  been 
first  known  as  the  Huron  County  Agricultural  Society,  organized  in  June,  1833. 
We  have  before  us  an  exceedingly  interesting  manuscript  volume,  the  records 
of  the  Erie  County  Agricultural  Society  from  1833  to  1878.  To  its  pages  we 
are  largely  indebted  for  many  facts  in  the  early  history  of  the  society.  At  the 
time  mentioned  Huron  county  embraced  the  present  limits  of  Erie.  We  copy 
from  the  minutes  of  the  first  meeting:  “ In  pursuance  of  an  act  of  the  Legisla- 
ture of  the  State  of  Ohio,  passed  February  25,  1833,  to  authorize  and  encour- 
age the  establishment  of  agricultural  societies  in  the  several  counties  of  the 
State,  public  notice  is  hereby  given  that  a public  meeting  will  be  held  at  the 
court  house  in  Norwalk  on  the  last  Friday  of  June,  1833,  for  the  purpose  of 
organizing  an  agricultural  society  to  be  called  the  Huron  County  Agricultural 
Society.”  Accordingly  the  meeting  was  held  as  above  and  one  of  the  first,  if 
not  the  first  agricultural  society  in  the  State  was  organized  by  the  election  of 
the  following  officers  : Amos  Woodward,  president ; Timothy  Baker,  vice-pres 
ident ; Lemuel  Morse,  Levi  Barnum,  Lester  Cone,  John  Millen,  John  Fulton, 
Aaron  Corbitt,  Arunah  Eaton,  Wm.  P.  Mason,  Daniel  Beach  and  Charles  B. 
Simmons,  directors.  Eben  Boalt,  treasurer;  John  V.  Vredenburg,  corre- 
sponding secretary  ; Joseph  M.  Root,  recording  secretary. 

The  first  annual  fair  was  not  held  until  October  18,  1838  at  Norwalk.  We 
append  the  program  : “ The  Throne  of  Grace  was  first  addressed  by  the  Rev. 
Mr.  Higgins;  Agricultural  address,  by  F.  B.  Sturgis  Esq  ; awarding  premi- 
ums.” From  the  reports  of  the  latter  we  cannot  refrain  from  taking  a few 
items.  Best  acre  of  corn,  George  Powers,  sixty  three  bushels  shelled.  Best 
one-half  acre  of  potatoes,  John  D.  Allen,  one  hundred  bushels.  One  half  acre 
beets,  J.  V.  Vredenburg,  one  hundred  and  twenty-five  bushels.  Samuel  Pres- 
ton is  reported  to  have  raised  from  seven  square  rods  of  ground,  at  the  rate  of 
six  hundred  and  eighty-five  bushels  of  potatoes  per  acre.  We  find  first  pre- 
mium on  “ improved  cooking  stove  ” given  to  William  Gallup,  the  only  uten- 
12 


:r 


. 


86 


History  of  Erie  County. 


sil  of  any  kind  on  exhibition.  The  amount  in  premiums  offered  at  this  fair  was 
$70.  At  a meeting  of  the  Agricultural  Board,  December  14,  1838,  a propo- 
sition was  received  from  Licking  County  Agricutural  Society  to  send  delegates 
with  them  to  Columbus  for  the  purpose  of  organizing  a State  agricultural  so- 
ciety and  O.  Jenny  and  J.  V.  Vredenburg  were  sent  as  delegates. 

At  the  second  fair  held  at  Norwalk,  October  17,  1839,  $118  was  offered  as 
premiums,  and  at  the  end  of  the  year  sixty-seven  dollars  were  in  the  treasury. 
In  1840  $129  were  offered  as  premiums,  but  no  account  of  a fair  being  held  is 
given.  The  fair  for  1841  was  held  at  Norwalk,  November  2.  There  is  no 
record  of  any  fairs  being  held  in  1842-3-4-5-6  and  7. 

HURON  AND  ERIE  COUNTIES  AGRICULTURAL  SOCIETY. 

Agreeable  to  public  notices  in  the  newspapers  of  the  two  counties,  on  the 
I 5th  of  March,  1848,  the  above  society  was  organized  in  the  sheriffs  office  in  the 
court  house  at  Norwalk,  and  a constitution  adopted.  This;district  society  em 
braced  the  limits  of  Huron  and  Erie  counties.  In  the  spring  of  1838  the 
county  of  Erie  had  been  organized  from  the  northern  townships  of  Huron 
county.  The  complete  formation  of  Erie  county  as  it  now  is,  was  not  com- 
pleted until  1840.  Platt  Benedict  was  the  president  of  this  new  society,  Benj. 
Benson,  secretary,  and  Luke  S.  Stow,  of  Erie,  one  of  the  directors.  The  latter 
was  afterwards  one  of  its  efficient  secretaries.  It  held  its  first  fair  at  Norwalk, 
October  12,  1848.  This  new  district  society,  organized  from  the  two  counties, 
seems  to  have  been  heartily  supported  from  its  inception.  At  the  annual 
meeting  in  March.  1849,  officers  of  1848  were  re-elected  and  Andrew 
Ainsley,  of  Erie,  added  to  the  directors.  A premium  was  offered  for  the  best 
farm  essay  to  be  read  at  the  coming  fair,  an  example  worthy  to  be  com- 
mended to  our  fair  managers  now. 

This  fair  of  1849  was  held  at  Milan,  and  the  Press  said  : “ The  display  in 
all  the  departments  far  exceeded  any  previous  fair,  and  was  attended  by  at 
least  three  times  the  number  of  spectators.  It  is  pleasing  to  note  the  growing 
interest  manifested  in  agricultural  and  industrial  affairs,  and  we  confidently  an- 
ticipate the  day  when  Erie  and  Huron  counties  will  rival  in  their  efforts  those 
•of  any  other  in  the  State.”  In  competition  on  field  crops  the  following  yields 
were  reported  per  acre  : Wheat,  34J  bushels  ; corn,  135  bushels;  barley,  581- 
bushels;  oats,  65!  busheis  ; potatoes,  360  bushels.  In  1850  Philo  Adams,  of 
Erie,  was  president;  E.  M.  Barnum,  secretary,  and  Isaac  T.  Reynolds  one  of 
the  directors,  from  Erie.  The  time  of  holding  the  fair,  October  10  and  11,  at 
Norwalk.  The  number  present,  8,000.  One  of  the  best  points  made  by  the 
speaker  of  the  occasion,  who  gave  the  agricultural  address,  was  : **  That  the 
ulterior  object  of  these  annual  gatherings  for  competition  is  an  improvement  in 
the  breed  of  farmers — of  men.” 

In  1851  Philo  Adams  was  president,  I.  T.  Reynolds  vice-president,  and 


. 


. 


Agriculture  of  Erie  County. 


8; 


Luke  S.  Stow,  secretary.  The  fair  was  held  at  Milan,  October  8 and  9 ; the 
number  estimated  to  be  present,  10,000. 

The  fifth  annual  fair  was  held  at  Norwalk,  in  1852,  October  5,  6 and  7. 
The  members  of  the  society  numbered  at  this  time  800.  The  amount  re- 
ceived from  all  sources  $2,129.75  ; amount  expended  $1,083.53;  amount  on 
hand  at  end  of  fiscal  year  $1,046.22,  a very  good  financial  showing. 

At  the  annual  meeting  January  20,  1852,  two  resolutions  were  offered  to 
the  effect  that  the  connection  between  the  two  counties  in  this  society  be  dis- 
solved, and  that  the  Board  of  Managers  be  requested  to  settle  up  the  affairs  of 
the  society.  These  resolutions  were  referred  to  a committee,  and  the  commit- 
tee, at  a subsequent  meeting,  reported  adversely  and  the  resolutions  voted 
down.  The  fair  in  1852  was  held  October  5,  6 and  7,  at  Norwalk,  and  over 
$1,000  offered  as  premiums  on  a largely  increased  variety  of  articles.  The 
entries  numbered  700.  The  best  one  acre  wheat,  45-7  bushels;  one  acre  corn, 
101  bushels,  shelled  ; one  acre  oats,  74  bushels  ; one  acre  potatoes,  382  bush- 
els. No  manure  was  applied  to  the  soil  to  raise  any  of  these  premium  crops. 

In  1853  I.  T.  Reynolds  was  president,  L.  S.  Stow,  secretary,  and  the  fair 
was  held  at  Monroeville. 

The  seventh  and  last  fair  of  the  two  counties  jointly,  was  held  at  Norwalk, 
October,  1854,  and  like  its  predecessors  was  profitable  and  successful. 

At  the  annual  meeting  January  2,  1855,  after  a spirited  debate,  the  follow- 
ing resolutions  were  adopted  : 

Resolved , That  in  the  judgment  of  this  meeting  the  general  interests  of  ag- 
riculture will  be  best  promoted  by  the  existence  of  separate  societies  in  each 
of  the  counties  of  Huron  and  Erie. 

Resolved , Therefore,  that  with  a view  of  separate  organizations  in  these 
counties  this  society  be  dissolved  as  soon  as  the  financial  matters  can  be  closed 
up,  and  that  a committee  of  three  from  each  county  be  now  appointed  to  ad- 
just the  funds  belonging  to  the  society. 

A committee  was  appointed.  $511.10  was  the  amount  found  in  the  trea  - 
ury.  This  was  divided  according  to  the  population  of  each  county,  Huron 
county  receiving  $299.06,  and  Erie  county  $212.04. 

Thus  closed  the  pleasant  associations,  as  a society,  formed  through  seven 
years  of  intimate  labor  together,  years  that  had  seen  the  formation  of  the  so- 
ciety, its  unexpected  growth,  and  the  still  more  surprising  advancement  of 
agricultural  and  mechanical  industries.  The  separation  was  not  made  without 
pain,  for  the  annual  reunions  at  the  fairs  had  been  seasons  of  glad  fraternal 
greetings  and  pleasure.  The  ties  were  strong  that  mutual  friendship  and  labor 
had  woven,  and  united  the  two  counties  as  one  family. 

By  the  dissolution  of  the  old  society,  Erie  county  was  thrown  upon  her 
own  resources,  with  only  two  hundred  and  twelve  dollars  and  four  cents  in  her 
treasury.  It  seems  hardly  possible  that  the  Erie  County  Agricultural  Society 


- 


- 


88 


History  of  Erie  County. 


could  attain  to  its  present  gigantic  proportions  from  so  modest  a beginning- 
As  early  as  February,  1855,  immediately  following  the  dissolution,  we  find  the 
leading  spirits  of  agriculture  in  little  Erie  convened  at  Huron  to  organize  the 

ERIE  COUNTY  AGRICULTURAL  SOCIETY. 

A notice  had  been  published  in  the  three  newspapers  of  the  county  to  that 
effect.  I.  T.  Reynolds  was  called  to  the  chair,  and  Hon.  F.  D.  Parish  made 
secretary.  It  was  resolved  that  it  be  the  sense  of  this  meeting  that  it  is  expe- 
dient that  we  organize  an  agricultural  society  at  this  time.  Thirty-seven 
members  united  with  the  society  at  this  meeting  and  the  following  officers 
elected:  I.  T.  Reynolds,  president;  Harvey  Chase,  vice-president;  F.  D. 
Parish,  secretary  ; C.  N.  Ryan,  treasurer  ; B.  H.  Rogers,  J.  W.  Thompson,  A. 
W.  Prout,  sr.,  Elijah  Bemiss,  and  Elam  Ward,  directors.  The  following  pre- 
amble and  resolutions  will  show  the  spirit  of  the  meeting  at  this  time.  They 
were  severally  adopted,  viz.  : 

Resolved , That  our  board  of  directors  offer  no  premium  on  tobacco  or 
intoxicating  liquors. 

WHEREAS,  A well  directed  and  vigorous  system  of  agriculture  is  among 
the  indespensable  requisites  to  individual  and  national  prosperity  and  happi- 
ness, and  a thorough  knowledge  of  mechanics,  arts,  manufactures,  commerce, 
and  facilities  for  transportation  is  essential  to  the  life  and  progress  of  such  a 
system,  therefore  be  it 

Resolved , That  whatever  measures  tend  essentially  to  improve  the  quality 
or  to  increase  the  quantity  of  agricultural  productions,  or  to.  the  improvement 
of  stock,  to  increase  the  diffusion  of  the  knowledge  of  mechanics  and  commerce 
should  receive  the  constant  attention  of  the  entire  community,  and  “common 
interests  demand  common  efforts.” 

2.  That  we  regard  agricultural  societies  in  connection  with  public  fairs  as 
among  the  most  obvious  and  efficient  means  to  the  accomplishment  of  these 
ends. 

3.  We  deem  it,  therefore,  both  the  interest  and  duty  of  every  member  of 
the  community  to  lend  his  influence  and  contribute  his  show  to  add  to  the 
efficiency  and  to  extend  the  influence  of  such  societies. 

4.  We  commend  the  consideration  of  this  subject  to  our  fellow  citizens  of 
Erie  county  and  cordially  invite  them  to  become  members  of  this  society,  and 
invite  common  effort  to  secure  a common  good. 

A premium  list  embracing  every  form  of  industry,  was  carefully  prepared, 
aggregating  $700  to  be  awarded  at  the  first  annual  fair,  which  was  held  in 
Sandusky  and  was  a decided  success. 

The  fairs  for  1856—7-8-9  and  60  were  held  at  Huron,  she  having  in  1856 
at  the  annual  meeting  of  the  society  bid  $1,000  and  free  use  of  grounds  for 
five  years  against  the  offer  of  Sandusky  of  $850  and  free  use  of  grounds. 


Agriculture  of  Erie  County. 


89 


These  five  years  were  socially,  financially,  and  agriculturally  successful,  and 
the  good  people  of  Huron  did  all  in  their  power  to  make  these  public  gather- 
ings pleasant  and  profitable. 

At  the  annual  meeting  in  November,  i860,  it  was  voted  to  locate  the  fair 
for  five  years  at  Sandusky,  and  the  following  officers  elected : E.  Bemiss,  pres- 
ident; F.  D.  Parish,  vice-president;  C.  C.  Keech,  treasurer,  and  George  J. 
Anderson,  secretary;  Isaac  Fowler,  I.  T.  Reynolds,  William  H.  Crane,  Wil- 
liam D.  Lindsley,  C.  B.  Choate,  directors. 

During  the  war,  from  1861  to  1864,  no  fairs  were  held,  all  the  energies  of 
the  people  being  given  to  preserve  the  life  of  the  imperiled  nation. 

April  5,  1865,  a meeting  was  held  at  the  court-house,  Sandusky,  for  the 
purpose  of  reorganizing  the  Erie  County  Agricultural  Society.  The  officers 
elected  were  as  follows:  Hon.  F.  D.  Parish,  president;  W.  H.  Crane,  vice- 
president ; John  McKelvev,  secretary;  F.  W.  Coggswell,  treasurer;  and  C.  H. 
Botsford,  Luke  S.  Stow,  A.  W.  Prout,  sr.,  Samuel  Bemis,  Isaac  Fowler,  A. 
Hollister,  D.  C.  Richmond,  Calvin  Caswell,  Charles  Carpenter,  managers. 

A meeting  of  this  board  was  held  August  16,  1865,  and  a committee,  ap- 
pointed at  a preceding  meeting  to  locate  and  fit  the  grounds  for  holding  a fair 
in  1865,  reported  that  they  had  effected  a conditional  arrangement  for  secur- 
ing by  purchase  the  beautiful  grove  near  the  south  part  of  the  city  known  as 
the  Pierson  and  Ankeytell  lots,  containing  nine  acres  of  land,  for  the  sum  of 
$4,800,  and  for  the  sake  of  completing  the  purchase  the  committee  recommend 
the  plan  of  petitioning  the  county  commissioners  to  assist  the  society  by  appro- 
priating not  exceeding  five  thousand  dollars  for  the  purchase  of  said  lots. 

This  plan  met  with  the  unanimous  approval  of  the  board,  and  blank  peti- 
tions were  sent  to  all  the  townships  for  the  signatures  of  the  principal  tax- 
payers of  the  county.  It  was  stated  that  the  healthy  condition  of  the  county 
finances  would  warrant  this  appropriation.  The  petition  was  successful  and 
the  purchase  made  in  1866,  and  the  property  deeded — as  all  subsequent  real 
estate  of  the  society  was — to  the  county  commissioners. 

The  first  fair  was  held  on  these  grounds  October  17,  18  and  19,  1865,  and 
the  Northern  Ohio  Grape  Growers’  Association  was  held  on  these  grounds  at  the 
same  time.  In  1868  another  small  piece  of  ground  was  bought  to  enlarge  the 
track,  of  Jacob  Wintersteen,  for  $300,  and  in  1874  about  eleven  acres  more 
were  purchased  by  C C.  Keech  of  Jacob  Wintersteen  for  the  society  for 
? 15.000,  which  made  about  twenty  acres,  at  a cost  of  $20,100,  as  the  property 
of  the  society,  these  being  the  present  grounds.  Since  these  purchases  great 
improvements  have  been  made,  substantial  buildings  have  been  erected,  a fine 
tunnel  made  under  the  track,  grounds  thoroughly  underdrained,  and  a roomy 
amphitheatre  built,  making  the  grounds  second  to  none  in  the  State.  Total 
paid  for  land  and  improvements,  $39,964. 

It  is  not  the  purpose  of  this  sketch  to  follow  in  detail  further  the  magnifi- 
cent history  of  this  society  since  the  war  up  to  the  present  time.  The  same 


- 


. ‘ : 

■ 


90 


History  of  Erie  County. 


public  spirit  and  sacrifice  that  made  its  inception  possible  has  characterized  its 
friends  during  these  later  years,  and  though  its  early  promoters  have  mostly 
passed  away,  the  present  generation  has  taken  up  the  mantle  of  the  fathers 
and  are  looking  well  and  faithfully  to  its  interests.  Did  time  and  space  per- 
mit I would  like  to  write  of  the  past  and  present  workers  in  this  society — of  a 
Parish,  Reynolds,  Crane,  Bemiss,  Richmond*  Keech,  Milner,  Caswell,  Prout, 
Carpenter,  and  many  others  who  have  done  so  much  to  make  the  society  what 
it  is  to-day;  and  let  it  also  be  added  that  the  meed  of  praise  must  equally 
be  accorded  to  the  ladies  and  city  friends,  for  they  have  all  done  their  share  in 
making  the  work  of  the  society  a success.  Charles  H.  Rockwell  is  the  present 
president,  and  John  T.  Mack,  secretary,  (1888). 

For  a number  of  years  prior  to  1875  the  Erie  County  Farmers’  Club  and 
Horticultural  Society  flourished,  and  held  quarterly  meetings  in  different  parts 
of  the  county.  It  was  a literary  society,  and  discussed  topics  pertaining  to 
farm  life  and  fruits  and  flowers.  Colonel  D.  C.  Richmond  was  the  able  presi- 
dent and  its  moving  spirit. 

Farmers'  Insurance  Company. — June  28,  18 77,  the  Erie  County  Farmers’ 
Insurance  Company  was  chartered  and  organized.  This  is  a mutual  insurance 
company  on  the  assessment  plan,  and  has  now  nearly  $2,000,000  property  in- 
sured. It  is  purely  a farmers’  company,  as  its  name  implies.  Henry  Milner 
is  president,  and  Wells  W.  Miller,  secretary. 

Granges. — About  the  year  1874  the  Grange  movement  struck  Erie  county, 
and  four  granges  were  organized  in  Margaretta,  Milan,  Perkins  and  Berlin 
townships. 

Margaretta  Grange  No.  488,  Patrons  of  Husbandry,  was  organized  Janu- 
uary  30,  1874,  with  twenty-six  charter  members  as  follows  : E.  D.  Graves  and 
wife,  J.  B.  Witter  and  wife,  John  White  and  wife,  Calvin  Caswell  and  wife,  W. 

W.  Miller  and  wife,  E.  White  and  wife,  L.  S.  Graves  and  wife,  N.  E.  Prentice,. 
M.  F.  Brown,  J.  C.  Rogers,  O.  Brown,  E.  D.  White,  j.  Atwater,  D.  S.  Barber, 
S.  H.  Rogers,  R.  F.  Fowler,  J.  G.  Snowden,  T.  W.  McCarty  and  Levi  Cham- 
berlin. 

Its  present  membership  is  fifty,  and  its  present  officers  are  : W.  W.  Miller, 
master  ; L.  Billings,  overseer  ; B.  Beebe,  lecturer ; W.  H.  Havice,  steward ; 
S.  M.  Ray,  assistant  steward;  J.  B.  Witter,  chaplain  ; E.  D.  White,  treasurer; 
D.  S.  Barber,  secretary  ; E.  C.  Witter,  gate-keeper;  Mrs.  E.  A.  Beebe,  ceres ; 
Mrs.  W.  W.  Miller,  pomona;  Mrs.  G.  W.  Ray,  flora;  Mrs.  D.  D.  White,  lady 
assistant  steward. 

Milan  Grange  No.  342,  was  organized  January  6,  1874,  at  the  residence  of 

X.  M.  Hawley,  with  twenty-five  charter  members,  sixteen  gentlemen  and  nine 
ladies,  by  State  Deputy  Barrack.  The  first  officers  elected  were:  G.  B.  Jar- 
rard,  M. ; W.  W.  Moore,  O.  ; A.  W.  Hawley,  L.  ; E.  W.  Hughes,  S.  ; C.  C . 
Roscoe,  A.  S.  ; Reuben  Turner,  chap.  ; N.  M.  Hawley,  treasurer;  R.  X.  Wil- 
cox, secretary  ; Victor  Turner,  G.  K.  ; Mrs.  A.  W.  Hawley,  ceres;  Mrs.  Benj. 


■ 

> 


Agriculture  of  Erie  County. 


9i 


Wilcox,  pomona;  Mrs.  C.  C.  Roscoe,  flora;  Mrs.  E.  W.  Hughes,  L.  A.  S. 
Present  membership  thirty-eight. 

Perkins  Grange  No.  637,  was  organized  March  2,  1874,  with  thirty- five 
charter  members.  Since  its  organization  five  have  died.  Its  present  mem- 
bership is  thirty.  Its  present  officers  are : J.  D.  Parker,  M. ; A.  A.  Storrs,  O. ; 
J.  F.  Greene,  L.  ; Theron  Goodwin,  S.  ; C.  W.  Hill,  A.  S.  ; Henry  Jarrett, 
chap.;  W.  F.  Gurley,  sec’y;  Henry  Milner,  treas.  ; H.  C.  Norton,  G.  K.  ; 
Mrs.  C.  W.  Hills,  ceres  ; Mrs.  J.  D.  Parker,  pomona ; Mrs.  W.  F.  Gurley, 
flora;  Mrs.  Henry  Milner,  L.  A.  S. 

Berli7i  HeigJits  Grange  No.  345,  was  organized  in  the  town  hall  January  7, 
1874,  with  twenty-four  charter  members,  fourteen  males  and  ten  females;  J. 
W.  Barrack,  deputy,  officiating.  The  officers  elected  were:  Henry  Hoak,  mas- 
ter ; S.  O.  Kellogg,  overseer  ; L.  S.  Chapin,  lecturer  ; L.  B.  Chapin,  steward  ; 
A.  Pearl,  assistant  steward  ; James  Douglass,  chaplain  ; J.  M.  Stahl,  treasurer  ; 
J.  P.  Lesley,  secretary  ; G.  L.  Sands,  gate-keeper  ; Mrs.  H.  T Smith,  ceres  ; 
Mrs.  S.  O.  Kellogg,  pomona  ; Mrs.  J.  S.  Milkman,  flora  ; Mrs.  James  Doug- 
las’s, lady  assistant  steward. 

The  following,  by  Master  J.  M.  Stahl  of  Berlin  Grange — a history  of  the 
workings  of  Berlin  Grange — is  a fair  sample  of  the  history  of  other  granges 
of  the  county : 

“Much  interest  was  taken  in  the  new  organization,  and  the  membership  in  a 
short  time  began  to  rapidly  increase,  there  being  at  the  end  of  the  first  year 
sixty  members.  Meetings  were  generally  held  weekly,  and  many  lively  dis- 
cussions were  entered  into  on  the  various  topics  that  seemed  to  come  within 
the  sphere  of  grange  work. 

“The  purchasing  of  goods  at  wholesale  prices  was  much  discussed,  and  was 
made  the  leading  object  of  the  order,  though  nothing  much  was  done  prac- 
tically. When  the  first  year  closed  our  grange  was  considered  a success. 

“The  second  year  opened  with  high  spirits  and  a continued  increase  in 
membership.  Much  time  was  spent  in  discussing  methods  of  purchasing  and 
distributing  goods,  as  the  money  feature  of  the  grange  was  still  looked  upon  as 
its  main  object  and  attraction.  Some  few  goods  were  purchased  which  gen- 
erally gave  good  satisfaction,  but  as  there  was  no  convenient  place  to  store 
goods  the  transaction  was  attended  with  more  trouble  and  expense  to  those 
handling  them  than  the  profits  amounted  to.  A store  house  was  often  talked 
of,  but  never  was  made  a practical  reality. 

“At  the  end  of  the  second  year  our  grange  numbered  ninety-eight  mem- 
bers, nearly  all  in  good  standing.  Meetings  were  generally  well  attended,  but 
were  not  held  weekly  as  often  as  they  were  the  first  year.  The  social  feature 
began  to  be  looked  upon  as  the  leading  feature  of  the  grange.  An  organ  was 
purchased  and  music  became  a prominent  part  in  the  exercises  of  the  meet- 
ings. The  year  ended  as  it  began,  full  of  hope  and  interest ; and  so  far  as  the 
social  feature  was  concerned,  may  be  called  the  golden  year  of  the  grange. 


• HO"'-: 

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92 


History  of  Erie  County. 


“The  third  year  began  as  the  second  one  ended,  with  flying  colors  and  high 
aspirations  for  developing  the  social  faculties  of  the  farmer  and  raising  him  to 
a higher  plane  in  society. 

“At  this  time  our  ninety-eight  members  were  about  evenly  divided  between 
the  sexes,  and  also  between  old  people  and  young  people.  The  young  folks 
were  the  life  of  the  grange,  and  at  times,  under  the  inspiring  music  of  the  or- 
gan and  violins,  they  could  not  refrain  from  timing  the  music  with  their  feet. 
This  was  offensive  to  some  of  our  pious  church  folks,  and  with  due  deference 
to  their  feelings  the  dancing  was  stopped.  The  end  of  this  social  amusement 
was  the  end  of  the  great  interest  taken  in  the  meetings  by  the  young  people, 
and  one  after  another  dropped  out  until  our  membership  consisted  principally 
of  old  people. 

“The  purchasing  of  goods  at  wholesale,  by  our  grange,  proved  unsatisfac- 
tory, and  many  who  had  come  into  our  ranks  mainly  on  account  of  the  gain  in 
dollars  and  cents,  ceased  to  attend.  Hence  our  meetings  before  the  third  year 
closed  were  not  large  but  interesting  to  those  who  attended.  A paper  was 
started,  essays  written  and  read,  and  the  program  was  changed  from  meet- 
ings of  business  to  a school  for  the  attainment  of  that  knowledge  and  culture 
necessary  to  the  elevation  and  refinement  of  farmers  and  their  families.  Most 
of  the  then  active  members  held  that  the  gaining  of  knowledge  was  of  more 
value  and  a nobler  object  of  the  grange  than  the  saving  of  a few  dollars  and 
cents.  Hence  this  feature  was  for  some  time  held  to  be  the  grand  work  of  the 
order.  But  our  meetings  were  often  not  well  attended,  and  many  who  did  not 
attend  ceased  to  pay  dues;  but  none  were  dropped  for  non-payment  of  dues 
until  sometime  in  the  fourth  year. 

“Throughout  the  fourth  year  meetings  were  held  regularly  every  two  weeks, 
sometimes  well  attended,  but  generally  only  by  the  faithful  who  seemed  to  en- 
joy them  and  were  profited  by  attending.  Many  of  the  uninterested  were 
dropped  for  non-payment  of  dues  until  our  numbers  were  greatly  reduced. 
.Some  said  the  grange  was  dead ; others  said  it  was  not  dead,  and  never  would 
die.  And  this  condition  of  things  continued  for  some  years  ; sometimes  the 
interest  being  quite  lively,  and  then  again  less  interest  was  taken  and  the 
meetings  would  become  fewer  and  smaller. 

“At  the  present  time  we  number  forty-two  members  and  several  of  these 
are  not  in  good  standing.  But  we  have  some  twenty  or  twenty- five  members 
who  are  as  zealous  in  the  cause  as  when  the  grange  was  first  organized.  They 
see  the  necessity  for  a farmer’s  organization,  and  believe  that  there  can  be  no 
better  organization  than  the  grange.  When  all  other  classes  are  organized  to 
protect  themselves  and  to  facilitate  their  own  interests,  is  it  not  clear  that  if 
the  farmers  of  our  country  do  not  organize,  they  mu^t  go  to  the  wall  ? Is  it 
not  clear  that  surrounded  as  they  are  by  rings,  chartered  corporations  with 
special  privileges,  monopolies  and  trust  companies,  the  only  alternative  is  or- 
ganization or  servitude  ?” 


Military  History. 


93 


The  granges  in  the  county  are  now  all  in  a healthy  condition,  the  flow  and 
ebb  of  their  prosperity  are  passed,  and  they  are  now  upon  a solid  foundation 
and  have  come  to  stay. 

With  township,  county,  State  and  national  organizations,  working  in  har- 
mony and  unitedly  for  the  bettering  of  the  condition  of  the  farm  masses,  it  is 
the  only  hope  or  bulwark  against  the  aggressions  of  monopolies,  trusts  and  ex- 
tortion of  other  organizations  detrimental  to  the  farmers’  interests.  Its  social 
feature,  its  literary  culture,  its  helpfulness  against  the  isolation  of  farm  life,  and, 
best  of  all,  the  fraternal  brotherhood  and  sisterhood  it  engenders,  are  necessary 
to  the  farmer  who  would  keep  his  occupation  abreast  in  all  respects  to  the 
other  industrial  occupations  of  the  age.  No  Pomona  or  County  Grange  as 
such  has  ever  been  organized  in  the  county,  but  the  granges  meet  quarterly, 
together,  and  thus  keep  alive  a feeling  of  union  and  fraternity  with  each  other. 
Mrs.  H.  C.  Norton  is  now  the  State  deputy’master  of  the  county. 


CHAPTER  XIII. 

MILITARY  HISTORY  OF  ERIE  COUNTY. 

FROM  the  time  oPthe  close  of  the  war  of  1812,  Erie  county  cannot  be  said 
to  have  possessed  or  acquired  much,  if  any,  military  history  until  the  out- 
break of  the  war  of  1861-5,  which  event  all  historians  are  agreed  in  terming 
the  “ War  of  the  Rebellion.”  During  that  war  the  county  most  certainly 
made  a record  in  history,  and  a most  glorious  and  enviable  record  it  was,  for, 
with  a population  in  1861  of  less  than  twenty-five  thousand  souls,  she  sent  into 
the  various  branches  of  the  military  service  from  seven  to  nine  per  cent,  of  her 
people,  or  from  seventeen  hundred  to  nineteen  hundred  men. 

But  the  military  history  of  the  county  commenced  with  the  time  that  that 
intrepid  band  of  twenty  men  met  and  formed  a company  for  defense  against 
the  murderous  depredations  of  the  Indians  during  the  early  part  of  the  war  of 
1812-15.  This  company  was  known  as  the  “ Rangers,”  and  was  organized  at 
Huron.  Their  conflicts-at-arms  seem  to  have  been  confined  substantially  to 
the  affair  with  the  savages  on  Bull  Island,  in  which  the  red  foe  was  defeated 
and  utterly  put  to  rout  by  the  Rangers.  Of  this  engagement  there  is  no  well 
authenticated  written  history,  but  traditional  history  never  underestimates  the 
magnitude  of  any  event.  This  subject  is  elsewhere  fully  discussed. 

Then,  again,  there  was  the  citizen  soldierv,  whose  greatest  battles  were 
fought  and  victories  won  on  “ general  training”  day  — the  day  of  all  days  in 
pioneer  times,  and  second  not  even  to  the  4th  of  July.  But  it  was  in  the  mili- 
13 


hi  3fij  nr  b :.*:T  jrn  srif 


94 


History  of  Erie  County. 


tia  training  school  that  was  educated  many  of  the  most  efficient  soldiers  of  the 
late  war,  and  it  does  occasionally  seem  that  the  government  of  the  several 
Northern  States  must  have  had  some  premonitory  warning  of  an  impending 
struggle,  for  as  early  as  1850,  in  many  of  the  States  there  was  required  to  be 
enrolled  the  names  of  all  men  fit  for  military  duty,  and  it  was  these  and  the 
young  men  of  i860  that  made  up  the  flower  of  the  Union  army. 

As  early  as  the  year  1832  John  N.  Sloam,  then  an  enterprising  merchant 
of  Sandusky,  was  commissioned  lieutenant-colonel  of  the  First  Light  Infantry 
Battalion,  Second  Brigade  and  Third  Division.  After  this  time,  and  while  the 
people  of  the  county  were  engaged  in  the  arts  of  peace,  they  were,  uncon- 
sciously, perhaps,  preparing  for  war.  Various  portions  of  the  county  had  their 
representative  companies. 

In  Sandusky  many  of  the  older  people  will  remember  the  days  of  glory 
of  the  Bay  City  Guards,  an  organization  formed  in  1851,  and  under  the  com- 
mand of  Captain  R.  R.  McMeans,  a physician  of  the  city ; the  Sandusky  Fly- 
ing Artillery,  A.  Silva,  commandant;  the  Yaeger  Rifle  Company,  L.  Traub, 
commanding,  and  others,  perhaps,  whose  greatest  victories  were  achieved 
among  the  fair  sex. 

But  there  came  a time,  a few  years  later,  when  these  had  an  opportunity  of 
exhibiting  their  valor  upon  the  bloody  fields  of  battle  from  the  first  Bull  Run 
to  the  Appamattox ; from  the  State  of  Pennsylvania  to  the  Gulf  of  Mexico. 

When,  on  that  fateful  morning  of  April,  1861,  there  appeared,  in  answer  to 
Moultrie’s  guns,  upon  our  political  horizon  the  words  “ Civil  War,”  the  sturdy 
men  of  Ohio  were  at  once  to  the  fore,  and  from  that  day  to  the  time  that  Lee 
yielded  to  that  old  hero,  “ Unconditional  Surrender”  Grant,  this  State  was  sel- 
dom behind  her  quota.  Let  us  see  what  Ohio  did  during  this  four  years  of 
internecine  strife. 

Upon  the  authority  of  Mr.  Reid  it  may  be  stated  that  under  Mr.  Lincoln’s 
call,  on  April  15,  1861,  for  75,000  men,  Ohio  furnished  12,357  ; July  22,  1861, 

84,116;  July  2,  1862,  58,325;  August  4,  1862,  (nine  months’  men); 

June  15,  1863,  2,736  (militia) ; October  17,  1863,  3 2,837;  March  14,  1864, 
29,931;  April  22,  1864,  36,254  (one  hundred  days’  service);  July  18,  1864, 
30,823  ; December  19,  1864,  23,275.  In  all  Ohio  furnished  under  these  sev- 
eral demands  for  men  an  aggregate  of  310,654  men,  while  her  total  quota 
amounted  to  306,322  men. 

The  fact  appears  that  the  county  of  Erie  was  represented  by  men  in  no  less 
than  thirty  different  regiments,  although  the  number  in  each  averaged  consid- 
erably less  than  one  hundred.  Among  these  were  some  of  the  most  daring 
fighters  in  the  service. 

To  the  military  history  of  Erie  county  there  attaches  an  additional  interest 
from  the  fact  of  Johnson’s  Island  having  been  made  a national  depot  for  the 
detention  of  captured  rebel  officers.  This  island  is  not  a part  of  Erie  county. 


. 


■ 


: 


■ 


Military  History. 


95 


but  Sandusky  seems  to  have  been  the  central  and  prominent  point  and  the  base 
of  all  operations  on  the  island.  From  here  all  prisoners  were  placed  on  boats 
and  conveyed  to  the  island,  and,  furthermore,  all  supplies  were  obtained  here- 
The  establishment  of  a prisoner’s  depot  on  Johnson’s  Island  was  brought  about 
through  the  energy  and  exertions  of  a few  of  the  leading  business  men  of  San- 
dusky, who  at  once  saw  that  such  a station  would  be  of  great  value  to  trade  in 
the  city,  and  that  the  officers’  quarters  would  be  in  and  about  the  town  rather 
than  on  the  island. 

The  officer  of  the  war  department  to  whom  was  entrusted  the  duty  of 
selecting  a site  for  the  depot  was  inclined  to  favor  Detroit,  and  came  to  this 
city  mainly  in  fulfillment  of  a duty  and  not  that  he  desired  to  locate  the  place 
of  detention  here  ; but  the  business  men  accorded  him  such  a warm  reception, 
and  showed  a willingness  to  give  the  enterprise  such  substantial  aid  that  the 
agent  could  not  well  do  otherwise  than  accept  the  offers  made  him. 

The  guarding  force  for  this  important  point  was  made  up,  in  the  main,  of 
Ohio  troops,  prominent  among  which  was  the  One  Hundred  and  Twenty- 
eighth  Regiment ; therefore  the  history  of  that  regiment,  a portion  of  which 
was  from  Erie  county,  is  closely  associated  with  the  events  that  transpired  dur- 
ing the  occupancy  of  the  island  for  the  purposes  stated,  and  will  be  written  in 
connection  therewith.  A still  greater  interest  and  importance  was  given  this 
locality  during  the  years  of  the  war,  through  the  exploits  of  John  Yates  Beall, 
who  made  a fruitless  attempt  to  rescue  the  prisoners  on  the  island,  which  at- 
tempt will  be  found  detailed  in  these  pages,  together  with  an  account  of  the 
execution  of  that  daring  young  officer. 

For  the  following  account  of  the  history  of  the  Johnson’s  Island  Prisoners’ 
Depot,  and  the  One  Hundred  and  Twenty-eighth  Regiment  we  are  indebted 
to  the  work  entitled  “ Ohio  in  the  War,”  edited  by  Mr.  Whitelaw  Reid,  now 
of  the  New  York  Tribune.  The  narrative  was  compiled  and  written  so  soon 
after  the  close  of  the  war  that  it  is  doubtful  whether  any  additional  facts  can 
be  stated,  even  at  this  time  ; therefore  we  copy  literally  from  Mr.  Reid,  grant- 
ing him  full  credit  for  the  original  production. 

“The  One  Hundred  and  Twenty-eighth  Ohio,  although  chiefly  occupied  in 
guard  duty  within  the  borders  of  the  State,  was  an  organization  of  three 
years’  troops,  enlisted  and  mustered  into  the  United  States  service,  the  same 
as  other  volunteer  troops,  and  was  liable  to  service  wherever  required.  It 
attained  minimum  strength  on  the  25th  of  December,  1863,  and  consisted  of 
four  companies,  before  known  as  the  * Hoffman  Battalion,’  raised  at  different 
times  in  1862.  At  and  before  the  time  of  forming  the  regiment  the  Hoffman 
Battalion  was  under  the  command  of  a lieutenant-colonel  and  major.  Six  new 
companies  were  mustered  in  at  Camp  Taylor,  near  Cleveland,  between  the  8th 
and  15th  of  January,  1864.  The  four  old  companies  had  been  on  duty  at 
Johnson’s  Island  nearly  all  the  time  since  their  muster-in,  but  had  frequently 


■ 

■ 

1 y • (1 


96 


History  of  Erie  County. 


furnished  detachments  for  service  elsewhere,  including  a short  and  very  active 
campaign  in  pursuit  of  rebel  troops  in  West  Virginia,  in  1862. 

“The  One  Hundred  and  Twenty-eighth  having  been  chiefly  occupied  at  the 
frontier  posts  of  Johnson’s  Island  and  Sandusky,  its  service  necessarily  involves 
much  of  the  military  history  of  these  posts,  and  can  better  be  understood  by 
giving  a brief  synopsis  of  that  history. 

“ Early  in  1862  Johnson’s  Island  became  a depot  exclusively  for  rebel  offi- 
cers who  were  held  as  prisoners  of  war. 

“The  records  of  the  post  show  the  strength  of  the  prisoners  in  1862  as 
follows:  Average  for  April,  444;  for  May,  1,074;  average  for  June,  1,105; 
July  31,  1,149;  August  31,  1,452 ; exchanged  September  I,  1, 123 ; average  for 
September,  595  ; aggregate  October  31,  893  ; aggregate  November  30,  295  ; 
aggregate  December  31,  209. 

“ It  should  be  remembered  that  a cartel  for  a general  exchange  of  prison- 
ers of  war  had  long  been  expected,  and  was  finally  agreed  upon  July  22,  1862. 
Under  that  cartel  and  special  arrangement  exchanges  went  on  until  July,  1863, 
and  a continuance  was  expected.  This  expectation,  with  the  belief  of  general 
loyalty  in  the  north,  and  the  want  of  help  in  Canada,  had  their  legitimate  influ- 
ence on  the  prisoners,  and  undoubtedly  prevented  efforts  at  outbreak  and  re- 
sistance until  late  in  the  fall  of  1863. 

“The  number  of  prisoners  of  war  at  the  depot  during  1863  will  be  sufficient- 
ly understood  from  the  following:  January  31,  308;  February  28,  347;  March 
31,  105;  April  20,  59;  May  31,  40;  June  3Q,  806;  July  31,  1668;  August 
31,  1,817;  September  30,  2,155  ; October  3 1,  2,156 ; November  30,  2,381; 
December  31,  2,623. 

“ In  the  spring  and  summer  of  1862  the  garrison  on  the  island  was  strength- 
ened by  one  company  of  the  Sixty-first  Ohio,  relieved  by  one  company  of  the 
Eighty-eighth.  The  stoppage  of  exchanges,  followed  by  the  assembling  of 
considerable  forces  from  the  rebel  army  and  navy  in  Canada,  and  the  machin- 
ations of  disloyal  organizations  in  Ohio,  Indiana  and  elsewhere  known  to  in- 
tend to  rescue  these  prisoners  with  attendant  devastations  on  the  lake  towns 
and  commerce,  showed  these  posts  to  be  unsafe  without  considerable  rein- 
forcements. Six  companies  of  the  Twelfth  Ohio  Cavalry  (dismounted),  with 
the  Twenty-fourth  Battery  (six  guns),  and  two  detachments  of  the  First  Ohio 
Heavy  Artillery  (with  seven  heavy  guns)  were  sent  to  the  island  early  in  No- 
vember, 1863,  followed  promptly  by  the  Forty- ninth  and  Fiftieth  Regiments 
of  the  National  Guard  and  a Pennsylvania  Battery.  The  Forty-ninth  and 
Fiftieth  remained  only  eight  or  ten  days,  and  the  Pennsylvania  Battery  was 
soon  relieved.  The  other  troops  remained  ail  winter. 

“The  First  Brigade,  Third  Division,  Sixth  Corps,  including  five  regiments, 
attended  by  two  brigadier-generals  from  the  Army  of  the  Potomac,  reached 
Sandusky  on  the  13th  of  January,  1864.  Four  of  the  regiments,  with  General 


. 

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Military  History. 


97 


Shaler,  were  stationed  on  the  island.  The  other  regiment,  with  General  H.  D. 
Terry  commanding  the  whole,  was  at  Sandusky.  They  all  remained  until 
April  14,  1864,  when  three  regiments  under  General  Shaler  left  to  rejoin  the 
Sixth  Corps.  The  Twenty-fourth  Battery  was  stationed  in  Sandusky,  and  the 
six  cavalry  companies  left  for  Camp  Dennison  in  March.  Soon  after,  the  six 
new  companies  of  the  Twenty-eighth,  pursuant  to  orders  from  Washington, 
were  moved  to  Sandusky,  and  on  the  14th  of  April,  1S64,  with  the  colonel, 
were  stationed  on  the  island.  The  whole  regiment  was  thus,  for  the  first  time, 
assembled  as  one  command. 

“On  the  8th  of  May,  1864,  Colonel  Hill,  of  the  One  Hundred  and  Twenty- 
eighth,  succeeded  General  Terry  in  the  command,  and  the  two  remaining  reg- 
iments from  the  Sixth  Corps  moved  off  to  rejoin  that  corps.  On  the  12th  of 
July,  1864,  the  detachments  from  the  First  Heavy  Artillery  returned  to  their 
regiment,  and  on  the  7th  of  August  following  the  Twenty-fourth  Battery  left 
for  Chicago.  Other  troops  came  to  the  island  and  departed  as  follows : May 
II,  the  One  Hundred  and  Seventy-first  Ohio  National  Guard;  it  left  June  9 
for  Cleveland  and  Kentucky;  returned  June  20  much  reduced,  eight  of  the 
companies  being  then  paroled  prisoners,  not  subject  to  duty  ; they  were  mus- 
tered out  August  20.  The  One  Hundred  and  Thirtieth  National  Guard  re- 
ported for  duty  May  21,  and  left  June  6.  The  One  Hundred  and  Sixty-fifth 
Ohio  National  Guard  (five  hundred  and  forty- nine  men)  reported  for  duty  May 
21,  and  left  July  16.  The  Eighth  Battery  Ohio  National  Guard  reported 
September  22,  and  left  October  19,  and  was  succeeded  by  the  Second  Battery 
Ohio  National  Guard,  which  left  November  2 6.  These  National  Guard  troops 
were  sent  to  the  island  chiefly  as  a place  of  rendezvous,  equipment  and  in- 
struction preparatory  to  service  elsewhere.  On  the  24th  of  September  the 
Sixth  Veteran  Reserve  Corps  (five  hundred  and  sixty -three  men)  from  Wash- 
ington, reported  for  duty. 

“The  One  Hundred  and  Twenty-eighth  from  the  time  its  being  first  assem- 
bled on  the  island  was  kept  under  strict  drill  and  discipline. 

“The  condition  of  the  island,  and  of  the  docks,  roads  and  barracks  upon  it 
required  heavy  details  of  working  parties  to  open  ways  of  communication  for 
defense,  complete  and  improve  the  quarters,  enlarge  the  prison  grounds  and 
accommodations,  and  improve  the  sanitary  condition  of  the  island,  which  had 
been  much  neglected  for  many  months. 

“The  strength  of  the  One  Hundred  and  Twenty-eighth,  present  for  duty 
from  early  in  May  until  late  in  the  fall,  was  much  reduced  by  detachments 
sent  off  by  order  of  the  commandants  of  the  department,  and  kept  away  for 
long  periods,  so  that  on  account  of  absent  detachments  and  heavy  details  for 
special  duty  and  necessary  working  parties,  the  guard-duty  became  very 
severe ; often,  and  for  considerable  periods,  requiring  the  majority  of  the  men 
remaining  for  that  service  to  go  on  guard  every  other  day. 


* 


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98 


History  of  Erie  County. 


“The  number  of  prisoners  of  war  confined  on  the  island  during  the  year 
1864  ranged  as  follows,  varied  chiefly  by  new  acquisitions  and  special  ex- 
changes: January,  31,  2,603;  February  29,  2,206;  March  31,  2,192;  April 
30,  2,088  ; May  31,  2,134;  June  30,  2,309  ; July  3 1,  2,441  ; August  31,  2,- 
556;  September  30,  2,663  ; October  ,3 1,  2,621  ; November  30,  2,747 ; De- 
cember 3 1,  3,209. 

“ From  the  foregoing  tables  it  appears  that  the  average  strength  of  prison- 
ers for  the  different  years  was  as  follows:  Average  for  1862,  788  ; 1863,  1,205  i 
1864,  2,480. 

“In  1865,  until  discharges  on  oath  of  allegiance  or  parole  became  more 
numerous,  following  the  surrender  of  Fee’s  army,  the  number  of  prisoners 
ranged  considerably  higher,  and  excepting  about  one  hundred,  they  were  all 
officers  of  the  rebel  army  and  navy,  of  all  grades,  from  second  lieutenant  to 
major-general. 

“ Here  were  officers  enough  for  an  army  and  navy  of  eighty  thousand  men. 
They  were  within  a short  distance  of  the  Canada  main,  and  still  nearer  to  a 
Canada  island.  The  prevailing  sympathy  in  Canada  was  largely  in  favor  of 
the  rebels ; and  their  every  facility  and  encouragement,  short  of  direct  par- 
ticipation in  our  war,  was  extended  to  the  large  rebel  force  from  the  rebel  army 
and  navy  maintained  in  Canada  to  effect  a rescue  of  these  rebel  officers.  If  by 
such  efforts  war  should  be  brought  on  between  the  United  States  and  England 
a great  point  would  be  gained  by  the  rebels.  No  other  depot  of  prisoners 
of  war  was  on  a frontier  or  exposed  like  this.  During  the  season  of  naviga- 
tion it  could  be  reached  from  Canada  in  a few  hours’  night  run,  and  during  the 
winter  season  men  and  teams  could  conveniently  cross  the  lake  from  island  to 
island,  not  over  five  miles  of  ice  intervening  in  any  place.  During  the  season 
of  ice  the  location  of  the  depot  of  prisoners  practically  ceased  to  be  an  island. 
The  capture  of  that  depot  or  the  rescue  of  the  prisoners  confined  there,  would 
not  only  be  of  immense  advantage  to  the  rebel  cause  and  give  them  great 
eclat,  but  would  be  a deep  humiliation  to  our  government  and  people,  and 
would  almost  certainly  be  attended  by  attacks  upon  our  lake  commerce  and 
devastation  upon  our  lake  towns.  The  rebel  officers  confined  at  the  island  had 
a large  range  of  acquaintances  and  friends  in  the  loyal  States.  For  them  the 
rebel  emissaries  traveling  in  those  States,  and  the  secret  orders  known  as  the 
* Knights  of  the  Golden  Circle  ’ and  ‘ Sons  of  Fiberty,’  had  an  especial  sympa- 
thy, and  were  anxious  to  aid  them  by  means  of  rescue,  or  with  places  of  refuge 
and  concealment.  They  had  the  means  of  knowing  each  other.  These  facts, 
with  the  difficulty  about  exchanges,  stimulated  machinations  for  rescue,  front 
and  rear,  and  kept  the  prisoners  constantly  on  the  qni  vive,  ready  for  any 
desperate  adventure  until  after  the  fall  of  Petersburg.” 

It  appears  that  there  was  but  a single  well  organized  attempt  to  effect  a 
rescue  of  the  prisoners  on  Johnson’s  Island,  and  that  attempt  was  made  in  the 


■ 


. 

,v,  ; - 


Military  History. 


99 


month  of  September,  1864,  although  prior  to  that  it  was  well  known  that  the 
Canadian  side  of  the  lake  swarmed  with  agents  of  the  rebel  government  and 
sympathizing  residents,  subjects  of  England,  who  were  ever  willing  to  lend  aid 
to  the  Confederate  cause  in  an  under-handed  manner,  but  were  not  so  willing 
to  participate  in  open,  warlike  hostilities. 

The  plan  of  rescue  that  led  to  the  open  attempt  on  the  19th  of  September 
was  conceived  by  John  Yates  Beall.  He  was  to  conduct  the  operations  from 
the  Canada  side  while  one  Cole  was  entrusted  with  the  work  of  gaining  the 
confidence  of  the  officers  at  Sandusky,  and  particularly  of  the  commanding 
officers  of  the  gun-boat  Michigan , that  lay  in  the  waters  of  Sandusky  Bay  in 
the  immediate  vicinity  of  the  island.  The  Michigan  was  the  only  government 
boat  then  acting  in  the  defense  of  the  island,  and  with  an  ample  crew  of 
marines,  and  her  eighteen  guns  she  could  repel  any  attack  that  might  be  made, 
especially  when  acting  in  conjunction  with  the  guard  force  of  infantry  and 
artillery  on  the  island  and  at  Sandusky.  The  first  step,  therefore,  in  accom- 
plishing the  main  undertaking  was  to  obtain  control  of  the  boat,  and  this  was 
the  part  of  the  programme  assigned  to  Cole.  He  is  well  remembered  by  many 
of  the  present  residents  of  Sandusky  as  an  active  and  energetic  fellow,  possess- 
ing education  beyond  the  average,  a fine  conversationalist,  and  a royal  enter- 
tainer. He  made  a prodigal  use  of  his  money,  with  which  commodity  he  ap- 
peared to  be  abundantly  supplied.  He  dined  and  wined  the  officers  of  the 
Michigan  and  sought  to  ingratiate  himself  wholly  in  their  favor.  But  in  the 
chivalrous  acts  of  this  daring  young  fellow  he  rather  overdid  the  matter,  and 
Yankee  cunning  proved  more  than  a match  for  his  arts.  When  he  thought  he 
had  the  officers  just  about  where  he  wanted  them  the  picture  reversed,  and  the 
officers  had  Cole  just  where  they  wanted  him,  and  he  fell  a prisoner  into  their 
hands  and  custody. 

Cole  arranged  a wine  party  at  the  time  that  affairs  were  expected  to  cul- 
minate, and  the  liquor  was  heavily  drugged,  but  the  officers  never  partook  of 
his  bounty,  and  instead  of  their  falling  victims  to  his  plans  he  himself  fell  into 
theirs. 

The  plans  of  Beall  were  equally  well  formed  but  through  the  failure  of  Cole’s 
were  also  futile  so  far  as  carrying  out  the  main  effort  was  concerned.  Beall, 
with  a few  rough  characters,  took  passage  on  the  steamer  Philo  Parsons , as 
that  boat  was  making  her  passage  between  Detroit,  the  islands  and  Sandusky, 
and  at  Malden,  in  Canada,  twenty  other  men  also  came  on  board  having  as 
^aggage  a heavy  and  well  bound  box.  This  was  not  an  unusual  circumstance 
and  nothing  was  thought  of  it.  After  passing  from  the  landing  place  at  Kel- 
ley’s Island  the  men  approached  the  clerk  of  the  boat,  who  in  the  absence  of 
the  captain  seems  to  have  been  in  command,  and  with  revolvers  pointed  at  him 
demanded  a surrender.  The  others  at  once  opened  the  box  and  provided 
themselves  with  revolvers  and  knives  sufficient  for  a small  arsenal.  Without 


' 

. 


1 00 


History  of  Erie  County. 


much  resistance  the  steamer  passed  into  charge  of  the  piratical  crew  of  board- 
ers and  was  turned  back  toward  Middle  Bass  Island,  where  a landing  was  made. 

About  this  time  the  Island  Queen  reached  the  dock  at  Middle  Bass,  but  no 
sooner  had  she  touched  than  she  was  boarded  and  captured,  not,  however,  with- 
out a stout  resistance  from  her  commanding  officer  and  the  engineer,  but  both 
were  overpowered,  the  latter  being  shot  in  the  face.  On  board  the  Island 
Queen  was  a party  of  about  a hundred  recently  discharged  soldiers  on  their 
journey  home,  but  being  without  arms  were  powerless  in  the  face  of  a score  or 
more  of  heavily  loaded  revolvers  in  the  hands  of  determined,  desperate  men. 
The  Queen  was  scuttled  and  sent  adrift,  after  which  the  prow  of  the  Parsons  was 
turned  toward  Sandusky  Bay.  After  cruising  about  fora  long  time,  anxiously 
watching  for  the  proper  signal  from  the  land  party  supposed  to  have  been  suc- 
cessfully organized  by  Cole,  Beall  wanted  to  make  the  attempt  at  rescue  with- 
out the  assistance  of  Cole’s  co-operating  force,  but  knowing  the  power  of  the 
Michigan  s guns,  and  fearful  of  the  result,  Beall’s  desperate  crew  weakened  and 
declined  to  take  the  chances.  Disheartened  and  discouraged,  the  daring  leader 
reluctantly  put  about  and  made  for  the  Canada  side,  where  the  steamer  was 
abandoned  and  her  former  crew  released  from  their  temporary  imprisonment. 

This  was  the  only  open  attempt  made  to  effect  the  rescue  of  the  officers 
confined  on  Johnson’s  Island,  and  it  proved  a dismal  failure.  What  the  result 
would  have  been,  had  Cole’s  effort  proved  successful,  is  wholly  a matter  of 
speculation.  Several  prominent  citizens  of  Sandusky  were  soon  after  arrested 
and  charged  with  complicity  in  this  attempt.  They  were  temporarily  confined 
on  Johnson’s  Island  but  afterward  released.  Cole  was  also  subsequently  re- 
leased. But  Beall  seems  to  have  been  less  fortunate.  He  was  captured  near 
Supension  Bridge,  on  the  New  York  side,  and  taken  to  New  York  and  con- 
fined on  Governor’s  Island. 

Beall  was  charged  before  a military  court  with  the  seizure  of  the  steamer 
Philo  Parsons ; with  the  seizure  of  the  steamer  Island  Queen:  with  being  a 
spy  in  the  employ  of  the  rebel  service,  and  with  an  attempt  to  wreck  an  ex- 
press train  between  Buffalo  and  Dunkirk,  in  New  York  State,  for  the  purpose 
of  robbery.  He  was  tried,  found  guility,  and  sentenced  to  be  hanged.  The 
day  fixed  for  his  execution  was  the  1 8th  of  February,  1865,  but  that  the  mother 
of  the  condemned  man  might  have  an  opportunity  of  seeing  her  son  once  more 
in  life,  President  Lincoln  granted  a respite  for  six  days.  Beall  paid  the  penalty 
of  his  crimes  on  the  24th  of  February,  1865,  on  Governor’s  Island,  in  New 
York  Bay. 

Upon  the  occasion  of  the  trial  of  Beall,  as  a part  of  his  defense,  there  was 
produced  a letter  from  that  old  arch  traitor,  Jefferson  Davis,  in  which  he  as- 
serted that  these  acts,  meaning  Beall’s  exploits  upon  the  border,  were  commit- 
ted by  his  authority,  and  should  be  recognized  as  the  acts  of  “ lawful  belliger- 
ents.” Without  doubt  they  were  recognized  as  the  acts  of  belligerents,  but  the 


. 


' 


' 


Military  History. 


V 


IOI 


lawful  part  failed  to  impress  the  court  so  favorably.  Could  that  military  court 
have  had  a chance  at  Davis  just  then  he  might  have  got  a taste  of  “ lawful  bel- 
ligerent ” medicine  that  might  have  surprised  him  even  if  it  did  not  seriously 
endanger  his  “health.” 

John  Yates  Beall,  the  leader  of  this  bold  attempt  at  rescue,  was  a Virginian 
by  birth,  a native  of  Jefferson  county.  He  is  said  to  have  possessed,  at  the 
time  of  the  breaking  out  of  the  war,  a large  and  valuable  plantation,  and  was 
a young  man  of  large  means  and  great  promise.  He  organized  and  became 
captain  of  a company  attached  to  one  of  the  regiments  in  Thomas  J.  Jackson’s 
command,  the  latter  general  being  a person  none  other  than  the  intrepid  “ Stone- 
wall” Jackson,  the  idol  of  the  Confederacy.  Beall  was  engaged  in  several- 
battles  prior  to  his  conception  of  the  idea  of  rescuing  the  rebel  officers  on  John 
son’s  Island. 

His  depredations  on  the  Ohio  frontier  have  been  by  some  writers  charac- 
terized as  “ piratical,”  but  such  seems  hardly  to  have  been  the  case.  He  sought 
to  effect  the  rescue  of  the  prisoners  and  in  that  attempt  adopted  such  measures 
as  he  thought  would  most  surely  accomplish  that  result,  but  he  did  not  seek  to, 
neither  was  he  charged  with  any  attempt  at  plundering  any  vessel,  or  of  steal- 
ing any  money  or  merchandise  for  the  purpose  of  gain,  except  the  act  alleged 
to  have  been  committed  in  New  York  State,  and  that  was,  if  true,  an  attempt 
at  train  robbery  and  not  piracy.  His  personal  motives  are  pretty  well  shown 
in  a letter  written  his  brother  on  the  evening  prior  to  the  day  of  execution,  an 
extract  from  which  was  as  follows  : “ Remember  me  kindly  to  my  friends  ; say 
to  them  that  I am  not  aware  o£  committing  any  crime  against  society.  I die 
for  my  country.  No  thirst  for  blood  or  lucre  animated  me  in  my  course.  My 
hands  are  clean  of  blood,  unless  spilled  in  conflict,  and  not  a cent  enriched 
my  pocket.  ‘Vengeance  is  mine,  saith  the  Lord,  and  I will  repay.’  Therefore 
do  not  show  unkindness  to  the  prisoners;  they  are  helpless.” 

Having  digressed  somewhat  from  the  narrative  of  events  to  relate  the  ad- 
ventures and  exploits  of  Captain  Beall  and  his  associates,  we  may  now  return 
to  the  general  history  of  affairs  at  Johnson’s  Island  and  the  regiments  there  on 
guard. 

“Soon  after  the  arrival  of  the  Sixth  Veteran  Reserve  Corps  considerable  de- 
tachments were  sent  from  it  for  provost  and  other  duties  elsewhere,  for  of  those 
who  remained,  infirm  as  many  of  them  were  by  wounds  and  disease,  the  cli- 
mate and  exposure  proved  too  severe,  so  that  all  who  remained  for  guard  duty 
did  not  make  good  the  absent  detachments  of  the  One  Hundred  and  Twenty- 
eighth.  The  Sixth  Veteran  Reserve  Corps  left  the  command  early  in  1865. 

“ In  view  of  the  contingencies  on  the  frontier,  and  in  order  to  hold  these  posts 
with  a less  force,  the  United  States  Engineer  Crops,  under  the  direction  of  the 
war  department,  began  the  construction  of  three  forts  in  the  fall  of  1864;  one 
°n  Cedar  Point,  at  the  mouth  of  Sandusky  Bay  opposite  the  island,  and  two 

14 


■ 


;Ti-  ~ ' ' 


rififtfi  *k>  xioJairf  aHj  o: 


102 


History  of  Erie  County. 


on  the  island.  The  expectation  was  to  do  this  work  with  hired  labor,  but  la- 
borers were  so  scarce  that  men  could  not  be  obtained  at  the  wages  offered.  At 
this  juncture  the  colonel  of  the  One  Hundred  and  Twenty-eighth  detailed  par- 
ties from  his  regiment  who  did  at  least  two-thirds  of  the  whole  work,  includ- 
ing the  mechanical  part,  and  completed  all  three  of  the  forts  with  their  maga- 
zines and  mounted  the  guns.  This  work  was  done  in  the  most  inclement  sea- 
sons of  the  year,  without  extra  pay,  and  at  a time  when  the  other  details  were 
very  heavy.  But  in  this  instance,  as  in  all  others,  officers  and  men  applied 
themselves  to  the  duties  before  them  with  an  intelligence  and  zeal  which  prompt- 
ly overcame  difficulties  and  attained  the  desired  result  in  a very  creditable 
manner. 

“Although  the  One  Hundred  and  Twenty- eighth  was  often  scattered  by 
detachments,  and  much  burdened  with  fatigue  duty,  its  drill,  including  infantry 
and  a considerable  range  of  heavy  artillery,  was  accurate  and  thorough,  and  its 
equipment,  discipline,  and  constant  readiness  for  emergencies  and  service  wher- 
ever ordered,  gave  assurance  that  it  would  meet  the  just  expectations  of  the 
government  in  any  line  of  duty.  Many  of  its  officers  and  men  had  served  the 
government  during  the  war  with  credit  in  other  organizations,  from  which  they 
had  been  discharged  on  account  of  disability  by  wounds  or  sickness. 

“In  hastening  the  completion  of  the  defenses  at  Sandusky  Bay  it  was  antici- 
pated that  the  regiments  would  soon  be  relieved  by  troops  of  the  Veteran  Re- 
serve Corps,  and  that  then  the  One  Hundred  and  Twenty-eighth  would  be  sent 
to  join  some  army  in  the  field.  Measures  were  taken  to  have  it  ready  for  such 
an  event.  Fortune  did  not  give  the  regiment  the  opportunity,  as  a body,  to 
•earn  laurels  in  battle,  but  it  performed  its  duty  always  with  faithfulness  and 
efficiency. 

“ Soon  after  the  surrender  of  the  rebel  armies  in  the  spring  of  1865,  the  pris- 
oners on  the  island  were  reduced  by  discharges  on  parole  to  about  one  hundred 
and  fifty.  The  One  Hundred  and  Twenty-eighth  left  the  island  on  the  10th  of 
July,  1865,  and  was  mustered  out  on  the  17th  at  Camp  Chase.” 

This  is  the  history  of  Johnson’s  Island  as  a place  of  confinement  of  captured 
rebel  officers  during  the  war  1861-65,  and  almost  inseparably  connected  with 
that  appears  the  history  of  the  One  Hundred  and  Twenty- eighth  Infantry. 

It  is  proposed  in  the  following  pages  to  devote  some  attention  to  the  other 
individual  regiments,  the  companies  for  which  were  made  up  in  whole  or  in 
part  of  Erie  county  men.  But  in  furnishing  company  rosters  the  greatest  diffi- 
culty has  been  encountered  in  ascertaining  the  names  of  the  men  who  were  resi- 
dents of  county,  and  there  will  be  found  instances  in  which  no  roster  is  given 
from  the  fact  of  the  writer  being  unable  to  locate  the  men,  or  from  the  fact  of 
the  contingents  having  been  so  small  that  no  necessity  exists  for  giving  the  ros- 
ter, could  it  even  be  accurately  ascertained. 

Again  the  adjutant- general  of  the  State  has  not  yet  completed  the  work  of 


joi  ! ' ) r r! j )*{,;  v/T  hnfi  bsibnoH  5flO »r.T  ytf\h  n& 


Military  History. 


103 


niakincr  Up  the  official  roster  of  Ohio’s  volunteer  soldiery;  therefore,  being  un- 
able to  furnish  a correct  record,  one  that  can  be  confidently  relied  upon,  it  is 
deemed  prudent  to  furnish  none  at  all.  Some  of  the  commands  that  were  repre- 
sented by  men  from  this  county  are  given  nothing  beyond  a mere  mention  from 
the  fact  that  the  contingent  of  men  from  the  county  was  so  exceedingly  small 
as  not  to  entitle  them  to  a space,  and  it  is,  therefore,  only  those  parts  of  regi- 
ments, or  companies  of  regiments  that  contained  as  many  as  would  constitute  a 
“corporal’s  guard”  that  receive  extended  notice. 

That  the  reader  may  have  something  of  an  understanding  as  to  the  number 
of  commands  represented  by  Erie  county  volunteers  during  the  war  of  1 861-5, 
it  may  be  stated  that  companies  or  parts  of  companies  of  the  following  named 
regiments  were  composed  of  men  from  the  county  : The  Seventh,  Eighth,  Six- 
teenth, Eighteenth,  Twenty-fourth,  Thirty-fourth,  Forty- first,  Forty- ninth, 
Fifty-fifth,  Sixty-third,  Sixty-fourth,  Sixty-fifth,  Sixty-sixth,  Seventy-second, 
One  Hundredth,  One  Hundred  and  First,  One  Hundred  and  Seventh,  One 
Hundred  and  Twenty-third,  One  Hundred  and  Twenty- eighth,  One  Hundred 
and  Forty-fifth,  One  Hundred  and  Ninety-seventh,  Third  Cavalry,  Tenth  Cav- 
alry, First  Heavy  Artillery,  and  possibly  others  that  cannot  be  definitely  ascer- 
tained by  reason  of  the  very  small  number  of  men  contained  in  them. 

THE  SEVENTH  INFANTRY. 

The  Seventh  Ohio  Volunteer  Infantry  was  raised  within  a very  few  days  after 
President  Lincoln  issued  his  first  call  for  troops  for  the  three  months  service. 
It  required  but  a very  short  time  to  recruit  a regiment  in  this  section  of  the 
State,  and  while  the  sturdy  young  men  of  Northern  Ohio  were  not  anxious  for 
war,  they  were,  nevertheless,  anxious  and  ready  to  do  their  duty.  The  ranks 
were  quickly  filled  with  men  averaging  from  twenty  to  twenty-five  years  of  age, 
strong,  willing,  determined  and  loyal  young  men. 

To  the  formation  of  this  regiment  Erie  county  contributed  one  company, 
E.  Three  companies  were  raised  at  Cleveland,  and  one  each  at  Oberlin,  War- 
ren, Painesville,  Youngstown,  Norwalk,  Franklin,  which  with  the  Erie  county 
company  made  a full  regiment. 

As  a three  months  regiment  the  Seventh  performed  no  active  service  on  the 
field  of  battle.  They  were  mustered  in  on  the  30th  of  April,  1861,  and  ren- 
dezvoused at  Camp  Taylor,  near  Cleveland,  until  early  in  May,  when  they  went 
by  rail  to  Camp  Dennison  near  Cincinnati.  Upon  the  organization  of  the  Sev- 
enth the  officers  were  chosen  as  follows:  Colonel,  Erastus  B.  Tyler,  of  Ravenna; 
lieutenant-colonel,  William  R.  Creighton,  of  Cleveland;  major,  John  S.  Case- 
ment, of  Painesville. 

The  first  duty  of  the  command  after  the  election  of  officers  was  to  prepare 
for  active  field  service,  and  at  this  time  the  boys  knew  but  little  of  military  tac- 
hes,  drill  and  discipline,  but  before  they  left  Camp  Dennison  they  were  as  well 
prepared  for  the  field  as  any  regiment  of  infantry  at  the  front. 


no'll  - :o  : ‘ • ,•>  -<  *f!t  'r.i'r  1M  - 


104 


History  of  Erie  County. 


But  the  Seventh  Infantry  never  faced  the  enemy  as  a three  months  regi- 
ment When  they  were  well  versed  in  drill,  then  came  Mr.  Lincoln’s  call  for 
three  hundred  thousand  men  for  three  years,  and  the  Seventh  Regiment,  almost 
to  a man,  enlisted  under  that  call,  and  were  thus  transformed  from  the  three 
months  to  the  three  years  service,  and  as  such  first  donned  the  blue.  They 
were  mustered  into  the  United  States  service  on  the  19th  of  June,  1861,  retain- 
ing, substantially,  their  former  commanding  officers. 

After  a brief  leave  of  absence  at  their  homes,  the  men  reassembled  at  Camp 
Dennison,  and  on  the  26th  of  June,  1861,  started  for  the  field,  having  been  as- 
signed to  the  campaign  in  West  Virginia.  None  of  the  command  will  ever  for- 
get the  march  of  June  29th,  and  it  was  this  event  as  much  as  any,  that  gave 
them  an  idea  of  the  hardships  that  were  in  store  for  them.  Their  destination 
was  Weston,  and  the  object  of  the  march  was  the  hope  of  possessing  a goodly 
sum  of  gold  on  deposit  in  a bank  at  that  place,  which  was  designed  to  be  used 
for  the  erection  of  an  insane  asylum.  The  boys  got  it  without  meeting  any 
armed  opposition. 

The  regiment  then  proceeded  to  Glenville  to  relieve  the  force  at  that  point. 
The  first  serious  engagement  in  which  the  Seventh  participated  was  the  battle 
at  Cross  Lanes,  West  Virginia,  on  the  26th  of  August,  1861.  Here  the  regi- 
ment fought  independently,  each  company  taking  a position  where  the  most 
effective  service  could  be  rendered  ; but  they  were  outnumbered  by  the  enemy 
and  slowly  driven  back,  leaving  many  killed  and  wounded  upon  the  battle-field. 
The  loss  to  the  Seventh  in  this  engagement  was  one  hundred  and  twenty  killed, 
wounded  and  missing.  * The  command  became  divided  and  scattered,  one  por- 
tion retiring  to  Gauley,  while  the  others  found  the  Union  lines  at  Charleston, 
several  miles  down  the  Gauley  River.  By  reference  to  the  roster  of  Company 
E it  will  be  seen  that  more  men  were  lost  by  death,  wounds  or  capture  than  in 
any  other  single  engagement  in  which  that  company  participated. 

The  regiment  was  soon  gathered  again  and  went  into  camp  at  Gauley. 
The  effects  of  the  recent  engagement  told  severely  on  the  men  and  many  were 
discharged  during  the  early  days  of  October.  One  pleasing  event,  however, 
occurred  while  encamped  at  this  place,  and  that  was  the  presentation  to  the 
regiment  of  a beautiful  stand  of  colors  by  Professor  Peck,  of  Oberlin  College, 
in  behalf  of  the  people  of  the  Western  Reserve. 

From  Gauley,  on  the  16th  of  October,  the  regiment  proceeded  to  Charles- 
ton, W.  Va.,  where  it  remained  until  the  1st  of  November,  but  soon  after  that 
date  it  was  engaged  in  a movement  to  get  in  the  rear  of  the  rebel  force  under 
Floyd,  but  through  the  disobedience  of  orders  on  the  part  of  General  Ben- 
ham,  the  attempt  was  fruitless,  and  Floyd,  though  hotly  pursued,  succeeded  in 
making  his  escape.  After  this  the  Seventh  returned,  by  steamer,  to  Charles- 
ton, November  17,  1 86 1.  In  December  the  regiment  joined  the  command  un- 
der General  Lander  and  proceeded  by  water,  rail  and  a march  of  sixteen  miles, 


' 


Military  History. 


105 


and  arrived  in  the  vicinity  of  the  rebel  forces,  in  a new  and  different  country, 
and  where,  on  March  23,  1862,  they  engaged  in  the  battle  of  Winchester,  corn- 
in''' in  contact  with  that  most  remarkable  rebel  soldier  “ Stonewall  ” Jackson. 
General  Lander  was  succeeded  by  General  Shields.  General  Banks  occupied 
Winchester  upon  Jackson’s  retirement.  The  tactics  displayed  by  this  noted 
rebel  commander  will,  probably,  never  be  thoroughly  understood.  His  move- 
ments were  rapid  and  were  believed  to  be  a retreat,  but  it  has  been  argued 
that  it  was  simply  a subterfuge,  which,  had  the  co-operating  force  expected  by 
him  been  successful,  the  field  of  Winchester  would  have  been  strewn  with 
Union  dead  and  wounded  and  our  national  capital  have  fallen  into  the  hands 
of  the  rebels.  But  “ there  is  many  a slip  ” ; the  movement  failed  of  accom- 
plishment. Winchester  was  fought  and  the  Seventh  took  an  active  and  hon- 
orable part,  losing  fourteen  killed,  fifty-one  wounded,  and  several  prisoners 
taken.  Among  the  losses  here  were  several  of  Company  E. 

Following  Winchester  we  find  the  Seventh  regiment  next  engaged  at  Port 
Republic,  on  the  9th  of  June.  Prior  to  that  the  men  endured  the  hardships  of 
a march  of  one  hundred  and  thirty- two  miles,  from  New  Market  to  Fredericks- 
burg, which  was  accomplished  in  nine  days  ; and  thus  Shields’s  force  was  joined 
to  McDowell’s.  On  the  morning  of  May  13  the  army  was  reviewed  by  Pres- 
ident Lincoln  and  other  government  officials.  Especially  did  the  president  de- 
sire to  see  the  division  that  had  put  to  flight  the  great  Jackson,  therefore 
Shields’s  command,  the  Seventh  among  them,  was  ordered  out  for  inspection. 

When  Shields  withdrew  with  his  forces  from  the  Shenandoah  Valley,  Jack- 
son  with  a strong  command  immediately  occupied  it,  and  commenced  a rapid, 
vigorous  movement  toward  the  nation’s  capital.  This  movement  necessitated 
a change  of  plan  on  the  part  of  the  Union  forces,  and  the  project  to  attack 
Richmond  was  for  the  time  abandoned,  and  the  army  concentrated  and  sent  to 
head  off  the  notorious  rebel  leader.  Jackson,  becoming  aware  of  this,  and  not 
easily  entrapped,  made  a retreat  up  the  valley,  closely  followed  by  Fremont’s 
command.  The  third  and  fourth  divisions  of  Shields’s  brigade  had,  by  this 
time,  reached  a point  opposite  Port  Republic.  At  five  o’clock  in  the  morning 
this  battle  commenced,  the  Seventh  and  the  Fifth  Ohio  having  the  heaviest  of 
the  fight.  Says  Reid,  “ These  two  regiments  fought  splendidly  and  effective- 
ly- General  Tyler,  seeing  the  terrible  odds  against  him,  and  the  extent  of  the 
enemy’s  lines,  determined  to  handle  his  inadequate  force  with  extreme  caution, 
and  met  the  wily  Stonewall  with  his  own  favorite,  tactics  of  strategy  and  cun- 
ning. Taking  advantage  of  a wheat  field  near  the  enemy’s  center,  he  extend- 
ed his  lines  from  hill  to  river,  and  double-quicked  the  Fifth  and  Seventh  from 
point  to  point  along  the  line,  under  cover  of  some  standing  wheat,  halting  at 
intermediate  points  to  deliver  a galling  fire.  This  was  kept  up  for  five  long 
hours,  and,  with  less  than  three  thousand  muskets,  the  National  forces  re- 
pelled Jackson,  with  fourteen  thousand  veteran  rebel  troops.” 


. 


. 


io  6 


History  of  Erie  County. 


In  the  retreat  that  followed  this  sharp  fight  the  Seventh  was  directed  to 
cover  the  rear  as  guarding  force.  This  they  did  gallantly,  coming  off  the  field 
in  line,  loading  as  they  marched  and  frequently  sending  a telling  volley  into 
the  ranks  of  the  pursuers. 

In  May,  1862,  Colonel  Tyler  was  promoted  to  the  rank  of  brigade  cbm- 
mander  and  had  charge  of  the  brigade  to  which  the  Seventh  was  attached. 
After  the  battle  of  Port  Republic  and  lying  at  Little  Washington,  that  officer 
was  ordered  to  Washington,  and  thereafter  General  Geary  was  ordered  to  the 
command  of  the  brigade. 

After  Port  Republic  came  the  engagement  at  Cedar  Mountain,  Va.,  on 
August  9,  1862,  and  the  Army  of  Virginia,  under  Pope,  had  again  to  contend 
with  the  noted  Jackson.  The  fight  commenced  at  about  three  o’clock  in  the 
afternoon,  and  the  Seventh  occupied  a position  at  the  front  where  the  battle 
waged  the  fiercest ; in  fact,  it  was  a hand  to  hand  contest  in  which  they  were 
engaged,  and  was  continued  until  night-fall,  when  they  retired  and  bivouacked 
almost  upon  the  field.  Neither  side  could  claim  any  substantial  victory.  The 
ranks  of  the  Seventh  were  fearfully  decimated,  and  out  of  three  hundred  of 
that  regiment  that  entered  the  fight  scarcely  a single  hundred  escaped  injury 
in  some  form.  The  roster  of  Company  E will  show  how  that  command  fared. 

With  the  approach  of  Lee’s  army  the  Union  forces  fell  back  toward  Wash- 
ington, and  on  the  17th  of  September  reached  Antietam.  During  the  en- 
gagement at  that  place  the  Seventh  were  on  the  field  but  not  closely  engaged, 
although  some  slight  losses  were  suffered.  After  the  battle  the  regiment  en- 
camped on  Bolivar  Heights,  and  here  were  received  some  two  hundred  re- 
cruits, but  comparatively  few  of  whom  were  given  to  Company  E. 

Early  in  December  the  Seventh  went  into  winter  quarters  at  Dumfries,, 
but  scarcely  had  they  become  settled  for  a season  of  rest  and  recuperation  than 
a troop  of  cavalry  and  a few  pieces  of  artillery,  under  Stuart,  made  their  ap- 
pearance. The  camping  forces  were  soon  prepared  to  meet  the  attack,  and 
drove  off  the  rebels  with  considerable  loss,  though  suffering  little  themselves. 
So  ended  the  campaign  in  Virginia  for  the  year  1862.  Five  battles  were  par- 
ticipated in  by  the  Seventh  regiment,  and  in  each  their  gallantry  and  bravery 
received  the  plaudits  of  the  whole  Union  people. 

The  campaign  of  1863  opened  with  the  engagement  at  Chancellorsville,  in 
which  the  Seventh  took  an  active  part,  and  when  the  Union  forces  retired 
their  retreat  was  covered  by  the  regiment  assisted  by  two  others.  “ Its  con- 
duct,” says  Reid,  “ in  this  hazardous  and  responsible  position,  and  its  gallant 
action  in  the  battle,  reflected  the  highest  honor  on  not  only  the  regiment,  but 
the  State  from  whence  it  came.”  In  this  battle  the  Seventh  lost  eighty-four 
men  in  killed  and  wounded. 

Gettysburg  followed  Chancellorsville,  and  although  not  actively  engaged 
the  Seventh  were  kept  busy  moving  to  such  points  as  required  strengthening ;. 


C.  . ' i • • '•  ’ ■ ; 

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Military  History. 


107 


exposed  sometimes  to  a galling  fire,  but  generally  protected  by  breastworks. 
Their  loss  here  was  but  one  man  killed  and  seventeen  wounded.  Among  the 
regiments  sent  to  quell  the  riots  in  New  York,  occasioned  by  the  enforcement 
of  the  draft,  was  the  Seventh  Ohio.  The  regiment  reached  Governor’s  Island 
and  went  into  camp  on  the  26th  of  August,  1863.  The  draft  being  over,  the 
Seventh  returned  to  its  old  camp  on  the  Rapidan,  where  it  remained  a few 
weeks,  after  which  the  Twelfth  corps,  to  which  it  was  attached,  was  ordered 
into  the  western  country.  The  Twelfth  and  Eleventh  were  afterward  consoli- 
dated and  became  the  Twentieth,  under  command  of  “ Fighting  Joe  Hooker.” 

On  the  24th  of  November  occurred  the  battle  at  Lookout  Mountain,  Tenn., 
and  close  upon  that  came  Mission  Ridge,  Tenn.,  and  Ringgold,  Ga.  The 
Seventh  was  in  each  engagement,  but  lost  most  heavily  in  the  latter.  During 
the  assault  Creighton  said  to  his  men : “ Boys,  we  are  ordered  to  take  that 
hill;  I want  to  see  you  walk  right  up  to  it.”  And  walk  they  did;  straight 
into  the  face  of  death.  They  were  repulsed  with  fearful  loss,  there  being  but 
one  commissioned  officer  of  the  whole  regiment  uninjured.  Nineteen  killed 
and  sixty-one  wounded  was  the  result  of  that  charge.  It  occurred  near  Ring- 
gold,  on  the  27th  of  November,  1863.  Colonel  Creighton  and  Major  Crane 
were  both  killed. 

Worn  with  constant  battle  and  ranks  fearfully  thinned,  the  Seventh  went 
into  camp  at  Bridgeport,  Ala.,  where  with  a few  skirmishes  of  no  importance 
it  remained  until  May,  1864,  when  again  it  was  called  into  active  service  in 
the  campaign  of  that  year.  Its  first  engagement  was  at  Rocky  Face  Ridge, 
from  May  5th  to  the  9th,  and  later  at  Resaca,  Ga.,  from  May  13th  to  16th. 
After  Resaca  had  been  fought  and  won,  the  Seventh  pursued  the  fleeing  rebels 
until  near  the  middle  of  June.  Then  the  term  of  enlistment  of  the  Seventh 
had  expired,  and  they  returned  to  Cincinnati.  Here  the  Fifth  and  Seventh, 
former  constant  companions  in  successes  and  reverses,  the  former  from  the 
south,  and  the  latter  from  the  north  part  of  Ohio,  parted  company.  The  Sev- 
enth proceeded  to  Cleveland,  where  it  was  mustered  out  of  service,  after  an 
experience  in  active  service  of  a little  more  than  three  years.  Colonel  Erastus 
B.  Tyler  was  promoted  to  brigadier  general  May  20,  1862  ; lieutenant-colonel 
William  R.  Creighton  was  promoted  to  colonel  May  20,  1862,  and  killed  at 
Ringgold,  Ga.,  November  27,  1863  ; Lieutenant-Colonel  Joel  F.  Asper  was 
promoted  from  captain,  Company  H,  May  20,  1862,  and  resigned  March  2, 
*863  ; Lieutenant-Colonel  Orris  J.  Crane  was  promoted  to  major  from  captain 
Company  A,  May  25,  1862,  to  lieutenant-colonel  March  2,  1863,  killed  at 
Ringgold,  Ga.,  November  27,  1863  1 Lieutenant-Colonel  Samuel  McClellan 
Was  promoted  from  captain  Company  H,  December  1,  1863,  mustered  out 
i t h regiment  July  8,  1864  ; Major  John  S.  Casement  resigned  May  23,  1863  ; 
Major  Frederick  A.  Seymour  resigned  March  29,  1864. 


' 


.r  ;•  . •.  ; • >*iq  ritn'j 


io8 


History  of  Erie  County. 


Roster  of  Company  E. 

This  roster  represents  the  company  in  the  three  years  service.  Nearly 
all  the  men  were  mustered  into  the  service  on  June  20,  1 86 1 , and  of  the  few 
recruits  received  at  a later  date  no  separate  record  is  made. 

John  W.  Sprague,  captain;  captured  at  Birch  River,  Va.,  August  8,  1 86 1 ; 
exchanged  January  5,  1862;  promoted  to  colonel  Sixty- third  Ohio  Volunteer 
Infantry,  January  23,  1862. 

Charles  A.  Wood,  captain  ; promoted  from  first-lieutenant  Company  D 
February  5,  1862;  resigned  February  20,  1863. 

Arthur  T.  Wilcox,  captain  ; captured  at  battle  of  Cross  Lanes,  Va.,  August 
26,  1861;  returned  October  4,  1863  ; promoted  from  first-lieutenant  Company 
E to  captain  Company  D July  9,  1862  ; assigned  to  Company  E March  10, 
1863  ; mustered  out  with  company  July  6,  1864. 

Llewellyn  R.  Davis,  first  lieutenant  ; promoted  from  second  lieutenant 
Company  D,  November  2,  1862;  to  captain  company  C February  19,  1864. 

George  C.  Ketchum,  first  lieutenant ; captured  at  battle  of  Cross  Lanes, 
Va.,  August  26,  1861  ; exchanged  and  returned  March  13,  1863  ; promoted 
from  first  sergeant  to  first  lieutenant  March  30,  1864;  mustered  out  with  com- 
pany July  6,  1 864. 

Ralph  Lockwood,  second  lieutenant ; promoted  to  first  lieutenant  Company 
A November  25,  1861. 

James  P.  Brisbine,  second  lieutenant ; promoted  from  first  sergeant  Com- 
pany H December  20,  1861  ; killed  in  battle  of  Cedar  Mountain,  Va.,  August 
9,  1862. 

George  D.  Lockwood,  second  lieutenant ; promoted  from  first  sergeant 
Company  D August  9,  1862  ; mustered  out  with  company  July  6,  1864. 

Arvin  B.  Billings,  first  sergeant;  appointed  sergeant  from  private  January 
I,  1862;  first  sergeant  January  1,  1863;  wounded  at  battle  of  Cedar  Moun- 
tain, Va.,  August  9,  1862  ; mustered  out  with  company  July  6,  1864. 

Samuel  C.  Wheeler,  first  sergeant;  appointed  corporal  January  1,  1862; 
first  sergeant  March  I,  1862  ; wounded  at  battle  of  Port  Republic,  Va.,  June 
9,  1862  ; discharged  March  26,  1863,  by  order  of  war  department. 

Henry  E.  Hill,  sergeant;  appointed  from  corporal  January  1,  1862; 
wounded  at  battle  of  Gettysburg,  Pa.,  July  3,  1863  ; mustered  out  with  com- 
pany July  6,  1864. 

William  Harley,  sergeant;  appointed  corporal  January  1,  1863;  color 
bearer  May  3,  1863;  sergeant  April  9,  1864;  mustered  out  with  company 
July  6,  1864. 

George  W.  Sweet,  sergeant ; captured  at  battle  of  Cross  Lanes,  Va.,  Au- 
gust 26,  1861  ; exchanged  and  returned  March  13,  1863  ; appointed  sergeant 
from  private  May  19,  1864;  mustered  out  with  company  July  6,  1864. 


■ 


Military  History. 


109 


Moses  Martin,  sergeant;  appointed  sergeant  from  corporal  January  1,  1862  ; 
killed  in  battle  of  Cedar  Mountain,  Va.,  August  9,  1862. 

Orzo  J.  Lowell,  sergeant;  died  at  Cumberland,  Md.,  February  19,  1862. 

William  Merriam,  sergeant ; lost  left  arm  at  battle  of  Cross  Lanes,  Va., 
August  26,  1861  ; discharged  October  30,  1862,  by  order  of  war  department. 

Franklin  W.  Wilcoxson,  sergeant;  captured  at  battle  of  Cross  Lanes,  Va., 
August  26,  1861  ; paroled  May  27,  1862;  discharged  by  order  of  war  depart- 
ment. 

William  Freeman,  sergeant;  discharged  at  Romney,  Va.,  June  1,  1862,  on 
surgeon’s  certificate  of  disability. 

Henry  Bailey,  sergeant ; appointed  corporal  January  1,  1862;  sergeant 
January  I,  1863  ; transferred  to  Fifth  Ohio  Volunteer  Infantry,  October  31, 
1864,  by  order  of  war  department. 

William  W.  Meeker,  corporal  ; appointed  corporal  January  1,  1863  ; mus- 
tered out  with  company  July  6,  1864. 

William  Holden,  corporal;  appointed  corporal  July,  1863;  mustered  out 
with  company  July  6,  1864. 

Jesse  G.  Turner,  corporal ; captured  at  battle  of  Cross  Lanes,  Va.,  August 
26,  1861  ; paroled  May  27,  1862;  mustered  out  with  company  July  6,  1864. 

John  H.  Woodward,  corporal;  appointed  corporal  January  1,  1862;  killed 
at  battle  of  Port  Republic,  Va.,  June  9,  1862. 

James  K.  Alexander,  corporal;  appointed  corporal  January  1,  1862; 
wounded  at  battle  of  Cedar  Mountain,  Va.,  August  9,  1862  ; discharged  Jan- 
uary 7,  1863,  by  order  of  war  department. 

George  Blanden,  corporal  ; wounded  at  battle  of  Winchester,  Va.,  March 
23,  1862  ; discharged  January  28,  1863,  by  order  of  war  department. 

George  W.  Loring,  corporal ; discharged  at  Washington,  D.  C.,  October  6, 
1862,  by  order  of  war  department. 

Charles  Lewis,  corporal;  discharged  at  Charleston,  W.  Va.,  October  21, 
1861,  on  surgeon’s  certificate  of  disability. 

Frederick  A.  Davis,  corporal;  wounded  at  battle  of  Cedar  Mountain,  Va., 
August,  9,  1862;  transferred  to  Invalid  Corps  December  12,  1863,  by  order  of 
war  department. 

Omar  Osborn,  corporal;  appointed  corporal  January  I,  1862;  discharged 
January  8,  1863,  by  order  of  the  war  department. 

Albert  O.  Smith,  corporal;  appointed  corporal  January  1,  1862  ; wounded 
at  battle  of  Cedar  Mountain,  Va.,  August  9,  1862  ; discharged  November  24, 
*862,  on  surgeon’s  certificate  of  disability. 

William  M.  Barber,  corporal ; transferred  to  Veteran  Reserve  Corps  by  or- 
der of  war  department. 

William  Furniss,  corporal ; appointed  corporal  January  1,  1863  ; transfer- 
red to  Invalid  Corps,  January  5,  1864,  by  order  of  war  department. 

15 


' 


■ 

vi  . nl  , ; K^W*nror1  ) .J2U3JI 


no 


History  of  Erie  County. 


Hiram  Smith,  musician;  discharged  at  Columbus,  O.,  October  16,  1862, 
by  order  of  war  department. 

Privates. 

Harrison  L.  Allen,  mustered  out  with  company  July  6,  1864. 

Albert  Andrews,  discharged  at  Columbus,  O.,  August  9,  1862,  by  order 
of  war  department. 

William  H.  Andress,  wounded  at  battle  of  Port  Republic,  Va.,  June  9,  1862; 
discharged  March  28,  1863,  by  order  of  war  department. 

George  Anners,  wounded  at  battle  of  Winchester,  Va.,  March  23,  1862; 
discharged  January  9,  1863,  on  surgeon’s  certificate  of  disability. 

John  Atwater,  wounded  at  battle  of  Winchester,  Va.,  March  23,  1862  ; also 
at  battle  of  Port  Republic,  June  9,  1862  ; discharged  August  28,  1862. 

Ormer  E.  Andrews,  transferred  to  Veteran  Reserve  Corps  February  2, 
1864,  by  order  of  war  department. 

William  F.  Bartlett,  captured  at  battle  of  Cross  Lanes,  Va.,  August  26,  1861  ; 
returned  March  13,  1863;  wounded  at  battle  of  Lookout  Mountain,  Tenn., 
November  24,  1863  ; mustered  out  with  company  July  6,  1864. 

John  Bark,  captured  at  battle  of  Cross  Lanes,  Va.,  August  26,  1861  ; re- 
turned March  13,  1863  ; mustered  out  with  company  July  6,  1864. 

Lyman  Blakeslee,  captured  at  battle  of  Cross  Lanes,  Va.,  August  26,  1861  ; 
returned  March  13,  1863;  mustered  out  with  company  July  6,  1864. 

Robert  W.  Blakeslee,  captured  at  battle  of  Cross  Lanes,  Va.,  August  26, 
1861  ; returned  March  13,  1863  ; mustered  out  with  company  July  6,  1864. 

Edward  Billings,  mustered  out  with  company  July  6,  1864. 

James  M.  Butler,  captured  at  battle  of  Cross  Lanes,  Va.,  August  26,  1861  ; 
died  in  parish  prison,  New  Orleans,  December  27,  1861. 

Reuben  Beers,  captured  at  battle  of  Cross  Lanes,  Va.,  August  26,  1861  ; 
paroled  May  27,  1862  ; no  record  of  muster-out  found. 

William  Baker,  discharged  at  Columbus,  O.,  September  I,  1862,  by  order 
of  war  department. 

George  W.  Bartlett,  discharged  at  Gauley  Bridge,  Va.,  October  6,  1861, 
on  surgeon’s  certificate  of  disability. 

Henry  T.  Benton,  captured  at  battle  of  Dumfries,  Va.,  December  27,  1862; 
returned  March  13,  1863  ; wounded  at  battle  of  Chancellorsville,  Va.,  May  2, 
1863  ; discharged  March  7,  1864,  by  order  of  war  department. 

William  L.  Benton,  discharged  at  Williamsport,  Md.,  June  1,  1862,  on 
surgeon’s  certificate  of  disability. 

Joseph  Blake,  discharged  at  Columbus,  O.,  July  5,  1862,  by  order  of  war 
department. 

Leander  Butterfield,  discharged  at  Fort  Royal,  Va.,  June  20,  1862,  on  sur- 
geon’s certificate  of  disability. 

James  J.  Cronk,  mustered  out  with  company  July  6,  1864. 


' 


Military  History. 


i 1 1 


Edson  B.  Cross,  killed  at  battle  of  Cross  Lanes,  Va.,  August  2 6,  1861. 

Isaac  Collins,  enrolled  October  9,  1861,  but  never  mustered. 

Hudson  Call,  discharged  ; no  record  found. 

William  Cherry,  captured  at  battle  of  Cross  Lanes,  Va.,  August  26,  1861  ; 
paroled  May  27,  1862  ; discharged  November  19,  1862,  by  order  of  war  de- 
partment. 

Thomas  S.  Curran,  lost  right  leg  at  battle  of  Cross  Lanes,  Va.,  August  26, 
1861  ; discharged  Nov.  3,  1862,  by  order  of  war  department. 

Joseph  F.  Clark,  wounded  at  battle  of  Cedar  Mountain,  Va.,  August  9,  1862  ; 
discharged  August  26,  1863,  on  surgeon’s  certificate  of  disability. 

George  K.  Downing,  captured  at  battle  of  Cross  Lanes,  Va.,  August  26, 
1861  ; returned  March  13,  1863  ; mustered  out  with  company  July  6,  1864. 

Elvvood  Dillingham,  enrolled  October  9,  1861,  but  never  mustered. 

Anson  Douglass,  no  record  found. 

Lewis  A.  Darling,  transferred  to  company  B,  Ohio  Volunteer  Infantry, 
October  31,  1864,  by  order  of  war  department ; veteran. 

David  Everett,  died  October  6,  1862,  from  wounds  received  at  the  battle 
ofAntietam,  Md.,  September  17,  1862. 

George  Eiklor,  died  December  1 1,  1863,  from  wounds  received  at  battle  of 
Ringgold,  Ga.,  November  27,  1863. 

Daniel  Flora^died  at  Alexandria,  Va.,  June  5,  1863. 

Zebah  Fox,  captured  at  battle  of  Cross  Lanes,  Va.,  August  26,  1861  ; pa- 
roled May  27,  1862  ; transferred  to  Second  United  States  Cavalry  by  order  of 
war  department ; veteran. 

Jesse  Flora,  transferred  to  company  B,  Fifth  Ohio  Volunteer  Infantry,  Octo- 
ber 31,  1864,  by  order  of  the  war  department ; veteran. 

William  F.  Graves,  absent,  nurse  in  hospital  at  Clairsville,  Md.,  February, 
1852;  mustered  out  July  6,  1864,  by  circular  No.  36,  war  department,  May 
2,  1864. 

Oliver  Grennell,  killed  in  battle  of  Ringgold,  Ga.,  November  27,  1863. 

William  Gibbs,  captured  at  battle  of  Cross  Lanes,  Va.,  August  26,  1S61  ; 
died  December,  1861,  while  a prisoner. 

Benjamin  F.  Gill,  died  August  29,  1862,  from  wounds  received  at  the  bat- 
tle of  Cedar  Mountain,  Va.,  August  9,  1862. 

Wilson  S.  Gordon,  discharged  December  3,  1862,  on  surgeon’s  certificate 
of  disability. 

Henry  Green,  transferred  to  Veteran  Reserve  Corps  September  1,  1863,  by 
order  of  war  department. 

Albin  Hopkins,  mustered  out  with  company  July  6,  1864. 

George  Howorth,  no  record  found. 

Jay  Haskins,  wounded  at  battle  of  Port  Republic,  Va.,  June  9,  1862  ; dis- 
charged October  23,  1862,  by  order  of  war  department. 


U ,i£  ic>donO 


■ 


I 12 


History  of  Erie  County. 


William  Hutchinson,  wounded  at  battle  of  Cross  Lanes,  Va.,  August  26, 
1861  ; discharged  March  — , 1863,  on  surgeon’s  certificate  of  disability. 

John  Hann,  captured  at  battle  of  Cross  Lanes,  Va.,  August  26,  1861  ; pa- 
roled May  27,  1862  ; transferred  to  the  Fifth  United  States  Cavalry  by  order 
of  war  department. 

Thomas  C.  Ingles,  mustered  out  with  company  July  6,  1864. 

Charles  Jay,  transferred  to  Veteran  Reserve  Corps  February  15,  1864,  by 
order  of  war  department. 

James  W.  Kelley,  mustered  out  with  company  July  6,  1864. 

Henry  Kizer,  captured  at  battle  of  Cross  Lanes,  Va.,  August  26,  1861  ; 
died  December  28,  1861,  at  Tuscaloosa,  Ala.,  while  a prisoner. 

Peter  Kizer,  died  at  Cumberland,  Md.,  February  22,  1862. 

Joseph  Kearney,  transferred  to  company  B,  Fifth  Ohio  Volunteer  Infantry, 
October  31,  1864,  by  order  of  war  department. 

Edward  Kennedy,  captured  at  battle  of  Cross  Lanes,  Va.,  August  26,  1861; 
returned  March  13,  1863;  wounded  at  battle  of  Chancellorsville,  Va.,  May  2, 
1863  ; transferred  to  Invalid  Corps  January  14,  1864,  by  order  of  war  depart- 
ment. 

William  T.  Lowry,  wounded  at  battle  of  Ringgold,  Ga.,  November  27, 
1863  ; mustered  out  with  company  July  6,  1864. 

David  Lee,  discharged  at  Fairfax,  Va.,  August  5,  1862,  on  surgeon’s  cer- 
tificate of  disability. 

Nahum  Mears,  mustered  out  with  company  July  6,  1864. 

John  Melville,  mustered  out  with  company  July  6,  1864. 

Charles  Masters,  killed  at  battle  of  Cedar  Mountain,  Va.,  August  9,  1862. 

Richard  Mansell,  discharged  at  Warrenton,  Va.,  July  30,  1862,  on  sur- 
geon’s certificate  of  disability. 

John  Mulleman,  wounded  at  battle  of  Winchester,  Va.,  March  23,  1862; 
discharged  July  1 1,  1862,  by  order  of  war  department. 

Andrew  McMillen,  mustered  out  with  company  July  6,  1864. 

Edward  McDermott,  discharged  June  27,  1863,  by  order  of  war  depart- 
ment. 

Henry  Neighboring,  transferred  to  Veteran  Reserve  Corps,  September  I, 
1863,  by  order  of  war  department. 

Richard  O’Brien,  no  record  found. 

Henry  Pixley,  wounded  at  battle  of  Ringgold,  Ga.,  November  27,  1863  ; 
mustered  out  with  company  July  6,  1864. 

Spafford  TA.  Penny,  killed  in  battle  of  Chancellorsville,  Va.,  May  3,  1863. 

John  Randolph,  died  at  Weston,  Va.,  July,  1861. 

Frederick  W.  Roscoe,  discharged  at  Gauley  Bridge,  Va.,  October  14,  1861, 
on  surgeon’s  certificate  of  disability. 

Albert  L.  Raymond,  wounded  at  battle  of  Chancellorsville,  Va.,  May  3, 


' 


Military  History. 


1 1 3- 


[S63;  transferred  to  Invalid  Corps  September  30,  1863,  by  order  of  war  de- 
partment. 

Irving  Roberts,  transferred  to  company  B,  5th  Ohio  Volunteer  Infantry,. 
October  31,  1864,  by  order  of  war  department;  veteran. 

Ephraim  J.  Smith,  discharged  April  10,  1863,  on  surgeon’s  certificate  of 
disability. 

Zera  S.  Smith,  absent,  nurse  in  hospital,  mustered  out  July  6,  1864,  by 
circular  No.  36,  war  department,  May  2,  1864. 

James  Stinson,  captured  at  battle  of  Cross  Lanes,  Va.,  August  26,  1861  ; 
paroled  May  12,  1862  ; never  returned  to  company. 

John  Shetters,  captured  at  battle  of  Cross  Lanes,  Va.,  August  26,  1861  ; 
paroled  May  27,  1862;  discharged  September  1,  1862,  by  order  of  war  de- 
partment. 

Charles  Stimson,  discharged  October  22,  1862,  for  wounds  received  at 
battle  of  Cedar  Mountain,  Va.,  August  9,  1862. 

Francis  Stilwell,  captured  at  battle  of  Cross  Lanes,  Va.,  August  26,  1861  ; 
transferred  to  18th  United  States  Infantry,  by  order  of  war  department. 

Henry  R.  Steele,  transferred  to  recruit  camp,  June  II,  1864;  no  further 
record  found. 

James  L.  Vansise,  discharged  October  22,  1862,  for  wounds  received  at 
battle  of  Port  Republic,  Va.,  June  9,  1862. 

Brayton  B.  Williams,  captured  at  battle  of  Chancellorsville,  Va.,  May  3, 
1863;  returned  November  17,  1863;  mustered  out  with  company  July  6 
1864. 

Thomas  Warren,  mustered  out  with  company  July  6,  1864. 

William  L.  Williams,  died  at  Gallipolis,  O , September  13,  1861. 

Elam  Ward,  discharged  at  Cumberland,  Md.,  February  4,  1862. 

Rufus  Welch,  discharged  May,  1862,  on  surgeon’s  certificate  of  disability. 

Daniel  Weatherlow,  discharged  February  18,  1853,  on  surgeon’s  certificate 
of  disability. 

Henry  Winslow,  discharged  ; no  record  found. 

Charles  Webber,  captured  at  battle  of  Cross  Lanes,  Va.,  August  26,  1861  ; 
paroled  January,  1862;  discharged  April  11,  1863,  by  order  of  war  depart- 
ment. 

Americus  Witmer,  discharged  at  Baltimore,  Md.,  February  24,  1863. 

Wade  Wood,  discharged  at  Dumfries,  Va.,  February  17,  1863,  on  sur- 
geon’s certificate  of  disability. 

John  W.  Wickman,  discharged  November  20,  1862,  for  wounds  received  at 
battle  of  Cedar  Mountain,  Va.,  August  9,  1862. 

Henry  Wetzell,  transferred  to  field  and  staff  as  chief  bugler,  May  1,  1863, 
by  order  of  Colonel  Creighton. 


* 


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History  of  Erie  County. 


i 14 


THE  EIGHTH  INFANTRY. 

The  Eighth  Regiment  of  Ohio  Volunteer  Infantry,  like  its  immediate  pred- 
ecessor, the  Seventh,  was  first  recruited  under  the  president’s  first  call  for 
seventy-five  thousand  troops  “ to  put  down  the  rebellion.”  But  the  field  life 
and  vicissitudes  of  the  Eighth  were  experienced  in  a generally  different  quar- 
ter from  those  of  the  Seventh,  as  we  find  them  only  engaged  in  the  same  bat- 
tles at  Winchester,  Chancellorsville  and  Gettysburg. 

For  the  Eighth  Infantry  the  county  of  Erie  contributed  the  greater  portion 
of  Company  E.  The  whole  regiment  was  recruited  between  the  16th  and  22d  of 
April,  1861,  and  the  29th  of  the  same  month  found  the  men  at  Camp  Taylor, 
near  Cleveland,  awaiting  orders  to  proceed  to  the  front,  but  this  movement 
was  not  made  until  July  9,  following.  They  did,  however,  proceed  to  Camp 
Dennison  on  the  3d  of  May.  The  regimental  organization  was  completed  at 
Camps  Taylor  and  Dennison,  and  the  boys  were  at  once  put  through  “ a 
course  of  sprouts,”  in  order  to  make  them  as  well  informed  on  drill  and  mili- 
tary tactics  as  was  needed  in  field  service.  While  in  camp  on  the  22d  of  July, 
1861,  came  the  president’s  call  for  five  hundred  thousand  volunteers  for  three 
years  service,  and  in  answer  to  this  call  the  whole  body  of  the  Eighth,  save 
only  Company  I,  enlisted  for  three  years  and  was  mustered  into  service  on  the 
22d,  25th  and  26th  of  June,  1861.  On  the  9th  of  July  the  Eighth  left  for 
Grafton,  Va.,  in  which  region  were  extensive  operations  between  McClellan 
and  the  rebel  army  under  Garnett,  the  former  then  having  much  the  best  of  it. 

The  first  few  weeks  of  regular  army  life  for  the  Eighth  were  occupied  in 
guard  and  station  duty  at  various  points  in  the  Allegheny  Mountains  and  along 
the  line  of  the  Baltimore  and  Ohio  Railroad,  and  here  they  suffered  severely 
from  fever,  over  three  hundred  of  the  regiment  being  at  one  time  in  the  hos- 
pital and  unfit  for  duty. 

The  Eighth  was  first  engaged  at  Romney,  Va.,  on  the  23d  and  24th  of 
September,  and  afterward  on  the  26th  of  October,  in  which  engagements  sev- 
eral men  were  killed  and  wounded,  but  the  regiment  proved  that  they  had 
fighting  qualities.  These  brushes  ended  the  work  of  the  Eighth  for  the  year 
1861,  but  the  next  year,  from  January  to  December,  was  almost  a succession 
of  skirmishes,  attacks  and  battles,  the  most  important  of  which  were  Winches- 
ter, Front  Royal,  Antietam,  and  Fredericksburg. 

Early  in  January  the  regiment  took  part  in  the  assault  on  Blue’s  Gap.  On 
February  14  they  had  a sharp  but  brief  fight  at  Bloomey  Gap,  and  early  in 
March  moved  to  the  Shenandoah,  and  under  command  of  General  Shields,  par- 
ticipated in  the  battle  of  Winchester  against  the  rebel  army  under  Stonewall 
Jackson  ; but  preceding  that  fight  the  Eighth  made  a good  record  in  skirmish- 
ing at  Cedar  Creek  and  Strasburg.  This  qualification  led  the  regiment  to  be 
deployed  as  skirmishers  on  the  evening  before,  and  the  morning  of,  the  battle  at 


, 

* 


Military  History. 


15 


Winchester,  but  toward  evening  of  the  day  of  the  battle  they  were  drawn  into 
the  general  engagement  and  participated  in  the  charge  on  the  rebels’  right 
flank,  and  by  which  they  were  thrown  into  confusion  and  utterly  routed.  Of 
the  Eighth  companies  C,  E,  D,  and  H,  were  engaged  in  this  fight,  and  about 
one-fourth  of  these  were  killed  or  wounded. 

After  Winchester  was  fought  and  won  our  skirmishing  regiment,  with  the 
army,  followed  up  the  valley  of  the  Shenandoah,  giving  fight  to  the  enemy  at 
Woodstock,  Mount  Jackson,  Edinburgh  and  New  Market,  as  only  an  active, 
skirmishing  command  can  do.  This  was  continued  during  March  and  April 
and  a part  of  May,  but  on  the  30th  of  the  latter  named  month,  under  General 
Kimball,  they  participated  at  Front  Royal,  and  skirmished  a distance  of  eight- 
een miles.  Here  was  captured  the  notorious  female  spy,  Belle  Boyd. 

From  Front  Royal  the  brigade  to  which  the  Eighth  was  attached  moved  to 
Harrison’s  Landing,  having  daily  skirmishes  on  the  march.  Arrived  at  that 
place  the  regiment  was  placed  in  the  second  corps,  in  Kimball’s  brigade  and 
French’s  division.  This  corps  acted  as  rear  guard  to  the  army  during  the  re- 
treat across  the  Chickahominy,  thence  they  proceeded  to  Alexandria.  The 
Eighth  acted  with  the  supporting  line  at  South  Mountain,  but  not  actively, 
but  crossed  the  mountain  and  skirmished  with  the  enemy  at  Boonsboro  and 
Reedyville. 

Antietam  was  fought  on  September  17,  1862.  “In  the  advance,”  says  Reid, 
“Kimball’s  Brigade  formed  the  third  time,  Morris  and  Max  Weber’s  preced- 
ing. They  struck  the  rebel  line  and  were  driven  back,  when  Kimball  advanced 
at  a double-quick,  carrying  the  line  handsomely,  and  holding  it  for  four  hours, 
and  until  firing  ceased  in  front.  During  this  time  Sedgwick  was  driven  back  on 
the  right,  which  made  it  necessary  for  the  Fourteenth  Indiana  and  the  Eighth 
Ohio  to  change  front,  which  was  done  most  gallantly,  and  saved  the  brigade 
irom  rout.  General  Sumner  pronounced  Kimball’s  the  ‘Gibralter  Brigade.’” 

After  Antietam  the  regiment  was  constantly  on  skirmish  duty  at  Hulltown, 
Snicker’s  Gap,  United  States  Ford,  in  the  reconnoissance  to  Leesburg  and  else- 
where, and  then  engaged  in  the  terrible  battle  at  Fredericksburg,  Va.,  Decem- 
ber 13,  1862,  where  a loss  of  thirty- seven  was  sustained,  after  which  the  Eighth 
remained  in  camp  during  the  rest  of  the  winter,  but  early  in  May  participated 
m the  battle  of  Chancellorsville,  where  it  was  under  constant  fire  for  nearly 
four  days,  but  lost  only  thirteen  in  killed  and  wounded. 

In  the  Gettysburg  campaign  the  regiment  was  as  actively  engaged  as  in  any 
°f  its  numerous  battles.  In  that  engagement,  on  the  afternoon  of  July  2d,  it 
was  thrown  forward  beyond  the  Emmetsburg  road,  to  drive  the  rebel  sharp- 
shooters from  a knoll,  from  which  they  were  rapidly  picking  off  men.  At 
double-quick  the  position  was  taken,  and  held  during  the  remainder  of  the 
h&ht,  notwithstanding  the  fact  that  three  separate  assaults  were  made  against 
*t,  once  by  a force  three  regiments  strong.  Besides  this  the  Eighth  rendered 


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History  of  Erie  County. 


i 1 6 


General  Hay’s  division  effective  service.  Gettysburg  cost  the  Eighth  Regi- 
ment over  one  hundred  men  in  killed  and  wounded. 

In  August,  after  pursuing  and  skirmishing  with  Lee’s  retreating  army  the 
Eighth  received  much  needed  rest  and  quiet  in  a trip  to  New  York  City  to  assist 
in  quelling  the  draft  riots  then  raging. 

Returning  to  the  field  the  regiment  joined  the  army  at  Culpepper,  and  par- 
ticipated in  the  operations  and  engagements  at  Auburn  and  Bristow  Station, 
both  in  October,  and  at  Robinson’s  Cross  Roads,  Locust  Grove  and  Nine  Run, 
the  latter  three  in  November,  1863. 

The  operations  of  1864  were  no  less  active  with  the  Eighth  Ohio.  They 
opened  the  last  six  months  of  army  service  with  the  battle  at  Morton’s  Ford, 
on  February  6th,  after  which  they  next  participated  in  the  Wilderness  fight,  oc- 
cupying a prominent  position  supporting  the  right.  They  recaptured  a section 
of  a battery  that  the  Sixth  Corps  had  lost.  On  the  6th  of  May  they  were  en- 
gaged during  the  entire  day,  while  on  the  7th,  8th  and  9th  they  again  showed 
their  remarkable  ability  for  successful  skirmishing.  Again  at  Po  River  and 
.Spottsyl  vania  Court-House  from  the  10th  to  the  1 8th  the  regiment  was  closely 
engaged,  and  lost  heavily  of  its  few  remaining  though  determined  men. 

From  Spottsyl  vania  Court-house  to  Petersburg  the  Eighth  was  constantly 
on  the  move,  at  North  Anna  River,  Cold  Harbor  and  elsewhere ; now  at  close 
quarters,  again  on  the  skirmish  line,  wherever  they  were  ordered  they  went  and 
did  as  they  were  ordered  unflinchingly,  and  without  a murmur  of  discontent. 

At  Petersburg,  from  June  15th  to  the  19th,  were  they  on  the  field  or  in  the 
trenches.  In  the  latter  place  were  they  when  their  term  of  enlistment  expired, 
June  25,  1864. 

Then  they  returned  home,  receiving  ovations  and  receptions  at  several 
places  along  the  route.  The  Eighth  was  mustered  out  of  service  on  the  13th 
of  July,  1864. 

Those  of  the  regiment  whose  term  did  not  expire  in  June  were  consolidated 
with  the  Fourth  Regiment  of  Infantry  and  became  the  “ P'ourth  Battalion  Ohio 
Infantry,”  and  were  mustered  out  in  July,  1865. 

Roster  Company  E , Three  Months  Service. 

H.  G.  De  Puy,  captain;  James  E.  Gregg,  first  lieutenant;  John  Bixby,  en- 
sign; William  D.  Withered,  Zenas  W.  Barker,  jr.,  Samuel  M.  White,  jr.,  H.  C. 
Jennings,  George  A.  Scoby,  D.  VanKirk,  Leonard  Dewey  Smith,  S.  G.  Rossi- 
ter,  Charles  H.  Reed,  Charles  M.  Keyes,  A.  T.  Craig,  O.  H.  Rosenbaum,  Phi- 
lander Derr,  Charles  G.  Knight,  William  R.  West,  Benjamin  E.  Deely,  West 
B.  Jennings,  S.  M.  Ricker,  Frederick  M.  Burton,  S.  A.  Johnson,  Lewis  J.  Lick, 
Henry  C.  Morton,  John  W.  De  Puy,  Eugene  D.  Bell,  Bryant  Headly,  Charles 
Ruggles,  Leonard  B.  Osborn,  C.  M.  Chapman,  A.  W.  House,  R.  W.  Spauld- 
ing, E.  Warren,  A.  A.  Curry,  William  Lisles,  Roger  Walsh,  William  Brady, 


Military  History. 


«7 


Byron  Wheeler,  George  Fuller,  E.  B.  Fuller,  Robert  Latham,  D.  D.  Bogart,  J. 
Hinckley,  Obed  Caswell,  Isaac  P.  Grover,  George  Quick,  W.  K.  D.  Townsend, 
Isaac  DePuy,  George  J.  Osborne,  Lane  Lockwood,  Edward  Hadley,  Henry 
Conner,  William  H.  Harris,  Charles  Clark,  Burton  Eigler,  William  Brown,  An- 
drew D.  McKisson,  N.  H.  Chamberlin,  James  P.  Harris,  John  Bartlett,  Lester 
V.  McKisson,  Sexton  Duley,  Jefferson  Dailey,  John  Dailey,  N.  H.  Hammond, 
Horace  R.  Wood,  Valentine  Walter,  Lyman  Smith,  Byron  W.  Hoford,  O.  E. 
Bacon,  Harper  Bill,  William  Wolverton,  John  House,  Judson  Willard,  Peter 
Epp,  Frederick  Zorn,  Benevil  Slagal,  John  Donnelly,  Sanford  Harper,  D.  F. 
German,  P.  M.  Cannon,  W.  W.  Miller,  R.  W.  Foster,  G.  V.  Smith,  F.  B.  Col- 
ven,  C.  B.  Rone,  Francis  Pearson,  Walter  Caswell,  William  L.  Banks. 

Roster  Field  and  Staff — Three  Years  Service. 

Herman  G.  De  Puy,  colonel ; resigned  November  9,  1861. 

Samuel  S.  Carroll,  colonel;  in  command  of  brigade  since  May  4,  1862; 
wounded  at  Spottsylvania,  May  12,  1864;  mustered  out  with  regiment  July 
13.  1865. 

Charles  A.  Park,  lieutenant-colonel;  promoted  to  lieutenant-colonel ‘from 
first  lieutenant,  company  H,  July  8,T86i  ; resigned  November  4,  1862. 

Franklin  Sawyer,  lieutenant-colonel;  promoted  from  captain  company  Dy 
to  major,  July  8,  1861  ; to  lieutenant-colonel,  November  25,  1861  ; wounded 
at  battle  of  Gettysburg  July  1,  1863;  brevetted  brigadier-general  ; mustered 
out  with  regiment  July  13,  1864. 

Albert  H.  Winslow,  major  ; promoted  from  captain,  company  A,  Novem- 
ber 25,  1861  ; mustered  out  with  regiment  July  13,  1864. 

Roster  Company  E. 

James  E.  Gregg,  captain;  served  in  1863-4  as  division  inspector ; mus- 
tered out  with  company  July  13,  1864. 

Wells  W.  Miller,  first  lieutenant ; .promoted  to  captain  and  assigned  to 
company  H March  11,  1862. 

Alfred  T.  Craig,  first  lieutenant;  promoted  from  second  lieutenant  to  first 
lieutenant  March  11,  1862;  to  captain  and  assigned  to  company  F March  4, 
*863. 

James  K.  O’Reiley,  first  lieutenant;  transferred  from  company  B June  I, 
1863;  mustered  out  with  company  June  13,  1864. 

James  D.  Wetherell,  second  lieutenant;  appointed  first  sergeant  from  pri- 
vate August  28,  1861  ; promoted  to  second  lieutenant  March  11,  1862;  first 
lieutenant  October  17,  1862,  and  assigned  to  company  A February  23,  1S63. 

Lester  V.  McKesson,  second  lieutenant ; appointed  sergeant  from  corporal. 
August  28,  1862;  promoted  to  second  lieutenant  March  4,  1863;  mustered 
°nt  with  company  July  13,  1864. 

16 


. 


. : 


I •:?  I ^r:.  qmo> 


I is 


History  of  Erie  County. 


Zenas  VV.  Baker,  first  sergeant;  died  August  28,  1861,  at  Oakland,  Md. 

Horace  H.  Bill,  first  sergeant ; appointed  first  sergeant  from  corporal  1861 ; 
sergeant-major  June  25,  1861,  and  transferred  to  Field  and  Staff. 

Romeo  W.  Foster,  first  sergeant;  appointed  sergeant  from  corporal  1862; 
first  sergeant  June  18,  1864;  mustered  out  with  company  July  13,  1864. 

John  W.  De  Puy,  first  sergeant;  appointed  first  sergeant  from  sergeant 
March  11,  1862;  sergeant-major  May  I,  1862,  and  transferred  to  Field  and 
Staff 

Charles  M.  Chapman,  sergeant;  appointed  corporal  August  28,  1861  ; ser- 
geant May  I,  1863;  wounded  at  Spottsylvania  Court  House,  Va.,  May  12, 
1864;  mustered  out  with  company  July  13,  1864. 

Major  S.  Davis,  sergeant ; appointed  corporal  November  20,  1861;  ser- 
geant April  15,  1864;  mustered  out  with  company  July  13,  1864. 

Henry  Owens,  sergeant;  appointed  corporal  November  1,  1862  ; sergeant 
June  18,  1864;  mustered  out  with  company  July  13,  1864. 

Augustus  W.  Porter,  sergeant;  appointed  corporal  September  17,  1862; 
sergeant  April  15,  1863  ; killed  March  6,  1864,  in  battle  of  the  Wilderness. 

Samuel  Edwards,  sergeant ; appointed  sergeant  from  private  July  1,  1862 ; 
died  from  wounds  received  near  Petersburg,  Va.,  June  18,  1864. 

Oscar  E.  Bacon,  sergeant;  appointed  sergeant  from  corporal  March  1, 
1864;  died  April  n,  1864,  in  United  States  General  Hospital,  Baltimore,  Md. 

Augustus  Fergel,  sergeant;  appointed  corporal  January  I,  1862;  sergeant 
May  1,  1863;  wounded  at  the  battle  of  the  Wilderness  May  6,  1864;  mus- 
tered out  January  20,  1865. 

Aurelius  A.  Curry,  sergeant;  appointed  corporal  June  25,  1861  ; sergeant 
May  I,  1862;  transferred  to  Veteran  Reserve  Corps. 

Frederick  Zorn,  corporal ; appointed  corporal  April  15,  1864;  mustered 
out  with  company  July  13,  1864. 

Philander  Derr,  corporal;  appointed  corporal  April  1 5,  1864;  mustered  out 
with  company  July  13,  1864. 

Philip  Gatz,  corporal ; appointed  corporal  May  I,  1864  ; mustered  out  with 
company  July  13,  1864. 

Isaac  Hinkley,  corporal;  appointed  corporal  June  25,  1861  ; killed  in  bat- 
tle of  Fredericksburg,  Va.,  December  13,  1862. 

James  Fernald,  corporal ; discharged  October  1,  1861,  on  surgeon’s  cer- 
tificate of  disability. 

Leonard  D.  Smith,  corporal;  discharged  July  31,  1862,  on  surgeon’s  cer- 
tificate of  disability. 

William  Liles,  corporal ; discharged  April  1,  1863,  for  wounds  received  at 
Fredericksburg,  Va.,  December  13,  1862. 

Charles  Simpson,  corporal;  appointed  corporal  November  20,  1861;  trans- 
ferred to  Sixth  United  States  Cavalry  October  23,  1862,  by  order  of  war  de- 
partment. 


' 

. 


4.  Ilicr: 


Military  History. 


119 

Alanson  Yeoman,  corporal ; appointed  corporal  November  1,  1863  ; trans- 
ferred to  Veteran  Reserve  Corps  July  I,  1864,  by  order  of  war  department. 

R.  B.  Cady,  corporal;  died  April  II,  1864;  buried  in  London  Park  Na- 
tional Cemetery. 

William  Braby,  musician  ; no  record. 

Charles  B.  Roe,  musician  ; no  record. 

Privates . 

James  Anderson,  killed  May  24,  1864,  in  battle  of  North  Anna  River. 

John  Allen,  no  record. 

Frederick  Allen,  no  record. 

George  W.  Alspaugh,  discharged  June  30,  1862,  on  surgeon’s  certificate 
of  disability. 

William  Brown,  no  record. 

Jehial  Bare,  no  record. 

George  D.  Beatty,  discharged  December  25,  1862,  on  surgeon’s  certificate 
of  disability. 

Samuel  Beeler,  discharged  June  16,  1862,  for  wounds  received  at  battle  of 
Winchester,  Va.,  March  23,  1862. 

Martin  Beck,  reduced  to  ranks  from  sergeant  September  17,  1862;  trans- 
ferred to  Sixth  United  States  Cavalry  October  23,  1862,  by  order  of  war  de- 
partment. 

Otto  Boesch,  transferred  to  Veteran  Reserve  Corps  by  order  of  war  de- 
partment. 

Richard  D.  Brewer,  transferred  to  Veteran  Reserve  Corps  by  order  of  war 
department. 

William  L.  Bretz,  reduced  to  ranks  from  corporal  November  25,  1861  ; 
transferred  to  Brigade  Band  May  1,  1862  ; to  company  E June  6,  1864  ; mus- 
tered out  with  company  July  13,  1864. 

Charles  Clark,  mustered  out  with  company  July  13,  1864. 

John  M.  Conner,  died  September  24,  1862,  at  Antietam,  Md. 

Charles  Cartwright,  no  record. 

Frank  B.  Carter,  no  record. 

Henry  E.  Conner,  discharged  May  1,  1862,  on  surgeon’s  certificate  of  dis- 
ability. 

Samuel  Cherry,  transferred  to  Veteran  Reserve  Corps  by  order  of  war  de- 
partment. 

George  R.  Derr,  killed  May  24,  1864,  in  battle  of  North  Anna  River. 

Sexton  Dudley,  discharged  January  24,  1863,  on  surgeon’s  certificate  of 
disability. 

Jefferson  Dailey,  discharged  December  10,  1862,  on  surgeon’s  certificate 
°f  disability. 


, .jnt)h  ■ >t> 


; 

tij-f 


120 


History  of  Erie  County. 


John  Dailey,  discharged  January  20,  1862,  on  surgeon’s  certificate  of  dis- 
ability. 

Peter  Epp,  discharged  January  12,  1863,  for  wounds  received  in  action. 

George  E.  Flanders,  discharged  November  I,  1862,  at  Camp  Dennison,  O., 
on  surgeon’s  certificate  of  disability. 

Stephen  Giles,  died  March  27,  1862,  from  wounds  received  at  battle  of 
Winchester,  Va.,  March  23,  1862. 

Richard  F.  Gray,  no  record. 

Harmon  Groff,  transferred  to  Sixth  United  States  Cavalry  October  23, 
1862,  by  order  of  war  department. 

Philip  Grover,  transferred  to  Sixth  United  States  Cavalry  October  23., 
1862,  by  order  of  war  department. 

William  H.  Harris,  mustered  out  with  company  July  13,  1864. 

Henry  H.  Haines,  no  record  found. 

Frederick  Harrington,  discharged  January  20,  1862,  on  surgeon’s  certifi- 
cate of  disability. 

John  H.  House,  discharged  July  7,  1863,  on  surgeon’s  certificate  of  dis- 
ability. 

Stephen  Hinkley,  discharged  May  3,  1862,  on  surgeon’s  certificate  of  dis- 
ability. 

Patrick  Hinchey,  discharged  June  I,  1862,  by  order  of  war  department. 

John  Howard,  transferred  to  Sixth  United  States  Cavalry  October  23, 
1862,  by  order  of  war  department. 

William  H.  Haas,  transferred  to  company  A June  25,  1861. 

John  H.  Jack,  appointed  first  sergeant  July  1,  1861  ; reduced  to  ranks 
Aoril  6,  1863  ; discharged  June  28,  1864,  at  Columbus,  O. 

Warren  F.  June,  no  record  found. 

James  Jones,  no  record  found. 

Antone  Knabiel,  discharged  January  1,  1863,  on  surgeon’s  certificate  of 
disability. 

Lorenzo  Luce,  transferred  to  Invalid  Corps  September  14,  1863,  by  order 
of  war  department. 

James  D.  Martin,  died  March  17,  1862,  from  wounds  received  at  Win- 
chester, Va.,  March  23,  1862. 

James  Maiear,  died  May  12,  1862,  from  wounds  received  at  battle  of  Win- 
chester, Va.,  March  23,  1862. 

John  C.  McEnally  ; no  record  found. 

John  McGinness  ; no  record  found. 

Adam  Moose,  jr.  ; discharged  November  18,  1862,  on  surgeon’s  certificate 
of  disability. 

Henry  D.  C.  Mills;  discharged  November  20,  1862,  for  wounds  received 
at  battle  of  Antietam,  Md.,  September  17,  1862. 


Military  History. 


21 


Martin  V.  Mixer;  discharged  December  23,  1863,  on  surgeon’s  certificate 
of  disability. 

Charles  H.  Merrick;  transferred  to  company  H July  5,  1861. 

Henry  McDonald  ; transferred  to  Sixth  United  States  Cavalry  October  23, 
1S62. 

T.  G.  Maxwell;  died  March  9,  1854;  buried  at  Spring  Grove  National 
Cemetery,  lot  No.  210,  Cincinnati,  O. 

Theodore  Neile;  wounded  at  Cold  Harbor,  Va.  ; prisoner  of  war  in  Ander- 
sonville  June  3,  1864;  no  record  of  muster-out  found. 

Francis  Pearson;  no  record  found. 

William  Paul ; no  record  found. 

Thomas  H.  Pyle;  discharged  December  3,  1863,  on  surgeon’s  certificate 
of  disability. 

Henry  S.  Porter;  discharged  December  3,  1863,  for  wounds  received  at 
battle  of  Winchester,  Va.,  March  23,  1862. 

Frederick  Renther  ; prisoner  of  war  from  October  15,  1863,  to  June  10, 
1864;  mustered  out  with  company  July  13,  1864. 

Edgar  J.  Reed  ; discharged  December  2,  1862,  on  surgeon’s  certificate  of 
disability. 

Lerman  Smith,  wounded  at  battle  of  Winchester,  Va.,  March  23,  1862; 
mustered  out  with  company  July  13,  1864. 

Joseph  Stibel ; mustered  out  with  company  July  13,  1864. 

Gustavus  V.  Smith;  killed  in  skirmish  at  Worthington,  Va.,  September  1, 
1861. 

Lyman  Smith;  died  September  u,  1861,  at  Grafton,  Va. 

John  Smith;  died  January  11,  1862,  from  accidental  gun-shot  wound. 

Peter  Shumaker;  died  March  25,  1862,  from  wound  received  at  battle  of 
Winchester,  March  23,  1862. 

Joseph  T.  Smith ; no  record  found. 

Merrill  Starr;  discharged  January  27,  1863,  on  surgeon’s  certificate  of  dis- 
ability. 

Hugo  C.  Springer;  discharged  December  2,  1862,  on  surgeon’s  certificate 
of  disability. 

Frank  L.  Saeffing  ; discharged  April  8,  1863,  on  surgeon’s  certificate  of 
disability. 

Henry  C.  Schenk;  discharged  August  15,  1862,  on  surgeon’s  certificate  of 
disability. 

Franklin  Trube  ; killed  in  battle  of  Antietam,  Md.,  September  17,  1S62. 

Albert  J.  Vining  ; transferred  to  Sixth  United  States  Cavalry  October  23, 
1 ot^2*  by  order  of  war  department. 

Roger  L.  Walsh  ; wounded  in  battles  of  Winchester  and  the  Wilderness ; 

amputated;  mustered  out  with  company  July  13,  1864. 


122 


History  of  Erie  County. 


Horace  R.  Wood;  mustered  out  with  company  July  13,  1864. 

James  M.  Webber;  wounded  at  battle  of  Petersburg,  Va.,  June  19,  1864; 
mustered  out  with  company  July  13,  1864. 

Valentine  Walter;  died  June  18,  1864,  from  wounds  received  at  battle  of 
Wilderness,  Va.,  May  10,  1864;  buried  in  Arlington,  Va.,  National  Cemetery. 

Charles  F.  Warner ; no  record  found. 

Fayette  Walcott;  discharged  March  5,  1863,  for  wounds  received  in  action. 

William  Wilson;  discharged  November  4,  1862,  on  surgeon’s  certificate  of 
disability. 

Ebenezer  E.  Warren  ; transferred  to  Veteran  Reserve  Corps  September  30, 

1863,  by  order  of  war  department. 

Christian  W.  Weidel;  transferred  to  Sixth  United  States  Cavalry  October 
23,  1863,  by  order  of  war  department. 

Jacob  Weidman ; transferred  to  company  A June  25,  1861. 

Isaac  Wilson  ; transferred  to  commandant  at  Camp  Cleveland,  O.,  July  13, 

1864. 

THE  TWENTY- FOURTH  INFANTRY. 

The  Twenty-fourth  Regiment  of  Ohio  Volunteer  Infantry  was  organized  at 
Camps  Chase  and  Jackson  during  the  latter  part  of  May  and  the  early  part  of 
June,  1861.  To  its  formation  no  less  than  eleven  counties  made  a contribu- 
tion of  men,  young  men,  most  of  them,  strong  and  active.  The  county  of  Erie 
sent  into  this  command  a large  contingent  of  company  E.  The  greater  portion 
of  this  company  was  enlisted  in  June,  1861,  but  recruits  were  received  during 
1863  and  1864. 

Although  the  regiment  entered  the  service  in  June,  it  was  not  until  about 
the  middle  of  September,  following,  that  it  engaged  in  its  first  battle.  During 
the  latter  part  of  July  the  Twenty-fourth  left  camp  for  Cheat  Mountain,  Va., 
where  they  encamped  and  prepared  for  guard  duty.  The  enemy  were  within 
a short  marching  distance,  and  picket  firing  and  skirmishing  were  not  infre- 
quent. 

On  the  morning  of  September  12  the  regiment  was  surrounded  by  the 
rebel  forces  and  barely  escaped  capture.  Lack  of  proper  vigilance  was  the 
cause  of  this  disaster.  But  the  boys  soon  rallied  and  formed  a line  of  battle 
and  made  a stout  and  successful  resistance,  but  not  without  some  loss  in  killed 
and  wounded.  The  roster  will  disclose  the  fact  that  as  many  of  company  C 
were  killed  or  wounded  at  Cheat  Mountain  as  in  any  other  place,  excepting 
possibly  Chickamauga,  Ga. 

The  Twenty-fourth  was  next  engaged  at  Greenbrier,  Va.,  on  the  3d  of 
October,  where  they  were  exposed  to  a heavy  fire,  but  for  all  of  that  their  loss 
was  inconsiderable,  two  being  killed  and  three  wounded.  This  ended  the 
fighting  for  1861.  The  regiment  proceeded  to  Louisville,  Ky.,  arriving  there 
on  the  28th  of  November.  While  here  the  Twenty-fourth  was  attached  to  the 
Fourth  Division  of  the  Tenth  Brigade  of  the  Army  of  the  Ohio. 


■ v 


Military  History. 


123 


Late  in  February,  1862,  the  command  reached  Nashville,  Tenn.,  where  it 
remained  some  weeks,  and  then  proceeded  to  Savannah,  reaching  that  place  on 
April  5,  much  worn  and  fatigued  by  marching  over  heavy  roads,  and  wading 
through  streams  and  marshes. 

The  regiment  next  participated  in  the  battle  of  Pittsburg  Landing,  losing 
over  thirty  in  killed  and  wounded,  and  afterward  skirmished  with  the  enemy 
on  the  march  toward  Corinth,  which  latter  place  the  Twenty- fourth  was  one 
of  the  first  regiments  to  occupy.  In  October  the  regiment  was  assigned  to  the 
Fourth  Division  of  the  Twenty-first  Army  Corps.  At  Perryville,  on  the  8th, 
it  was  present  on  the  field  but  not  actively  engaged. 

In  December  General  Rosecrans  moved  toward  Nashville.  The  Twenty- 
fourth  was  in  an  exceedingly  unfortunate  condition.  Company  A was  on 
detached  duty,  and  the  balance  of  the  command  numbered  less  than  three  hun- 
dred and  fifty  serviceable  men,  sickness,  discharges  for  disability,  transfers, 
losses,  and  desertions  having  reduced  the  regiment  to  that  number.  However, 
with  that  strength  the  Twenty-fourth  went  into  the  battle  of  Stone  River, 
Tenn.,  on  the  last  day  of  the  year  1862.  It  was  given  an  important  position 
in  this  battle,  and  held  firmly,  doing  excellent  service,  but  losing  heavily, 
there  being  nearly  ninety  lost  in  killed  and  wounded,  or  about  one-fourth  its 
entire  strength.  Next  came  Woodbury,  on  the  24th  of  January,  with  but 
slight  loss. 

No  further  important  battle  was  participated  in  by  the  regiment  until  the 
Chickamauga  engagement  in  which  it  also  lost  a number  of  officers  and  men. 
After  this  was  over  Colonel  Higgins  and  Major  McClure  were  “permitted”  to 
resign  from  the  service.  At  Lookout  Mountain,  November  24,  1863,  at  Mis- 
sion Ridge,  November  25,  and  at  Taylor’s  Ridge,  Ga.,  November  27,  the  reg- 
iment was  engaged,  after  which  it  was  assigned  to  the  Second  Division  of  the 
fourth  Corps.  The  final  battle  in  which  it  participated  was  at  Buzzard  Roost, 
°r  Rocky  Face  Ridge,  on  February  25-27,  1864,  and  in  April  following  was 
sent  to  Chattanooga  to  await  orders  for  muster-out.  In  June  it  proceeded  to 
Columbus,  and  was,  excepting  Company  D.  mustered  out  by  companies,  at 
different  dates,  from  June  17  to  24,  by  reason  of  expiration  of  term  of  service. 
Company  C was  mustered  out  on  June  22,  by  J.  M.  Eyster,  captain  Eighteenth 
Infantry  United  States  Army. 

Roster  Field  and  Staff. 

Jacob  Ammen,  colonel,  promoted  to  brigadier-general  United  States  Vol- 
unteers, July  16,  1862. 

frederick  C.  Jones,  colonel;  promoted  to  colonel  May  14,  1862  ; killed  De- 
cember 31,  1862,  at  battle  of  Stone  River,  Tennessee. 

David  J.  Higgins,  colonel  ; promoted  from  captain  company  C January  1, 
1863; 

resigned  October  23,  1863. 


124 


History  of  Erie  County. 


Samuel  A.  Gilbert,  lieutenant-colonel  ; promoted  to  colonel  Forty-fourth 
Ohio  Volunteer  Infantry  October  18,  1 86 1 . 

Lucien  C.  Buttles,  lieutenant- colonel ; promoted  from  major  October  14, 
1861  ; resigned  November  28,  1861. 

Albert  S.  Hall,  lieutenant-colonel ; promoted  to  major  from  captain  com- 
pany F December  20,  1861  ; lieutenant-colonel  May  14,  1862;  colonel  One 
Hundred  and  Fifth  Ohio  Volunteer  Infantry  August  II,  1862. 

Armstead  T.  M.  Cockrill,  lieutenant-colonel  ; promoted  from  captain  com- 
pany D December  31,  1862  ; to  colonel  October  23,  1863,  but  not  mustered  ; 
mustered  out  June  24,  1864. 

Shelton  Sturgess,  major;  promoted  from  captain  company  B October  14, 
1861  ; resigned  November  28,  1861. 

Henry  Terry,  major;  promoted  from  captain  company  G May  14,  1862  ; 
to  lieutenant-colonel  August  11,  1862,  but  not  mustered;  killed  December  31, 
1862,  in  battle  of  Stone  River,  Tennessee. 

Thomas  M.  McClure,  major  ; promoted  from  captain  company  K Decem- 
ber 31,  1862  ; resigned. 

William  B.  Sturgess,  major;  promoted  from  captain  company  A October 

3,  1863  ; mustered  out  with  regiment  June  24,  1864. 

Roster  Company  C. 

Mustered  into  service  June  1,  1861,  at  Camp  Johnson,  Ohio,  by  John  C. 
Robinson,  captain  Fifth  Infantry,  United  States  Army;  mustered  out  June  22, 
1864,  at  Columbus,  O. 

David  J.  Higgins,  captain;  promoted  to  colonel  January  I,  1863. 

DeWitt  C.  Wadsworth,  captain;  promoted  to  first  lieutenant  from  second 
lieutenant  December  20,  1861  ; transferred  to  company  I ; promoted  to  cap- 
tain December  31,  1862  ; died  September  21,  1863,  of  wounds  received  Sep- 
tember 20,  1863,  at  the  battle  of  Chickamauga,  Georgia. 

William  C.  Beck,  captain  ; appointed  first  sergeant  from  sergeant  October 

4,  1861  ; promoted  to  second  lieutenant  June  6,  1862  ; first  lieutenant  Decem- 
ber 31,  1862  ; captain  April  21,  1864;  mustered  out  with  company  June  22, 
1864. 

Enoch  Weller,  first  lieutenant ; promoted  to  captain  company  H October 
3,  1861. 

John  H.  Elbert  first  lieutenant;  promoted  from  second  lieutenant,  company 
E,  October  15,  1861  ; resigned  January  6,  1862. 

George  W.  Brown,  first  lieutenant ; promoted  from  private  company  A 
April  21,  1864;  transferred  to  company  F,  Eighteenth  Ohio  Volunteer  Infan- 
try, 1864. 

Robert  B.  Billingsly,  first  sergeant ; appointed  from  sergeant  June  29,  1861 ; 
•died  October  4,  1861,  at  Cheat  Mountain,  Va. 


. 


Military  History. 


125 


Leonard  B.  Osborn,  first  sergeant ; appointed  from  corporal  October  8, 
1861  ; first  sergeant  July  8,  1862;  mustered  out  with  company  June  22, 

1864- 

Alfred  Marion,  sergeant;  appointed  from  corporal  September  1,  1861; 
killed  December  31,  1862,  in  battle  of  Stone  River,  Tennessee. 

John  R.  Baker,  sergeant;  reduced  from  first  sergeant  June  29,  1861; 
died  October  7,  1861,  at  Cheat  Mountain,  Va. 

Lindly  M.  Tullis,  sergeant;  appointed  from  corporal  October  4,  1861 ; killed 
September  19,  1863,  in  battle  of  Chickamauga,  Ga. 

John  M.  Root,  sergeant ; died  August  24,  1861,  at  Cheat  Mountain  Va. 

George  L.  Dix,  sergeant;  appointed  corporal  March  1,  1862;  sergeant 
July  8,  1862;  discharged  October  3,  1862,  to  enlist  in  the  Fourth  United 
States  Artillery. 

Israel  J.  Deemer,  sergeant;  mustered  as  private;  appointed  sergeant  April 
I,  1862;  mustered  out  with  company  June  22,  1864. 

Peter  W.  Smith,  sergeant;  appointed  from  musician  December  31,  1862; 
mustered  out  with  company  June  22,  1864. 

James  Quinn,  sergeant;  appointed  corporal  June  1,  1862;  sergeant  De- 
cember 31,  1862  ; mustered  out  with  company  June  22,  1864. 

Jason  R.  Orton,  corporal;  appointed  corporal  August  30,  1862;  died  April 
18,  1863,  *n  hospital  at  Quincy,  111.,  from  wounds  received  in  battle  of  Stone 
River,  Tennessee. 

Joseph  H.  Wright,  corporal;  discharged  April  23,  1863,  to  accept  ap- 
pointment as  contract  surgeon. 

Henry  H.  Arner,  corporal;  appointed  corporal  June  I,  1862;  discharged 
October  23,  1862  to  enlist  in  Fourth  United  States  Artillery. 

Fisher  A.  Billingsley,  corporal;  appointed  corporal  September  1,  1861  ; 
discharged  May  18,  1862,  on  surgeon’s  certificate  of  disability. 

John  Matt,  corporal;  appointed  corporal  December  21,  1861. 

Richard  Slette,  corporal ; appointed  corporal  September  1,  1861  ; dis- 
charged to  enlist  in  Fourth  United  States  Artillery. 

Henry  Meyer,  corporal;  transferred  to  company  F Eighteenth  Ohio  Vol- 
unteer Infantry,  1864  ; veteran. 

Eewis  Rubel,  corporal ; appointed  corporal  March  12,  1861 ; transferred  to 
company  F,  Eighteenth  Ohio  Volunteer  Infantry,  1864;  veteran. 

James  F.  H.  Cook,  corporal ; appointed  corporal ; transferred  to  company 
f'.  Eighteenth  Ohio  Volunteer  Infantry  January  2,  1864;  veteran. 

William  English,  corporal  ; appointed  corporal  March  12,  1864;  trans- 
*‘-'rred  to  company  F,  Eighteenth  Ohio  Volunteer  Infantry , 1864;  vet- 

eran. 

John  H.  Roberts,  corporal;  appointed  corporal  June  1,  1862;  wounded 
December  31,  1862,  in  battle  of  Stone  River,  Tennessee. 

17 


■ 


126 


History  of  Erie  County. 


John  Liddle,  corporal;  appointed  corporal  July  8,  1862;  wounded  Sep- 
tember 19,  1863,  in  battle  of  Chickamauga,  Georgia. 

John  Whalon,  corporal;  appointed  corporal  November  23,  1862;  mus- 
tered out  with  company  June  22,  1864. 

John  Sheppard,  corporal ; appointed  corporal  December  31,  1862  ; mus- 
tered out  with  company  June  22,  1864. 

Irwin  G.  Porter,  corporal  ; appointed  corporal  November  31,  1862  ; mus- 
tered out  with  company  June  22,  1864. 

Jeremiah  E.  Williams,  musician  ; mustered  out  with  company  June  22, 
1864. 

Richard  Larimer,  wagoner;  transferred  from  company  H July  2,  1861; 
mustered  out  with  company  June  22,  1864. 

Privates. 

Ole  Anderson  ; killed  July  25,  1861,  at  Camp  Chase  by  the  accidental  dis- 
charge of  a gun. 

Nelson  Arnold  ; transferred  to  company  F,  Eighteenth  Ohio  Volunteer  In- 
fantry  , 1864;  veteran. 

John  Arni  ; transferred  to  company  H July  2,  1861. 

Isaac  H.  Ames;  transferred  to  company  F,  Eighteenth  Ohio  Volunteer  In- 
fantry  , 1864. 

Dayton  Andrews;  transferred  to  company  F,  Eighteenth  Ohio  Volunteer 
Infantry , 1864. 

Francis  Bradley;  reduced  from  corporal  December  31,  1861  ; died  March 
22,  1862,  near  Duck  River,  Tennessee. 

Henry  C.  Beck  ; mustered  out  with  company  June  22,  1864. 

Simon  Bernhart ; reduced  from  corporal  September  I,  1861;  mustered 
out  with  company  June  22,  1864. 

Isaac  Burlingame  ; mustered  out  with  company  June  22,  1864. 

Lewis  Bernstine;  mustered  out  with  company  June  22,  1864. 

John  Brokely;  died  July  4,  1862,  at  Athens,  Ala. 

Samuel  Bradner  ; no  record  found. 

Benjamin  F.  Burcan  ; discharged  January  18,  1862,  on  surgeon’s  certificate 
of  disability. 

William  L.  Benton ; transferred  to  company  F,  Eighteenth  Ohio  Volun- 
teer Infantry, , 1864. 

Thomas  W.  Carpenter;  mustered  out  with  company  June  22,  1864. 

Thomas  C.  Campbell;  died  November  16,  1861,  at  Cheat  Mountain,  Va. 

Charles  Castle  ; no  record  found. 

Jeremiah  Cole,  discharged  October  2,  1863,  on  surgeon’s  certificate  of  dis- 
ability. 

John  C.  Dildine,  mustered  out  with  company  June  22,  1864. 


Military  History. 


127 


George  Dart,  killed  January  13,  1863,  by  Joseph  King,  at  Murfreesboro, 
Tenn. 

John  Donevon,  wounded  September  19,  1863,  in  battle  of  Chickamauga,  Ga., 
transferred  to  Veteran  Reserve  Corps,  , 1864. 

Samuel  F.  Donaldson,  transferred  to  company  F,  Eighteenth  Ohio  Vol- 
unteer Infantry,  , 1864;  veteran. 

John  L.  Dunbar,  transferred  to  company  F,  Eighteenth  Ohio  Volunteer  In- 
fantry,   , 1864. 

Frederick  Everhardt,  discharged  October  24.  1862,  to  enlist  in  Fourth 
United  States  Artillery. 

James  S.  Edsall,  transferred  to  company  F,  Eighteenth  Ohio  Volunteer  In- 
fantry,  , 1864;  veteran. 

John  L.  Ennis,  transferred  to  company  F,  Eighteenth  Ohio  Volunteer  In- 
fantry,   , 1864. 

Alanson  Ford,  no  record  found. 

Hiram  Fosnot,  discharged  August,  8,  1861,  on  surgeon’s  certificate  of  dis- 
ability. 

Victor  W.  Frederick,  transferred  to  company  H,  July  2,  1861. 

Solomon  Foster,  transferred  to  company  F,  Eighteenth  Ohio  Volunteer  In- 
fantry,   , 1864. 

Joshua  Foster,  transferred  to  company  F,  Eighteenth  Ohio  Volunteer  In- 
fantry,   , 1864. 

Caleb  Garrett,  discharged  August  25,  1862,  on  surgeon’s  certificate  of  dis- 
ability. 

Chambers  O.  Gamble,  transferred  to  company  F,  Eighteenth  Ohio  Volun- 
teer Infantry, , 1864;  veteran. 

John  Grose,  transferred  to  Veteran  Reserve  Corps  August  5,  1863,  by  or- 
der of  war  department. 

Henry  Garrett,  transferred  to  company  F,  Eighteenth  Ohio  Volunteer  In- 
fantry,   , 1864. 

John  H.  Hibler,  mustered  out  with  company  June  22,  1864. 

George  W.  Hanan,  mustered  out  with  company  June  22,  1864. 

Gilbert  H.  Hewitt,  record  missing. 

John  Heater,  transferred  to  company  F,  Eighteenth  Ohio  Volunteer  In- 
fantry,  , 1864;  veteran. 

Isaac  Jones,  died  March  26,  1862,  in  hospital  at  Nashville,  Tenn. 

Joseph  King,  record  missing. 

Frederick  A Ketcham,  transferred  to  company  F,  Eighteenth  Ohio  Volun- 
teer Infantry, , 1864. 

William  Luff,  discharged  May  8,  1863,  on  surgeon’s  certificate  of  disability. 

Henry  Leonard,  transferred  to  company  F,  Eighteenth  Ohio  Infantry, 

1864. 


. . 


128 


History  of  Erie  County. 


Michael  McGasky,  mustered  out  with  company  June  22,  1864. 

Peter  Miller,  mustered  out  with  company  June  22,  1864. 

Frank  L.  Meyers,  mustered  out  with  company  June  22,  1864. 

Charles  McGraves,  reduced  from  wagoner  September  I,  1861  ; discharged 
February  16,  1862,  on  surgeon’s  certificate  of  disability. 

William  Marlow,  transferred  to  company  F,  Eighteenth  Ohio  Volunteer 
Iniantry, ,1864;  veteran. 

George  Neidle,  appointed  corporal  September  1,  1861  ; reduced  to  ranks 
December  21,  1861  ; discharged  May  17,  1862. 

Rufus  L.  Ney,  transferred  to  company  F,  Eighteenth  Ohio  Volunteer  In- 
fantry,   , 1864;  veteran. 

Benjamin  F.  Peterson,  discharged  January  18,  1862,  on  surgeon’s  certifi- 
cate of  disability. 

William  A.  Roller,  mustered  out  with  company  June  22,  1864. 

Jacob  Rinehart,  wounded  September  19,  1863,  in  battle  of  Chickamauga, 
Ga. ; mustered  out  with  company  June  22,  1864. 

Peter  Ryan,  discharged  April  3,  1862,  on  surgeon’s  certificate  of  disability. 

Jackson  Ryan,  discharged  May  17,  1862,  on  surgeon’s  certificate  of  disa- 
bility. ' 

Samuel  Richy,  discharged,  date  unknown. 

Henry  B.  Robinson,  discharged  August  18,  1862,  on  surgeon’s  certificate 
of  disability. 

Joshua  M.  Roller,  transferred  to  company  F,  Eighteenth  Ohio  Volunteer 
Infantry, , 1864. 

Bohart  Stineley,  mustered  out  with  company  June  22,  1864. 

George  Stubenhofer,  mustered  out  with  company  June  22,  1S64. 

Charles  Shurley,  wounded  September  19,  1863,  in  battle  of  Chickamauga, 
Ga.  ; absent,  sick  in  hospital  at  Madison,  Ind.  ; mustered  out  June  22,  1864,  by 
order  of  war  department. 

Peter  J.  Shuster,  died  October  9,  1861,  at  Cheat  Mountain,  Va. 

Charles  Sill,  discharged  May  31,  1862,  on  surgeon’s  certificate  of  disability. 

David  Steigle,  wounded  Dec.  31,  1862,  in  battle  of  Stone  River,  Tenn.  ; 
transferred  to  Veteran  Reserve  Corps  January  15,  1864,  by  order  of  war  de- 
partment. 

Philip  Smith,  transferred  to  company  F,  Eighteenth  Ohio  Volunteer  Infan- 
try   , 1864. 

Patrick  Shunnessev.  transferred  to  company  F,  Eighteenth  Ohio  Volun- 
teer Infantry,  , 1864. 

Henry  Traut,  mustered  out  with  company  June  22,  1864. 

John  E.  Taylor,  died  January  7,  1863,  of  wounds  received  at  battle  of 
Stone  River  December  31,  1862. 

Sylvanus  F.  Tullis,  records  missing. 


' 


Military  History. 


129 


William  Tits  wood,  discharged  July  20,  1862,  on  surgeon’s  certificate  of 
disability. 

Benjamin  F.  Taylor,  discharged  October  24,  1862,  on  surgeon’s  certificate 
of  disability. 

Frederick  Tester,  discharged  September  8,  1862,  on  surgeon’s  certificate 
of  disability. 

Richard  B.  Tullis,  transferred  to  Veteran  Reserve  Corps  January  16,  1864, 
by  order  of  war  department. 

William  Voit,  mustered  out  with  company  June  22,  1864. 

George  Vining,  mustered  out  with  company  June  22,  1864. 

John  Q.  Vanderslice,  discharged  August  19,  1862,  on  surgeon’s  certificate 
of  disability. 

George  Waters,  mustered  out  with  company  June  22,  1864. 

Jacob  Warner,  mustered  out  with  company  June  22,  1864. 

John  Weyle,  died  April  I,  18C2,  in  hospital  at  Nashville,  Tenn. 

Charles  Wilson,  transferred  to  company  F,  Eighteenth  Ohio  Volunteer  In- 
fantry,  1864;  veteran. 

Joseph  M.  Waldorf,  transferred  to  Veteran  Reserve  . Corps,  September  1, 
1863,  by  order  of  war  department. 

Thomas  Weston,  transferred  to  company  F,  Eighteenth  Ohio  Volunteer  In- 
fantry,   , 1864. 

THE  FIFTY-FIFTH  INFANTRY. 

To  the  numerical  strength  of  this  regiment  Erie  county  contributed  as  largely 
as  to  any  represented  by  the  county  in  the  three  years  service.  Companies  A, 

C.  D and  I were  recruited  in  this  and  Huron  counties,  while  the  field  and  staff 
of  the  regiment  were  also  in  part  composed  of  men  from  the  sections  named. 

The  regiment  was  raised  during  the  months  of  September,  October  and 
November,  1861,  and  rendezvoused  at  Norwalk,  the  county  seat  of  Huron 
county.  It  was  not  until  the  latter  part  of  January,  1862,  that  the  Fifty-fifth 
broke  camp  at  Norwalk,  and  proceeded  to  Grafton,  W.  Va .,  where  it  remained 
for  a short  time,  and  thence  went  to  New  Creek.  Here  the  men  experienced 
some  severe  marching  service  and  engaged  in  a brisk  skirmish  at  Moorefield, 
but  in  February  the  regiment  returned  to  Grafton. 

Like  all  commands  of  northern  troops,  unused  to  the  climate  of  the  South, 
the  men  of  the  Fifty-fifth  suffered  severely  from  contagious  and  infectious  dis- 
eases ; many  died  and  others  were  rendered  wholly  unfit  for  active  service. 

During  the  latter  part  of  April  the  regiment,  except  companies  D,  E and 

D,  moved  with  Schenck’s  brigade,  to  which  it  was  attached,  to  McDowell,  in 

battle  at  which  place  they  were  engaged,  acting  in  support  of  a battery, 

**ad  not  under  heavy  fire.  At  Cross  Keys  the  regiment  was  on  the  field  but 
not  engaged.  After  this  they  moved  to  Middletown,  near  Winchester,  where 
the  regiment  was  brigaded  with  the  Twenty-fifth,  Seventy-third  and  Seventy- 
f»Kh  Ohio  regiments  and  was  attached  to  General  Schenck’s  division. 


' 

■ 


History  of  Erie  County. 


130 


On  August  9,  1862,  the  brigade  participated  in  the  fight  at  Cedar  Moun- 
tain and  suffered  some  loss.  Again  at  the  Second  Bull  Run,  on  the  30th  of 
the  same  month,  they  lay  in  support  of  a battery  when  the  rebels  appeared 
on  their  flank,  with  whom  they  at  once  engaged  and  continued  until  dark  when 
the  whole  line  fell  back  to  Centreville.  After  this  the  regiment  went  into 
camp  for  a few  days  on  Munson’s  Hill,  but  on  September  22,  returned  to  Cen- 
treville. From  this  point  a number  of  reconnoissances  were  made  but  no  general 
engagement  was  participated  in  until  the  battle  of  Chancellorsville,  May  2, 
1863,  with  the  Eleventh  Corps,  to  which  it  had  been  assigned.  In  the  Chan- 
cellorsville fight  the  Fifty-fifth  lost  one  hundred  and  fifty-three  men  in  killed, 
wounded  and  missing.  The  regiment  was  then  assigned  to  the  Second 
Brigade  of  the  Second  Division  and  so  remained  until  the  end  of  its  term  of 
service. 

From  Brooks’s  Station  the  Fifty-fifth  with  its  brigade  marched  to  Gettys- 
burg, Pa.,  where  it  again  was  engaged,  first  being  posted  on  Cemetery  Hill, 
but  afterward  moving-  to  the  left  of  the  Baltimore  Pike.  While  notin  the  reg- 
ular  battle  line,  the  regiment  was  continually  exposed  to  a severe  fire  and  lost 
fifty  men.  The  regiment  joined  in  pursuit  of  the  retreating  rebel  forces  for 
some  days  and  on  July  25th  went  into  camp  at  Catlett’s  Station,  when  it  was 
assigned  to  picket  duty. 

In  September  the  Eleventh  and  Twelfth  Corps  left  camp,  and  by  a series  of 
movements  by  rail  and  marching,  reached  the  battle  ground  of  Mission  Ridge 
where  they  were  engaged  on  November  25,  and  suffered  a slight  loss,  their  po- 
sition being  on  che  extreme  left.  After  this  the  Fifty-fifth  entered  on  the 
Knoxville  campaign.  This  was  made  in  the  dead  of  winter,  without  tents  or 
blankets.  On  the  1st  of  January  following  the  Knoxville  campaign  three  hun- 
dred and  nineteen  of  the  men  of  the  Fifty- fifth  re-enlisted,  aad  thus  became 
veterans.  They  were  granted  an  extended  leave  of  absence,  and  it  was  not 
until  the  early  part  of  March,  1864,  that  they  again  encamped  in  the  Lookout 
Valley.  At  about  this  time  the  Eleventh  and  Twelfth  army  corps  were  con- 
solidated and  denominated  the  Twentieth,  of  which  the  Fifty- fifth  formed  a 
part  of  the  Third  Brigade  of  the  Third  Division. 

Then  commenced  the  Atlanta' campaign,  and  in  it  the  regiment  partici- 
pated. The  month  of  May  witnessed  a succession  of  active  operations,  com- 
mencing with  the  affair  at  Buzzard’s  Roost  Gap,  Ga.,  on  the  5th;  again  on  the 
15th  came  the  engagement  at  Resaca,  where  the  regiment  was  under  heavy 
fire  and  lost  nearly  one  hundred  men.  From  May  19  to  the  early  part  of  June, 
the  Fifty-fifth  were  in  a series  of  maneuvres  about  Cassville,  Dallas,  New 
Hope  Church  and  Marietta,  and  the  9th  of  June  found  them  engaged  in  the 
operations  at  Kenesaw  Mountain,  which  continued  during  the  best  part  of  the 
month. 


Military  History.  , 


131 


The  month  of  July  found  the  brigade  to  which  the  Fifty-fifth  belonged  en- 
g.iged  in  the  movements  and  battle  at  Chattahoochie  River,  on  the  12th,  and 
’so  at  Peach  Tree  Creek,  on  the  20th.  Further,  they  participated  in  the  other 
operations  just  prior  to  and  during  the  siege  of  Atlanta.  This  latter  occupied 
from  July  28  to  September  2,  1864,  and  about  this  time  the  city  was  occupied 
and  comfortable  quarters  found  for  the  men.  When  the  regiment  left  Look- 
out Valley  to  enter  upon  this  campaign,  it  numbered  about  four  hundred  men 
fit  for  service,  but  in  the  events  that  followed  up  to  the  time  that  Atlanta  was 
occupied,  that  number  was  reduced  by  about  one-half,  so  that  the  entire  avail- 
able force  amounted  to  less  than  two  hundred.  About  the  1st  of  November 
the  regiment  received  drafted  men,  substitutes,  and  some  fecruits,  numbering 
in  all  some  two  hundred,  and  about  this  time  those  who  were  not  veterans 

1 

were  mustered  out. 

On  the  15th  of  November  the  brigade  left  Atlanta  and  took  up  the  line  of 
march  toward  the  sea.  On  the  21st  of  December  it  arrived  at  Savannah,  and 
went  into  camp  on  the  northwest  of  the  city.  Here  it  remained  until  the  early 
part  of  January,  1865,  when  it  moved  to  the  opposite  side  of  the  river. 

In  March  commenced  the  campaign  of  the  Carolinas,  and  on  the  16th  and 
19th  the  regiment  encountered  the  enemy  at  Smith’s  Farm,  and  lost,  in  the 
two  fights,  about  fifty  men.  On  the  24th  Goldsboro  was  reached,  and  the 
troops  passed  in  review  before  their  gallant  commander,  General  Sherman. 
Prom  Goldsboro  the  Fifty-fifth  went  to  Raleigh,  and  on  the  30th  commenced 
the  return  to  Washington.  Richmond  was  reached  May  11,  and  on  the  18th 
the  regiment  encamped  near  Alexandria.  On  the  24th  it  crossed  Long  Bridge 
and  participated  in  the  grand  review,  after  which  it  went  into  camp  near  Wash- 
ington. Upon  the  disbanding  of  the  Twentieth  corps,  the  Ohio  regiments  be- 
longing  to  it  were  organized  .into  a provisional  brigade,  and  were  assigned  to 
the  Fourteenth  corps.  On  the  10th  of  June  they  proceeded  to  Louisville,  Ky., 
and  here,  on  the  I ith  of  July,  the  Fifty- fifth  was  mustered  out  of  service. 

Th  ree  and  one-half  years  of  army  life  told  seriously  against  the  Fifty-fifth, 
from  all  sources  it  received  during  this  time  thirteen  hundred  and  fifty  men, 
and  of  these  seven  hundred  and  fifty  were  either  killed  or  wounded.  Ten  offi- 
cers were  wounded,  and  eight  were  either  killed  or  died  from  wounds.  The 
regiment  was  engaged  in  about  thirty  battles  or  skirmishes,  of  greater  or  less 
-verity,  the  more  prominent  of  which  were  McDowell,  Va.,  May  8,  1862,  and 
thereafter  at  Cross  Keys,  Cedar  Mountain,  the  Second  Bull  Run,  Chancellors- 
v‘he,  Gettysburg,  Pa.,  Orchard  Knob,  Tenn.,  Mission  Ridge,  Buzzard’s  Roost 
r,  lp.  Resaca,  Cassville,  Kenesaw  Mountain,  Chattahoochie  River,  Peach  Tree 
r'  k,  Siege  of  Atlanta,  Turner’s  Ferry,  Savannah,  Arnysboro  and  Benton- 
^his  list  of  battles  is  credited  the  regiment  in  the  work  entitled  “ Ros- 
ter of  Ohio  Soldiers.” 


32 


History  of  Erie  County. 


Roster — Field  and  Staff. 

John  C.  Lee,  colonel ; promoted  from  major  November  20,  1 86 1 ; resigned 
May  8,  1863. 

Charles  B.  Gambee,  colonel  ; promoted  to  major  from  captain  company  A, 
October  2,  1862;  to  lieutenant-colonel  March  4,  1863;  to  colonel  May  8, 
1863  ; killed  May  16,  1864,  in  battle  of  Resaca,  Ga. 

George  H.  Safford,  lieutenant-colonel;  resigned  March  4,  1863. 

James  M.  Stevens,  lieutenant-colonel ; promoted  to  major  from  captain 
company  H,  March  4,  1863;  wounded  May  2,  1863,  in  battle  of  Chancellors- 
ville,  Va. ; arm  amputated;  promoted  to  lieutenant-colonel  May  8,  1863;  re- 
signed May  25,  1864. 

Edwin  H.  Powers,  lieutenant-colonel ; promoted  from  captain  company  K, 
June  27,  1864;  mustered  out  with  regiment  July  11,  1865. 

Daniel  F.  De  Wolf,  major;  promoted  from  adjutant  November  25,  1861  ; 
resigned  October  2,  1862. 

Rudolphus  Robbins,  major ; promoted  from  captain  company  K,  May  8, 
1863;  killed  May  16,  1864,  in  battle  of  Resaca,  Ga. 

Charles  P.  Wickham,  major;  promoted  from  captain  company  I,  June  27, 
1864;  brevet  lieutenant-colonel  March  13,  1865  ; mustered  out  with  regiment 
July  II,  1865. 

Roster  Company  C. 

Horatio  N.  Shipman,  captain;  appointed  captain  October  16,  1861  ; re- 
signed March  10,  1863. 

Henry  Miller,  captain  ; promoted  from  first  lieutenant  company  K,  Febru- 
ary 12,  1863;  resigned  September  28,  1864. 

Benjamin  F.  Evans,  captain ; promoted  from  first  lieutenant  company  B, 
April  24,  1865  ; mustered  out  with  company  July  1 1,  1865. 

Henry  W.  Persing,  first  lieutenant;  appointed  first  lieutenant  October  16, 

1861  ; promoted  to  captain  and  assistant  quartermaster  July  18,  1863. 

Thomas  O’Leary,  first  lieutenant;  appointed  first  sergeant  from  sergeant 

April  4,  1862;  promoted  to  second  lieutenant  July  17,  1862;  first  lieutenant 
March  6,  1863  ; resigned  December  28,  -1863. 

John  R.  Lowe,  first  lieutenant;  appointed  sergeant  from  corporal  April  4, 

1862  ; first  sergeant  July  17,  1862  ; promoted  to  sergeant- major  February  11, 
1863;  promoted  from  second  lieutenant  company  B,  March  9,  1864,  to  cap- 
tain company  H,  June  27,  1864. 

Thomas  W.  Miller,  first  lieutenant;  transferred  from  adjutant  September  2, 
1864  ; mustered  out  January  4,  1865,  on  expiration  of  term  of  enlistment. 

John  Bellman,  first  lieutenant;  promoted  from  first  sergeant  company  E, 
April  24,  1865  ; mustered  out  with  company  July  1 1,  1865. 

Arthur  Cranston,  second  lieutenant ; appointed  second  lieutenant  October 
l6,  1861;  resigned  March  15,  1862. 


. - ' i= 


Military  History. 


William  S.  Wickham,  second  lieutenant ; transferred  from  company  D, 
June  I,  1863  ; transferred  to  company  B. 

Walter  W.  Thomas,  first  sergeant;  promoted  to  second  lieutenant  March 
j - 1S62,  but  not  mustered;  died  April  2,  1862,  at  Grafton,  Va. 

Henry  B.  Warren,  first  sergeant;  wounded  July  3,  1863,  in  battle  of  Get- 
tysburg, Pa.  ; appointed  first  sergeant  from  corporal  January  1,  1864;  pro- 
moted to  quartermaster-sergeant  October  28,  1864;  veteran. 

David  A.  Warren,  first  sergeant;  appointed  corporal  April  10,  1862  ; ser- 
geant October  27,  1862;  wounded  July  3,  1863,  in  battle  of  Gettysburg,!  Pa.  ; 
appointed  first  sergeant  October  28,  1864;  wounded  March  19,  1865,  in  bat- 
tle of  Bentonville,  N.  C. ; discharged  July  3,  1865,  at  De  Camp  Hospital,  N. 
V. ; veteran. 

Alonzo  Keeler,  sergeant ; appointed  corporal  October  1,  1862;  sergeant, 
January  I,  1864;  mustered  out  with  company  July  II,  1865;  veteran. 

James  Hartney,  sergeant ; appointed  corporal  January  1,1864;  sergeant, 
October  28,  1864;  mustered  out  with  company  July  n,  1865  ; veteran. 

Robert  Young,  sergeant;  mustered  out  with  company  July  1 1,  1865  ; vet- 
eran. 

Azenia  A.  Nichols,  sergeant ; appointed  corporal  January  1,  1864;  ser- 
geant, May  1,  1865  ; mustered  out  with  company  July  1 1,  1865  ; veteran. 

William  H.  Long,  sergeant;  appointed  from  corporal  October  16,  1861  ; 
discharged  October  22,  1862,  at , N.  J. 

James  Young,  sergeant;  discharged  April  1,  1863,  at  Columbus,  O.,  on 
surgeon’s  certificate  of  disability. 

Charles  C.  Lowe,  corporal ; appointed  corporal  July  11,  1864;  mustered 
out  with  the  regiment  July  n,  1865  ; veteran. 

Andrew  W.  Clawson,  corporal;  appointed  corporal  November  7,  1864; 
mustered  out  with  company  July  1 1,  1865  ; veteran. 

Henry  J.  Fay,  corporal;  captured  May  8,  1862,  in  battle  of  McDowell,  Va.  ; 
exchanged  ; appointed  corporal  January  6,  1865  ; mustered  out  with  company 
July  n,  1865  ; veteran. 

Jonathan  Welch,  jr. , corporal  ; wounded  July  3,  1863,  in  battle  of  Gettys- 
burg, Pa.  ; November  25,  1863,  in  battle  of  Mission  Ridge,  Tenn.  ; appointed 
corporal  May  1,  1865  ; mustered  out  with  company  July  II,  1865  ; veteran. 

Francis  M.  Nichols,  corporal;  appointed  corporal  May  1,  1865  ; mustered 
°ut  with  company  July  1 1,  1865  ; veteran. 

Charles  G.  Drake,  corporal;  appointed  corporal ; mustered  out  June 

1865,  at  Washington,  D.  C.,  by  order  of  war  department. 

Myron  Gregory,  corporal  ; appointed  corporal ; wounded  August  30, 

*862,  in  battle  of  Bull  Run,  Va.  ; captured  September  28,  1864;  mustered 
°ut  May  20,  1865,  by  order  of  war  department ; veteran. 

Albert  G.  Barenett,  corporal;  appointed  corporal  November  4,  1862; 

18 


. 

. 


' 


134 


History  of  Erie  County. 


wounded  November  25,  1863,  in  battle  of  Mission  Ridge,  Tenn.;  killed  July 
20,  1864,  in  battle  of  Peach  Tree  Creek,  Ga. 

Frank  P.  Barton,  corporal;  appointed  corporal  January  I,  1864;  died  May 
22,  1864,  of  wounds  received  May  15,  1864,  in  battle  of  Resaca,  Ga.;  veteran. 

William  H.  Crawford,  corporal;  appointed  corporal  January  1,  1864;  killed 
May  15,  1864,  in  battle  of  Resaca,  Ga.;  veteran. 

William  B.  Sarman,  corporal;  appointed  corporal  November  8,  1864;  killed 
March  19,  1865,  in  battle  of  Bentonville,  N.  C.;  veteran. 

Francis  Van  Gorder,  corporal ; appointed  corporal ; wounded  July 

July  3,  1863,  in  battle  of  Gettysburg,  Pa.;  mustered  out  January  17,  1865,  at 
Baltimore,  Md.,  on  expiration  of  term  of  enlistment. 

Milton  N.  Cowles,  corporal ; appointed  corporal ; captured  May  8, 

1862,  at  battle  of  McDowell,  Va.;  exchanged  ; wounded  June  24,  1864,  in  ac- 
tion ; mustered  out  October  29,  1864,  at  hospital,  Camp  Dennison,  O.,  at  ex- 
piration of  term  of  service. 

William  Jager,  corporal;  appointed  corporal ; discharged  Decem- 

ber 23,  1862,  at  Stafford  Court-House,  Va.,  on  surgeon’s  certificate  of  disa- 
bility. 

James  D.  Walker,  corporal;  discharged  October  29,  1862,  at  Fairfax,  Va., 
on  surgeon’s  certificate  of  disability. 

William  Bellamy,  corporal;  appointed  color  bearer;  killed  August  30,  1862, 
in  battle  of  Bull  Run,  Va. 

Alden  Emmons,  corporal;  appointed  corporal ; died  July  19,  1862, 

at  Baltimore,  Md. 

John  Bowers,  musician;  discharged  October  5,  1862,  at  Columbus,  O.,  on 
surgeon’s  certificate  of  disability. 

Billy  N.  Messenger,  musician;  discharged  September  3,  1862,  at  Balti- 
more, Md.,  on  surgeon’s  certificate  of  disability. 

Privates. 

Albert  Adams  ; discharged  November  5,  1862,  at  Alexandria,  Va.,  on  sur- 
geon’s certificate  of  disability. 

Ernest  Anson ; wounded  July  3,  1863,  in  battle  of  Gettysburg,  Pa.;  dis- 
charged May  30,  1864,  at  Camp  Dennison,  Ohio. 

Alonzo  Adams ; no  record  found. 

Xavier  Bergmeyer;  mustered  out  with  company  July  1 1 , 1865;  veteran. 

Robert  Blake  ; mustered  out  with  company  July  11,  1863  ; veteran. 

Enoch  M.  Bell  ; mustered  out  with  company  July  11,  1865  ; veteran. 

Philip  Brewer;  discharged  June  27,  1865,  by  order  of  war  department. 

Silas  Brown  ; mustered  out  June  22,  1865,  at  Camp  Dennison,  O.,  by  or- 
der of  war  department. 

Robert  B.  Baldwin  ; veteran  ; no  record  found. 


Military  History. 


i35 


Edwin  H.  Butler;  reduced  to  ranks  from  corporal ; discharged  Jan- 

irv  20,  1863,  at  Washington,  D.  C.,  on  surgeon’s  certificate  of  disability. 

William  H.  H.  Bemis ; discharged  October  27,  1862,  at  Newark,  N.  J.,  on 
«urgeon’s  certificate  of  disability. 

Benjamin  F.  Bemis;  killed  November  25,  1863,  in  battle  of  Mission  Ridge, 
Tcnn. 

Lewis  Bauer;  transferred  to  company  D,  Fourteenth  Veteran  Reserve 
Corps,  July  31,  1863. 

Jack  O.  Burch  ; no  record  found. 

James  M.  Chaffee;  wounded  July  3,  1863,  in  battle  of  Gettysburg,  Pa.; 
mustered  out  December  29,  1864,  on  expiration  of  term  of  service. 

John  Connor;  drafted;  mustered  out  June  9,  1865,  at  Washington,  D.  C., 
by  order  of  war  department. 

William  Collier;  drafted;  died  February  23,  1865,  at  Savannah,  Ga. 

William  Coultrip  ; wounded  August  30,  1862,  in  battle  of  Bull  Run,  Va.; 
mustered  out  October  16,  1864,  on  expiration  of  term  of  service. 

Thomas  Carr;  discharged  January  1,  1863,  at  Washington,  D.  C.,  on  sur- 
geon’s certificate  of  disability. 

William  Cowell;  wounded  August  30,  1862,  in  battle  of  Bull  Run,  Va.; 
transferred  to  company  H,  Seventh  Veteran  Reserve  Corps,  January  12,  1864. 

John  Diehlman  ; drafted  ; absent,  sick  at  New  York  since  April  30,  1865  ; 
mustered  out  May  19,  1865,  at  McDougall  General  Hospital,  New  York,  by  or- 
der of  war  department, 

David  Dennis  ; drafted;  absent,  sick  at  Camp  Dennison,  O.,  since  Decem- 
ber 6,  1864;  mustered  out  July  19,  1865,  by  order  of  war  department. 

Peter  Diemer;  drafted  ; discharged  to  date  July  11,  1865,  by  order  of  war 
department. 

Albert  Drury;  drafted  ; discharged  December  19,  1874,  by  order  of  war 
department. 

William  Dourian  ; discharged  September  4,  1862,  at  Columbus,  O.,  on  sur- 
geon’s certificate  of  disability. 

John  H.  Eschman  ; drafted;  discharged  May  22,  1865,  at  Savannah,  Ga., 
on  surgeon’s  certificate  of  disability. 

Henry  C.  Ellis  ; discharged  September  8,  1862,  at  Camp  Dennison,  O.,  on 
surgeon’s  certificate  of  disability. 

Oscar  F.  Fuller;  discharged  January  3,  1863,  at  Columbus  O.,  on  surgeon’s 
certificate  of  disability. 

Wesley  C.  Fay;  transferred  to  company  C,  Veteran  Reserve  Corps,  May 
20,  1864. 

William  A.  Gibson  ; mustered  out  with  company  July  11,  1864. 

Richard  Green;  drafted;  mustered  out  June  9,  1865,  at  Washington,  D.  C. 
by  order  of  war  department. 


' 


isqs  . . It  r .no  Xd  ,t&8l  .<?!  'M?  o< 


■ 


36 


History  of  Erie  County. 


WilbertgL.  Green;  mustered  in  as  Wilbert  Gunn;  wounded  July  20,  1864, 
in  battle  of  Peach  Tree  Creek,  Ga.;  mustered  out  January  14,  1865,  at  Colum- 
bus, O.,  on  expiration  of  term  of  service. 

Joseph  G.  Hamilton  ; drafted  ; absent,  sick  since  April  28,  1865;  mustered 
out  May  19,  1865,  at  General  Hospital,  New  York,  by  order  of  war  depart- 
ment. 

Jacob  Hammond;  substitute;  mustered  out  June  2,  1865,  at  Camp  Den- 
nison, O.,  by  order  of  war  department. 

John  J.  Hankins  ; drafted;  mustered  out  June  9,  1865,  at  Washington,  D* 

C. ,  by  order  of  war  department. 

James  M.  Hoffman;  drafted;  mustered  out  June  9,  1865,  at  Washington, 

D.  C.,  by  order  of  war  department. 

Henry  C.  Hill ; discharged  May  29,  1865,  at  De  Camp  Hospital,  New  York, 
on  surgeon’s  certificate  of  disability. 

Henry  C.  Hess  ; wounded  May  2,  1863,  battle  of  Chancellorsville,  Va. ; 
mustered  out  June  8,  1865,  at  Cleveland,  O.,  on  surgeon’s  certificate  of  disa- 
bility ; veteran. 

Henry  H.  Hess  ; captured  May  8,  1862,  at  battle  of  McDowell,  Va. ; died 
July  29,  1862,  at  Lynchburg,  Va. 

Sylvester  Hull;  killed  May  15,  1864,  in  battle  of  Resaca,  Ga. 

Jay  Hollister;  died  September  20,  1863. 

Edwin  H.  Hollister;  discharged  September  3,  1862,  at  Baltimore,  Md.,  on 
surgeon’s  certificate  of  disability. 

Edward  G.  Harris;  discharged  April  20,  1863,  at  Brooks’s  Station,  Va.,  on 
surgeon’s  certificate  of  disability. 

Thomas  J.  Harris;  discharged  January  4,  1864,  at  Camp  Dennison,  O.,  on 
surgeon’s  certificate  of  disability. 

William  Jarrett ; discharged  May  7,  1863,  at  Stafford  Court  House,  Va., 
on  surgeon’s  certificate  of  disability. 

George  E.  Jefferson;  died  March  10,  1862,  at  Grafton,  Va. 

David  E.  Jefferson  ; transferred  to  One  Hundred  and  First  Company, 
Second  Battalion  Veteran  Reserve  Corps  November  28,  1863. 

William  Kirkman  ; drafted;  mustered  out  June  9,  1865,  at  Washington, 
D.  C.,  by  order  of  war  department. 

Barna  M.  Kline;  mustered  out  September  26,  1864,  at  Chattanooga,  Tenn.> 
on  expiration  of  term  of  service. 

Bradford  N.  Kellogg;  reduced  to  ranks  from  corporal;  mustered  out  Octo- 
ber 16,  1864,  on  expiration  of  term  of  service. 

Michael  Kavanaugh  ; no  record  found. 

Andrew  Love;  wounded  May  15,  1S64,  in  battle  of  Resaca,  Ga.  ; mus- 
tered out  with  company  July  II,  1865. 

George  Lenox,  substitute;  captured  November  19,  1864,  near  Madison, 
Ga.  ; died  January  29,  1865,  in  rebel  prison  at  Andersonville,  Ga. 


- 


Military  History. 


137 


Charles  H.  Lockwood  ; reduced  to  ranks  from  corporal ; discharged  March 
-9,  1863,  at  Brooks’s  Station,  Va.,  on  surgeon’s  certificate  of  disability. 

John  R.  Myer  ; killed  July  3,  1863,  in  battle  of  Gettysburg,  Pa. 

John  Myer;  mustered  out  with  company  July  1 1,  1865. 

Mathias  Mackin  ; mustered  out  with  company  July  11,  1865. 

Thaddeus  Mackin;  wounded  May  15,  1864,  in  battle  of  Resaca,  Ga.  ; mus- 
tered out  with  company  July  1 1,  1865. 

John  Mills  ; drafted  ; mustered  out  June  9,  1865,  at  Washington,  D.  C.,  by 
order  of  war  department. 

Joseph  McMorris  ; drafted  ; died  February  4,  1865,  at  Savannah,  Ga. 

William  C.  McGee;  substitute;  mustered  out  with  company  July  11,  1865. 

David  McGuckin  ; discharged  September  6,  1862,  at  Columbus,  O.,  on 
surgeon’s  certificate  of  disability. 

Samuel  McGuckin  ; killed  August  30,  1862,  in  battle  at  Bull  Run,  Va. 

Jacob  Mitchell ; killed  July  3,  1863,  in  battle  at  Gettysburg,  Pa. 

John  Noisot;  drafted;  mustered  out  June  9,  1865,  at  Washington,  D.  C., 
by  order  of  war  department. 

Albert  Niles;  captured  October  30,  1864;  discharged  May  20,  1865,  at 
Columbus,  O.,  by  order  of  war  department;  veteran. 

Frederick  Overman;  substitute;  died  April  6,  1865,  at  Geer  House  Gen- 
eral Hospital,  Wilmington,  N.  C. 

Williston  Osborn;  discharged  October  5,  1862,  at  Columbus,  O.,  on  sur- 
geon’s certificate  of  disability. 

Cyrus  M.  Osier;  discharged  February  6,  1863,  at  Alexandria,  Va.,  on  sur- 
geon’s certificate  of  disability. 

John  C.  Purdy;  mustered  out  with  company  July  11,  1865  ; veteran. 

Samuel  P.  Powell;  drafted;  discharged  May  24,  1865,  at  DeCamp  Hospi- 
tal, New  York,  on  surgeon’s  certificate  of  disability. 

William  M.  Parks;  discharged  October  27,  1862,  at  Alexandria,  Va.,  on 
•'urgeon’s  certificate  of  disability. 

George  W.  Plue ; discharged  September  4,  1862,  at  Alexandria,  Va.,  on 
lurgeon’s  certificate  of  disability. 

John  P.  Patterson  ; died  March  6,  1862,  at  Grafton,  Va. 

William  E.  Pollock;  killed  July  3,  1863,  in  battle  at  Gettysburg,  Pa. 

Jackson  N.  Pinney ; transferred  to  Eighty-fourth  Company,  Second  Bat- 
•a  ion  Veteran  Reserve  Corps,  March  8,  1864. 

Henry  C.  Pinney  ; transferred  to  One  Hundred  and  Fourteenth  Company, 
^‘cond  Battalion  Veteran  Reserve  Corps,  December  9,  1863. 

John  Ruckle;  drafted;  mustered  out  June  9,  1865,  at  Washington,  D.  C., 

. ^ider  of  war  department. 

Lewis  Roberts  ; discharged  May  19,  1865,  at  Grant  General  Hospital,  New 
1 'rk,  on  surgeon’s  certificate  of  disability. 


138 


History  of  Erie  County. 


Lewis  Ray;  discharged  December  3,  1862,  at  Philadelphia,  Pa.,  on  sur- 
geon’s certificate  of  disability. 

William  H.  Robinson;  discharged  September  30,  1863,  at  Washington,  D. 
C.,  on  surgeon’s  certificate  of  disability. 

George  Ritz ; discharged  March  10,  1863,  at  Brooks’s  Station,  Va.,  on  sur- 
geon’s certificate  of  disability. 

Edwin  F.  Russell ; transferred  to  company  A,  Thirteenth  Veteran  Reserve 
Corps,  July  11,  1863. 

Anthony  A.  Simmons;  mustered  out  with  company  July  11,  1865  ; vet- 
eran. 

James  H.  Stage  ; wounded  June  18,  1864,  in  battle  of  Marietta,  Ga.  ; mus- 
tered out  with  company  July  n,  1865  ; veteran. 

James  H.  Sisty  ; drafted  ; mustered  out  May  19,  1865,  at  Camp  Dennison, 
O.,  by  order  of  war  department. 

Daniel  D.  Stage;  died  October  20,  1862,  at  Parkersburg,  W.  Va. 

John  Shepard  ; drafted  ; mustered  out  June  9,  1865,  at  Washington,  D.  C., 
by  order  of  war  department. 

Charles  A.  Sarman ; mustered  out  November  11,  1864,  at  Atlanta,  Ga.,  on 
expiration  of  term  of  service. 

Frank  W.  Sparks;  appointed  corporal ; wounded  November  25, 

1863,  in  battle  of  Mission  Ridge,  Tenn. ; reduced  to  ranks ; mustered 

out  October  19,  1864,  at  Atlanta,  Ga.,  on  expiration  of  term  of  service. 

Henry  Shemnour  ; no  record  found  ; veteran. 

Stephen  L.  Saunders;  reduced  to  ranks  from  sergeant ; wounded 

August  9,  1862,  in  battle  of  Cedar  Mountain,  Va.  ; mustered  out  October  16, 

1864,  on  expiration  of  term  of  service. 

Justus  Squire  ; reduced  to  ranks  from  wagoner;  discharged  October  14, 
1862,  at  Centreville,  Va. 

John  Sprotbury;  discharged  September  14,  1863,  at  Cleveland,  O.,  on  sur- 
geon’s certificate  of  disability. 

Rush  R.  Sloan  ; died  March  8,  1862,  at  Grafton,  W.  Va. 

Rinehart  Sickinger;  transferred  to  Ninety-third  Company,  Second  Bat- 
talion Veteran  Reserve  Corps,  October  31,  1863. 

Lemuel  Smith  ; transferred  to  company  G. 

John  Taylor;  mustered  out  with  company  July  II,  1865  ; veteran. 

Benjamin  Tanner;  wounded  May  16,  1864,  in  battle  of  Marietta,  Ga. ; dis- 
charged July  6,  1865,  at  Louisville,  Ky.,  on  surgeon’s  certificate  of  disability. 

Robert  Van  Gorder ; killed  June  21,  1864,  in  battle  of  Kenesaw  Moun- 
tain, Ga. 

John  Widner ; mustered  out  with  company  July  11,  1865. 

Moses  Waggoner;  mustered  out  May  11,  1865,  at  Richmond,  Va.,  by 
order  of  war  department. 


fj  I ,2q*ioJ  o ns? 


Military  History. 


139* 


Jerome  Welch,  died  July  io,  1864,  at  Nashville,  Tenn.,  of  wounds  received 
June  21,  1864,  in  battle  of  Kenesaw  Mountain,  Ga. 

Luther  A.  Welch,  discharged  April  16,  1863,  at  Brooks’s  Station,  Va.,  on 
surgeon’s  certificate  of  disability. 

Jonathan  Welch,  sr.,  discharged  , 1862,  at  Norwalk,  O.,  on  sur- 

geon’s certificate  of  disability. 

Francis  A.  Williams,  discharged  October  5,  1862,  at  Columbus,  O.,  on 
surgeon’s  certificate  of  disability. 

George  W.  Wright,  discharged  September  9,  1862,  at  Columbus,  O.,  on 
surgeon’s  certificate  of  disability. 

Elihu  Westfall,  discharged  September  16,  1863,  on  surgeon’s  certificate  of 
disability. 

John  White,  discharged  January  29,  1863,  at  Washington,  D.  C.,  on  sur- 
geon’s certificate  of  disability. 

John  M.  Young,  substitute,  died  April  16,  1865,  at  New  Berne,  N.  C.,  of 
wounds  received  March  19,  1865,  in  battle  of  Bentonville,  N.  C. 

Roster  Company  E. 

Recruited  largely  in  Berlin,  Vermillion  and  Florence  townships,  and  partly 
in  Huron  county: 

Edwin  H.  Powers,  captain;  appointed  December  20,  1861  ; wounded  May 

1863,  battle  of  Chancellorsville ; transferred  to  company  K March  3,. 
1864. 

Francis  H.  Morse,  captain  ; promoted  to  first  lieutenant  from  second  lieu- 
tenant December  23,  1862;  wounded  May  2,  1863,  at  Chancellorsville;  pro- 
moted to  captain  March  19,  1864;  resigned  April  22,  1864. 

Henry  H.  Moore,  captain ; promoted  from  first  lieutenant  company  D 
June  27,  1864;  resigned  January  15,  1865. 

James  H.  Gallop,  captain ; promoted  from  first  lieutenant  and  adjutant 
A pril  24,  1865  1 mustered  out  with  company  July  11,  1865. 

Albert  E.  Peck,  first  lieutenant ; appointed  second  lieutenant  October  24, 
l ; promoted  to  first  lieutenant  November  21,  1861  ; captain  company  H 
•March  6,  1863. 

Thomas  W.  Miller,  first  lieutenant;  transferred  from  company  F March  31, 

1 ^4 ; appointed  adjutant  April  I,  1864. 

John  H.  Boss,  first  lieutenant;  appointed  first  sergeant  from  sergeant  Jan- 
;Jr>'  L 1864;  promoted  to  quartermaster-sergeant  April  16,  1864;  first  lieu- 
tenant August  19,  1864;  regimental  quartermaster  January  I,  1865  ; veteran. 

Hiram  K.  Preston,  first  sergeant;  died  June  18,  1862,  at  New  Creek,  Va. 

John  Cowpe,  sergeant ; mustered  as  private;  wounded  August  30,  1862, 

1 battle  of  Bull  Run,  Va. ; appointed  first  sergeant  May  1,  1864;  killed  July 

1864,  in  battle  of  Peach  Tree  Creek,  Ga. ; veteran. 


' 


140 


History  of  Erie  County. 


John  Bellman,  sergeant ; appointed  sergeant  from  corporal  January  i, 
1864;  first  sergeant  July  29,  1864;  promoted  first  lieutenant  company  C 
April  24,  1865  ; veteran. 

Alpheus  J.  Peck,  sergeant ; appointed  sergeant  from  corporal  July  29, 
1864;  first  sergeant  May  22,  1864;  mustered  out  with  company  July  II, 
1865  ; veteran. 

Henry  W.  Crosby,  sergeant;  died  May  27,  1864,  of  wounds  received  May 
16,  1864,  in  battle  of  Resaca,  Ga.  ; veteran. 

Henry  Heffron,  sergeant;  appointed  corporal  July  29,  1864;  sergeant 
May  I,  1865  ; mustered  out  with  company  July  11,  1865  ; veteran. 

Giles  King,  sergeant;  transferred  to  company  D,  Fourteenth  Veteran 
Reserve  Corps,  July  31,  1863. 

Sterling  H.  Post,  sergeant;  appointed  corporal  June  1,  1864;  sergeant 
November  1,  1864;  mustered  out  with  company  July  11,  1865  ; veteran. 

Jedediah  D.  Smith,  sergeant;  wounded  May  15,  1864,  in  battle  of  Resaca, 
Ga.;  discharged  July  II,  1865,  at  Columbus,  O.,  on  surgeon’s  certificate  of 
-disability. 

John  W.  Saltman,  sergeant ; wounded  August  30,  1862,  at  Bull  Run,  Va. ; 
appointed  corporal  January  I,  1864;  sergeant  June  I,  1864;  wounded  June 
20,  1864,  at  Cassville,  Ga. ; discharged  June  6,  1865,  for  wounds;  veteran. 

John  Bowers,  corporal ; wounded  March  19,  1865,  at  Averysboro,  N.  C.; 
discharged  June  17,  1865,  at  Columbus,  O.;  veteran. 

John  L.  Flaharty,  corporal ; mustered  out  December  31,  1864,  on  expira- 
tion of  term. 

George  W.  Foote,  corporal ; discharged  July  9,  1863,  for  wounds  received 
in  action. 

Ezra  Lee,  corporal;  mustered  out  December  20,  1864,  at  expiration  of 
term  of  service. 

George  H.  Motley,  corporal;  appointed  corporal  November  1,  1864;  mus- 
tered out  with  company  July  n,  1865  ; veteran. 

Anson  Pease,  corporal;  appointed  corporal  January  1,  1865;  mustered 
out  with  company  July  I 1,  1865  I veteran. 

Chauncey  T.  Peck,  corporal;  appointed  corporal  April  30,  1863;  killed 
May  15,  1864,  in  battle  of  Resaca,  Ga. 

Ira  O.  Peck,  corporal  ; discharged  April  16,  1863,  at  Brooks’s  Station,  Va., 
on  surgeon’s  certificate  of  disability. 

Myron  B.  Runyan,  corporal;  appointed  November  I,  1864;  discharged 
June  26,  1865,  for  wounds  received  March  19,  1865,  at  Bentonville,  N.  C.  ; 
veteran. 

Edward  Sharp,  corporal  ; appointed  corporal  June  1,  1864;  captured  Oc- 
tober 28,  1864,  near  Atlanta;  perished  by  explosion  of  steamer  Sultana , on 
Mississippi  River,  near  Memphis,  Tenn.,  April  27,  1865  ; veteran. 


Military  History. 


141 


John  West,  corporal;  discharged  July  23,  1863  on  surgeon’s  certificate  of 
disability. 

John  F.  Wheaton,  corporal;  discharged  September  22,  1862,  on  surgeon’s 
certificate  of  disability. 

John  Altman,  musician;  mustered  out  December  31,  1864,  at  expiration 
of  term  of  service. 

Privates. 

Henry  Baxtine,  mustered  out  with  company  July  II,  1865  ; veteran. 

Jira  Burt,  no  record  found. 

Joel  Baker,  drafted,  mustered  out  June  5,  1865,  by  order  of  war  depart- 
ment. 

Frederick  Bellman,  mustered  out  June  9,  1865,  by  order  of  war  departs 
ment. 

Lewis  Bellman,  died  July  11,  1862,  at  Cumberland,  Md. 

Peter  Balser,  drafted,  died  March  23,  1865,  at  David’s  Island,  N.  Y. 

Thomas  Banning,  discharged  May  15,  1862,  on  surgeon’s  certificate  of  dis- 
ability. 

Sewell  C.  Briggs,  discharged  November  22,  1863,  f°r  wounds  received 
August  30,  1862,  at  Bull  Run. 

Samuel  Briggs,  no  record  found. 

Thomas  E.  Buckley,  discharged  March  3,  1863,  for  wounds  received  Au- 
gust 30,  1862,  at  Bull  Run. 

Erastas  Barrett,  died  April  5,  1862,  at  Grafton,  W.  Va. 

Thomas  Brumby,  died  August  23,  1863,  of  wounds  received  at  Chancel- 
lorsville,  Va. 

Sefen  Brabert,  no  record  found. 

Robert  G.  Courtney,  drafted,  wounded  March  19,  1865,  at  Averysboro  ; 
mustered  out  June  9,  1865,  by  order  of  war  department. 

William  Callen,  captured  October  30,  1864;  exchanged;  discharged  June 
-0,  1865,  by  order  of  war  department. 

Michael  S.  Coppman,  mustered  out  June  15.  1865,  by  order  of  war  de- 
partment 

Henry  Chulip,  drafted,  mustered  out  June  9,  1865,  by  order  of  war  de- 
partment. 

William  E.  Childs,  promoted  to  hospital  steward  November  21,  1861. 

John  Coppins,  died  July  28,  1864,  at  Chattanooga  (Tenn.)  Hospital ; vet- 
eran. 

William  Clinton,  discharged  November  21,  1862,  on  surgeon’s  certificate 
r'f  disability. 

William  F.  Crapo,  discharged  October  13,  1862,  on  surgeon’s  certificate  of 
disability. 


19 


- 


142 


History  of  Erie  County. 


William  Donelson,  substitute,  mustered  out  July  7,  1865,  by  order  of  war 
department. 

Dewitt  C.  Dolph,  drafted,  mustered  out  June  19,  1865,  by  order  of  war  de- 
partment. 

Jerome  Degarmer,  drafted,  mustered  out  June  9,  1865,  by  order  of  war 
department 

James  Doughty,  died  March  22,  1862,  at  Grafton,  W.  Va. 

William  Delaney,  died  February  14,  1863,  at  Washington,  D.  C. 

John  Feififer,  substitute  ; mustered  out  with  company  July  1 1,  1865. 

Wallace  R.  Bord,  drafted  ; mustered  out  June  9,  1865,  by  order  of  war  de- 
partment 

Marcus  Farnsworth,  died  September  1,  1864,  at  Chattanooga,  Tenn. 

Burton  Farnsworth,  discharged  September  13,  1862,  on  surgeon’s  certifi- 
cate of  disability. 

Henry  Fox,  drafted  ; died  December  25,  1864,  at  Savannah,  Ga. 

John  Ferguson,  discharged  February  14,  1863,  on  surgeon’s  certificate  of 
disability. 

David  Gates,  died  March  21,  1865,  of  wounds  received  March  19,  1865,  in 
battle  of  Bentonville,  N.  C.;  veteran. 

Gilbert  Gordon,  captured  November  18,  1864,  near  Atlanta,  Ga.,  while  for- 
aging; mustered  out  May  24,  1865,  on  expiration  of  term  of  service. 

David  Golispie,  drafted;  died  May  26,  1865,  at  David’s  Island,  N.  Y. 

Edwin  T.  Hood,  wounded  July  20,  1864,  in  the  battle  of  Peach  Tree  Creek. 
Ga.;  discharged  February  17,  1865;  veteran. 

Robert  Hamilton,  drafted;  mustered  out  May  30,  1865,  by  order  of  war 
department. 

John  Horner,  drafted;  mustered  out  June  9,  1865,  by  order  of  war  depart- 
ment. 

William  Harpman,  mustered  out  December  31,  1864,  on  expiration  of  ter" 
*of  service. 

Sidney  Hooper,  discharged  April  10,  1862,  on  surgeon’s  certificate  of  dh* 
ability. 

George  Howarth,  transferred  to  Sixth  United  States  Cavalry,  November  1 
1862. 

Edward  Hotchkins,  discharged  December  26,  1862,  on  surgeon’s  certified 
of  disability. 

Michael  Hennessey,  wounded  May  2,  1863,  »n  battle  of  Chancellorsvi’. 
transferred  to  Seventy-eighth  company,  Second  Battalion  Veteran  Reser 
Corps  October  19,  1863. 

William  Harris,  died  December  7,  1862,  at  Fairfax  Station,  Va. 

Charles  Hart,  died  February  16,  1S63,  at  Washington,  D.  C. 

Hiram  K.  Horr,  mustered  in  as  William  K.  Horr. 


. 

— 


Military  History. 


i43 


Joseph  H.  Hewett,  discharged . 

William  Jones,  mustered  out  with  company  July  11,  1865  ; veteran. 

Ira  S.  Lump,  wounded  May  15,  1864,  in  battle  of  Resaca,  Ga.;  transferred 
to  company  F,  Sixteenth  Veteran  Reserve  Corps,  January  23,  1865  ; veteran. 

John  A.  James,  wounded  May  15,  1864,  in  battle  of  Resaca,  Ga.;  mustered 
out  with  company  July  II,  1865. 

Melville  Jameson,  wounded  June  21,  1864,  near  Cassville,  Ga.;  discharged 
November  21,  1864,  at  Camp  Dennison,  O.;  veteran. 

Francis  L.  Jupp,  discharged  November  10,  1862,  on  surgeon’s  certificate 
of  disability.. 

Henry  C.  King,  discharged  October  19,  1862,  on  surgeon’s  certificate  of 
disability. 

Henry  Klour,  discharged  August  29,  1862,  on  surgeon’s  certificate  of  dis- 
ability. 

James  H.  Lowry,  died  August  3,  1864,  at  Atlanta,  Ga. 

Daniel  Leiser,  substitute ; wounded  March  14,  1865,  at  Silver  Creek,  Ga., 
and  left  the  field  ; no  further  record  found. 

James  H.  Larkins,  wounded  June  20,  1864,  in  action  at  Cassville,  Ga.; 
mustered  out  on  expiration  of  term  of  service. 

Mahlon  T.  Lambert,  promoted  to  sergeant-major  October  25,  1861. 

Richard  Maxwell,  substitute  ; mustered  out  with  company  July  11,  1865. 

James  McBeth,  substitute  ; mustered  out  with  company  July  1 1,  1865. 

Alonzo  McCord,  discharged  March  14,  1863,  on  surgeon’s  certificate  of  dis- 
ability. 

Thomas  Messer,  drafted;  mustered  out  May  30,  1865,  by  order  of  war 
department. 

Albert  Myers,  drafted  ; mustered  out  June  9,  1865,  by  order  of  war  depart- 
ment. 

George  W.  Minus,  drowned  April  14,  1862,  at  Moorhead,  Va.,  while  on 
duty. 

Rufus  Morton,  discharged  June  9,  1863. 

Thomas  Norris,  substitute;  mustered  out  June  2,  1865,  by  order  of  war 
department. 

James  Nelson,  drafted;  mustered  out  June  9,  1865,  by  order  of  war  de- 
partment. 

Rufus  Norton,  discharged  June  9,  1863,  on  surgeon’s  certificate  of  disa- 
bility. 

Henry  Opher,  jr.,  discharged  July  2,  1862,  on  surgeon’s  certificate  of  dis- 
ability. 

Henry  Opher,  killed  July  3,  1863,  in  battle  of  Gettysburg,  Pa. 

George  W.  Pratt,  mustered  out  with  company  July  II,  1865. 

benjamin  Prouts,  wounded  February  13,  1865;  mustered  out  June  21,  1865, 

David’s  Island,  N.  Y.,  by  order  of  war  department;  veteran. 


■ 


1 44 


History  of  Erie  County. 


Benjamin  Pease,  captured  October  30,  1864;  exchanged;  mustered  out 
June  20,  1865  ; veteran. 

George  W.  Phillips,  drafted  ; mustered  out  June  26,  1865,  by  order  of  war 
department. 

Cyrenius  A.  Peck,  discharged  September  12,  1862,  on  surgeon’s  certificate 
of  disability. 

Ambrose  Rice,  reduced  to  ranks  from  sergeant;  wounded  August  30,  1862, 
in  battle  of  Bull  Run;  appointed  corporal  November  1,  1864;  reduced  to 
ranks  January  1,  1865  ; mustered  out  with  company;  veteran. 

Benjamin  C.  Robinson,  wounded  May  15,  1864,  at  Resaca,  Ga.;  transferred 
to  company  C,  Sixth  Veteran  Reserve  Corps,  March  13,  1865  ; veteran. 

Henry  Riper,  mustered  out  with  company  July  11,  1865. 

Luther  Roberts,  drafted  ; mustered  out  July  7,  1865,  by  order  of  war  de- 
partment. 

George  Rumsey,  substitute;  mustered  out  with  company  July  11,  1865. 

Alex.  M.  Richards,  discharged  November  16,  1S62,  on  surgeon’s  certificate 
of  disability. 

Robert  R.  Scott,  wounded  May  12,  1863,  in  battle  of  Chancellorsville ; dis- 
charged June  7,  1865,  for  wounds  received  in  action  August  3,1864;  veteran. 

Demsey  Sixton,  drafted  ; mustered  out  June  9,  1865,  by  order  of  war  de- 
partment. 

Dean  Swift,  died  November  29,  1863,  in  hospital  at  Murfreesboro,  Tenn. 

William  E.  Sherart,  mustered  out  December  31,  1864,  on  expiration  of  term 
of  service. 

William  F.  Smith,  reduced  to  ranks  from  corporal ; mustered  out  Decem- 
ber 31,  1864. 

Ambrose  D.  Smith,  discharged  July  12,  1862,  on  surgeon’s  certificate  0! 
disability. 

Jonathan  Smith,  wounded  May  2,  1863,  in  battle  of  Chancellorsville;  trans- 
ferred to  One  Hundred  and  Twenty-fifth  company,  Second  Battalion  Veteran 
Reserve  Corps,  December  18,  1863. 

Horace  Smith,  died  February  26,  1862,  at  Grafton,  W.  Va. 

Fred.  J.  Slattery,  discharged  November  5,  1862,  by  order  of  war  depart- 
ment. 

Martin  Van  Syckle,  mustered  out  December  31,  1864,  on  expiration  of  term 
of  service. 

Allen  E.  Winters,  captured  March  5,  1865,  while  foraging ; mustered  out 
June  21,  1865,  at  Camp  Chase,  by  order  of  war  department. 

William  Whistler,  substitute;  mustered  out  with  company  July  II,  1S65 

Frank  Wyatt,  wounded  March  16,  1865,  at  Averysboro  ; mustered  out  Jun- 
26,  1865,  at  Camp  Dennison,  by  order  of  war  department. 

Joseph  H.  Williams,  drafted  ; mustered  out  May  24,  1865,  by  order  of 
department. 


' 


Military  History. 


145 


David  S.  Williams,  discharged  March  19,  1863,  on  surgeon’s  certificate  of 
disability. 

John  L.  Wilson,  drafted;  mustered  out  June  9,  1865,  by  order  of  war  de- 
partment. 

Henry  Westmire,  drafted;  mustered  out  June  9,  1865,  by  order  of  war  de- 
partment. 

Albert  E.  Withers,  transferred  to  company  F,  Seventeenth  Veteran  Reserve 
Corps,  October  31,  1863. 

George  Winklepleck,  discharged  November  16,  1862,  on  surgeon’s  certifi- 
cate of  disability. 

John  Winklepleck,  mustered  out  June  19,  1865,  by  order  of  war  depart- 
ment ; veteran. 

Roster  Company  H. 

This  company  was  recruited  in  Margaretta  and  the  townships  south  of  that* 
*nd  partly  from  Huron  county. 

James  M.  Stevens,  captain;  appointed  captain  October  16,  1861 ; promoted 
to  major  March  4,  1864. 

Albert  E.  Peck,  captain;  promoted  from  first  lieutenant  company  E,  March 
6,  1863  ; killed  May  15,  1864,  in  battle  of  Resaca,  Ga. 

John  R.  Lowe,  captain  ; promoted  from  first  lieutenant  company  C,  June 
27,  1864;  mustered  out  with  company  July  1 1,  1865. 

Randolph  Eastman,  first  lieutenant ; appointed  first  lieutenant  October  24, 
1861  ; resigned  December  23,  1862. 

Hartwell  Osborn,  first  lieutenant ; promoted  from  second  lieutenant  com- 
pany I,  February  12,  1863  ; to  captain  company  B August  4,  1863. 

Russel  H.  Bever,  first  lieutenant;  appointed  sergeant  from  corporal  Sep- 
tember 19,  1862;  first  sergeant  October  3,  1862;  promoted  second  lieutenant 
March  16,  1863;  first  lieutenant  March  19,  1864;  captain  company  A Novem- 
ber 3,  1864. 

William  E.  Childs,  first  lieutenant ; promoted  from  hospital  steward  Janu- 
ar>'  18,  1865  ; mustered  out  with  company  July  1 1,  1865  ; veteran. 

Robert  W.  Pool,  second  lieutenant;  mustered  as  private  ; promoted  to  sec- 
ond lieutenant  October  24,  1861  ; to  first  lieutenant  and  adjutant,  October  3, 
1862. 

Henry  W.  Ragan,  second  lieutenant ; promoted  from  sergeant  October  3, 
*862;  resigned  March  24,  1863. 

Albert  H.  Hubbard,  first  sergeant;  discharged  May  25,  1862,  at  Franklin, 
^ «t,  on  surgeon’s  certificate  of  disability. 

Lewis  Peck,  first  sergeant ; appointed  sergeant  from  corporal  October  3, 
*862;  first  sergeant  May  2,  1863;  promoted  to  quartermaster-sergeant  Sep- 
tember 1,  1864;  veteran. 


' 


146 


History  of  Erie  County. 


John  Burket,  first  sergeant;  appointed  corporal  October  3,  1862;  sergeant 
June  9,  1863;  first  sergeant  September  1,  1864;  promoted  to  commissary-ser- 
geant Tune  26,  1865  ; veteran. 

Sidney  C.  Brown,  sergeant;  appointed  corporal  August  1,  1863;  sergeant 
June  I,  1864;  mustered  out  with  company  July  11,  1865;  veteran. 

Moses  Pugh,  first  sergeant;  wounded  August  30,  1S62,  in  battle  of  Bull 
Run,  Va.;  appointed  corporal  November  1,  1862;  sergeant  September  1,  1864; 
first  sergeant  June  26,  1865;  mustered  out  with  company  July  II,  1865; 
veteran. 

Horace  M.  Chamberlin,  sergeant;  appointed  corporal  September  1,  1864; 
sergeant  June  26,  1865  ; mustered  out  with  compan}'  July  1 1,  1865  ; veteran. 

Jesse  Dewers,  sergeant;  captured  September  15,  1863,  at  Bristow,  Va.; 
mustered  out  October  23,  1864,  on  expiration  of  term  of  service. 

Arthur  A.  Graham,  sergeant ; transferred  to  company  B,  Twenty-first  Vet- 
eran Reserve  Corps,  September  16,  1S63. 

Edwin  Holmes,  sergeant;  discharged  October  19,  1862,  at  Columbus,  0., 
on  surgeon's  certificate  of  disability. 

Clark  M.  Kline,  sergeant;  appointed  corporal  June  1,  1864;  sergeant,  De- 
cember 31,  1864;  discharged  June  15,  1865,  at  Fairfax  Seminary,  Va.;  vet- 
eran. 

Eri  Misnard,  sergeant ; appointed  corporal  October  3,  1862  ; sergeant  May 
I,  1863;  wounded  May  2,  1863,  in  battle  of  Chancellorsville,  Va.;  killed  June 
22,  1864,  in  battle  of  Kenesaw  Mountain,  Ga.;  veteran. 

Alexander  M.  Ross,  sergeant ; appointed  from  corporal ; wounded  August 
30,  1862,  in  battle  of  Bull  Run,  Va.;  transferred  to  company  D,  Fourteenth 
Veteran  Reserve  Corps,  July  31,  1863. 

William  R.  Little,  sergeant ; appointed  corporal  October  3,  1862;  sergeant 
August  1,  1863  » mustered  out  December  29,  1864,  on  expiration  of  term  ot 
service. 

Adam  Beer,  corporal;  appointed  corporal  June  22,  1864;  wounded  March 
19,  1865,  in  battle  of  Bentonville,  N.  C.;  mustered  out  June  9,  1865,  at  Wash- 
ington, D.  C.,  by  order  of  war  department. 

William  B.  Conger,  corporal ; discharged  September  19,  1862,  at  Annapo- 
lis, Md. 

John  B.  Conger,  corporal ; killed  August  30,  1 862,  in  battle  of  Bull  Run,  Va. 

Cyrenus  Dejean,  corporal;  discharged  January  19,  1864,  for  wounds  re- 
ceived May  2,  1863,  in  battle  of  Chancellorsville,  Va.;  leg  amputated. 

Addison,  Golden,  corporal;,  wounded  July  20,  1864,  in  battle  of  Peach  Tree 
Creek,  Ga.;  appointed  corporal  June  26,  1865  ; mustered  out  with  compar; 
July  11,  1865  ; veteran. 

Peter  H.  Keifter,  corporal;  appointed  corporal  December  31,  1864;  mus- 
tered out  with  company,  July  1 1,  1865. 


■ 


' 


■ 


Military  History. 


i47 


William  W.  Lawton,  corporal;  appointed  corporal  March  1,  r86$  ; mus- 
tered out  with  company  July  1 1,  1865  ; veteran. 

Jacob  Myer,  corporal,  wounded  May  15,  1864,  in  battle  of  Resaca,  Ga.; 
appointed  corporal  June  9,  1865  ; mustered  out  with  company  July  11,  1865  ; 
veteran. 

William  Negele,  corporal ; appointed  corporal ; wounded  August 

30,  1862,  in  battle  of  Bull  Run,  Va.;  discharged  August  27,  1863,  at  Colum- 
bus, O. 

Lewis  Perkey,  corporal;  appointed  corporal  May  1,  1863;  killed  May  15, 
1864,  in  battle  of  Resaca,  Ga.;  veteran. 

George  W.  Ragon,  corporal;  wounded  May  2,  1863,  in  battle  of  Chancell- 
orsville,  Va.;  August  27,  1864,  at  Turners  Ferry,  Ga.;  appointed  corporal  Jan- 
uary 1,  1865  ; mustered  out  June  9,  1865,  at  Washington,  D.  C.,  by  order  of 
war  department. 

Jeremiah  Ricker,  corporal,  discharged  August  19,  1862,  at  Fairfax  Semi- 
nary, Va.,  on  surgeon's  certificate  of  disability. 

Dennis  Spurrier,  corporal;  appointed  corporal  May  25,  1862;  wounded  Au- 
gust30,  1862,  in  battle  of  Bull  Run,  Va.;  July  2,  1 863,  in  battle  of  Gettysburg, 
Pa.;  appointed  sergeant  January  1,  1864  ; wounded  August  17,  1864,  near  At- 
lanta, Ga.;  died  September  2,  1864,  at  Chattanooga,  Tenn.;  veteran. 

Horace  R.  Starks,  corporal;  appointed  corporal  June  9,  1865  ; mustered 
out  with  company  July  11,  1865  ; veteran. 

Edward  Tallman,  corporal;  discharged  August  29,  1862,  at  Cumberland, 
Md.,  on  surgeon’s  certificate  of  disability. 

Charles  L.  Wilson,  corporal;  appointed  corporal  October  3,  1862;  wound- 
ed July  20,  1864,  in  battle  of  Peach  Tree  Creek,  Ga.;  mustered  out  with  com- 
pany July  11,  1865  ; veteran. 

Clarence  Linn,  musician;  discharged  March  18,  1864,  at  Lookout  Valley, 
Tenn.,  on  surgeon’s  certificate  of  disability. 

Privates. 

Charles  Au,  substitute  ; mustered  out  with  company  July  11,  1865. 

John  M.  Armstrong,  mustered  out  October  23,  1864,  on  expiration  of  term 
of  service. 

Jeremiah  G.  Armstrong,  mustered  out  October  23,  1864,  on  expiration  of 
term  of  service. 

Zenas  W.  Achlefeld,  mustered  out  October  23,  on  expiration  of  term  of 
service. 

William  Ainesly  ; discharged  February  27,  1863,  at  Columbus,  O.,  on  sur- 
£<-*on’s  certificate  of  disability. 

Charles  H.  Borefif,  mustered  out  with  company  July  1 1,  1865  ; veteran. 

James  P.  Boston,  wounded  August  30,  1862,  in  battle  of  Bull  Run,  Va.; 
Mustered  out  with  company  July  1 1,  1865  ; veteran. 


143 


History  of  Erie  County. 


George  W.  Button,  mustered  out  with  company  July  II,  1865;  veteran. 

Olcott  K.  Brown,  wounded  May  15,  1864,  in  battle  of  Resaca,  Ga.;  mus- 
tered  out  June  9,  1865,  at  Camp  Dennison,  O.,  by  order  of  war  department 

Martin  Beery,  mustered  ont  with  company  July  11,  1865. 

Anton  Bolsinger,  drafted;  mustered  out  with  company  July  II,  1866. 

Henry  C.  Beck,  drafted;  discharged  March  25,  1863,  at  Brooks’s  Station, 
Va.,  on  surgeon’s  certificate  of  disability. 

Andrew  S.  Baker,  discharged  August  5,  1862,  at  Columbus,  O.,  on  surgeon’s 
certificate  of  disability. 

Edgar  W.  Barker,  wounded  May  2,  1863,  in  battle  of  Chancellorsville,  Va.: 
transferred  to  company  K,  Fifth  Veteran  Reserve  Corps,  December  17,  1863. 

John  L.  Butz,  died  July  13,  1862,  at  Frederick  City,  Md. 

Joseph  E.  Case,  killed  August  30,  1862,  in  battle  of  Bull  Run,  Va. 

Augustus  B.  Case,  killed  May  15,  1864,  in  battle  of  Resaca,  Ga.;  veteran. 

James  Cram,  died  May  29,  1864,  in  hospital  at  Dallas,  Ga. 

John  Cain,  substitute. 

Marion  G.  Cross,  mustered  out  October  23,  1864,  on  expiration  of  term  of 
service. 

John  Clark,  discharged  November  13,  1862,  at  Hopewell  Gap,  Va. 

Nathan  Cadwalader,  discharged  October  20,  1862. 

Frederick  A.  Crum,  killed  June  26,  1864,  in  Kenesaw  Mountain,  Ga.;  vet- 
eran. 

Robert  J.  Dutcher,  captured  December  9,  1864,  near  Savannah,  Ga.;  mus- 
tered out  with  company  July  II,  1865  ; veteran. 

Benjamin  Dunlap,  wounded  July  20,  1864,  in  battle  of  Peach  Tree  Creek, 
G*.;  mustered  out  with  company  July  11,  1865  ; veteran. 

Peter  Dill,  drafted;  mustered  out  June  9,  1865,  by  order  of  war  department 

Parker  Dejian,  discharged  November  13,  1862,  at  Washington,  D.  C.,  on 
surgeon’s  certificate  of  disability. 

Adam  Ditto,  killed  March  12,  1865,  near  Fayetteville,  N.  C.;  veteran. 

John  H.  W.  Dildine,  wounded  March  19,  1865,  in  battle  of  Bentonville. 
N.  C.;  died  May  22,  1865,  at  Portsmouth  Grove,  R.  I.;  veteran. 

Charles  D.  Dudrow,  wounded  May  2,  1863,  in  battle  of  Chancellorsville. 
Va.;  mustered  out  October  23,  1864,  on  expiration  of  term  of  service. 

Lewis  D.  Dudrow,  died  November  4,  1863,  at  Cumberland,  Md. 

Jacob  Fronce,  wounded  May  2,  1863,  in  battle  of  Chancellorsville,  Va.. 
captured  March  5,  1865,  at  Wadesboro,  N.  C.;  mustered  out  June  23,  1865,  at 
Camp  Chase,  O.,  by  order  of  war  department ; veteran. 

Thomas  B.  Fox,  wounded  June  19,  1864,  in  battle  of  Kenesaw  Mountain 
mustered  out  with  company  July  1 1,  1865  ; veteran. 

Guy  S.  Frazey,  substitute  on  detached  service  as  telegraph  operator  at  Chat- 
tanooga, Tenn.;  mustered  out  to  date  July  11,  1865,  by  order  of  war  depart- 
ment 


.....  ■ ... 


. 


Military  History. 


149 


Frederick  Fleig,  drafted;  mustered  out  June  9,  1865,  by  order  of  war  de- 
partment. 

Abraham  D.  Falkner,  killed  May  2,  1863,  in  battle  of  Chancellorsville,  Va. 

Seth  Golden,  wounded  July  20,  1864,  in  battle  of  Peach  Tree  Creek  ; dis- 
charged May  20,  1865,  by  order  of  war  department. 

Christian  Guarlach,  drafted;  mustered  out  June  9,  1865,  at  Washington, 
D.  C.,  by  order  of  war  department. 

James  W.  Griffith,  transferred  to  One  Hundred  and  Forty-eighth  Veteran 
Reserve  Corps,  January  22,  1864. 

Ebenezer  B.  Green,  wounded  May  15,  1864,  in  battle  of  Resaca,  Ga.;  died 
July  27,  1864,  at  Big  Shanty,  Ga.;  veteran. 

William  H.  Gittenger,  wounded  May  2,  1863,  in  battle  of  Chancellorsville, 
Va.;  mustered  out  October  23,  1864,  on  expiration  of  term  of  service. 

Boody  J.  Gaines,  died  March  8,  1862,  at  Grafton,  W.  Va. 

James  C.  Holt,  discharged  October  20,  1862,  on  surgeon’s  certificate  of  dis- 
ability. 

George  Harkcom,  mustered  out  June  19,  1865,  at  Camp  Chase,  O.,  by  or- 
der of  war  department. 

Joseph  Holdeman,  drafted;  wounded  March  19,  1865,  in  battle  of  Benton- 
ville,  N.  C. ; absent,  sick  in  hospital ; mustered  out  July  1 1,  1865,  by  order  of 
war  department. 

John  Hutchinson,  drafted  ; mustered  out  June  9,  1865,  at  Washington,  D. 
C.,  by  order  of  war  department. 

Asa  Hoppas,  wounded  May  25,  1864,  in  battle  of  Dallas,  Ga. ; discharged 
May  24,  1865,  at  Trippler  Hospital,  by  order  of  war  department. 

Clay  Holtz,  captured  May  27,  1862,  at  Franklyn,  Va. ; mustered  out  Oc- 
tober 27,  1864,  on  expiration  of  term  of  service. 

Edward  Hinchy,  killed  May  2,  1863,  in  battle  of  Chancellorsville,  Va. 

Thomas  Jeffers,  substitute  ; absent,  sick  at  Bentonville,  N.  C.  ; mustered 
out  to  date  July  1 1,  1865,  by  order  of  war  department. 

Albert  Johnson,  drafted;  mustered  out  June  9,  1865,  at  Washington,  D. 
C.,  by  order  of  war  department. 

Edwin  E.  Jones,  discharged  September  22,  1862,  on  surgeon’s  certificate  of 
disability. 

John  L.  King,  mustered  out  with  company  July  11,  1865  ; veteran. 

Samuel  Kuhlman,  killed  May  2,  1863,  *n  battle  of  Chancellorsville,  Va. 

Albion  F.  Lee,  mustered  out  July  1 1,  1865. 

Martin  Lindley,  discharged  March  21,  1865,  at  hospital,  Columbus,  O.,  by 
order  of  war  department. 

James  Linn,  died  June  27,  1864,  in  hospital  at  Chattanooga,  Tenn. 

Isaac  Livensparger,  wounded  and  captured  May  2,  1863,  in  battle  at  Chan- 
CcHorsville,  Va.  ; discharged  April  30,  1864. 

20 


History  of  Erie  County. 


150 


Philip  Livensparger,  killed  May  2,  1863,  in  battle  of  Chancellorsville,  Va. 

Peter  H.  Livengood,  discharged  October  20,  1862,  at  Cumberland,  Md., 
on  surgeon’s  certificate  of  disability. 

Edwin  S.  Morse,  appointed  corporal  October  3,  1863  ; wounded  May  2, 
1863,  in  battle  of  Chancellorsville,  Va.  ; returned  to  ranks  March  1,  1863  ; mus- 
tered out  July  19,  1864,  at  Camp  Cleveland,  by  order  of  war  department. 

John  McConahy,  wounded  July  20,  1864,  in  battle  of  Peach  Tree  Creek, 
Ga.  ; mustered  out  with  company  July  1 1,  1865  ; veteran. 

John  B.  Martin,  drafted  ; mustered  out  with  company  July  11,  1865. 

Lewis  Mesnard,  wounded  August  9,  1862,  at  Freeman’s  Ford,  Va.  ; mus- 
tered out  June  22,  1865,  by  order  of  war  department. 

John  W.  Miller,  wounded  March  19,  1865,  in  battle  of  Bentonville,  N.  C. ; 
mustered  out  June  16,  1865,  by  order  of  war  department. 

John  McLaughlin,  captured  July  2,  1863,  at  battle  of  Gettysburg,  Pa. ; mus- 
tered out  October  23,  1864,  on  expiration  of  term  of  service. 

Oliver  Meiroy,  captured  September  15,  1863,  at  Bristow,  Va. ; mustered 
out  October  23,  1864,  on  expiration  of  term  of  service. 

Jackson  V.  Perdew,  mustered  out  with  company  July  11,  1865. 

Van  Buren  Palmer,  captured  July  17,  1863,  at  Aldie,  Va.,  mustered  out 
October  23,  1864,  on  expiration  of  term  of  service. 

Benjamin  F.  Perkey,  discharged  January  26,  1863,  at  New  York,  on  sur- 
geon’s certificate  of  disability. 

John  Plotts,  transferred  to  Veteran  Reserve  Corps  March  1,  1864;  mustered 
out  January  26,  1866,  at  Columbus,  to  date  August  21,  1864. 

George  W.  Price,  died  December  18,  1 862,  at  Baltimore,  Md. 

Isaac  Reed,  wounded  July  20,  1864,  in  battle  of  Peach  Tree  Creek,  Ga.  ; 
mustered  out  with  company  July  11,  1865  ; veteran. 

Frank  Ray,  wounded  July  20,  1864,  in  battle  of  Peach  Tree  Creek,  Ga., ; 
discharged  March  16,  1865,  at  Fort  Schuyler,  N.  Y. 

Alfred  G.  Rumur,  died  May  18,  1863,  at  Brooks’s  Station,  Va.,  of  wounds 
received  May  8,  1863,  in  battle  of  Chancellorsville,  Va. 

Abner  Royce,  discharged  October  7,  1862,  at  Columbus,  O.,  on  surgeons 
certificate  of  disability. 

Robert  P.  Ralston,  died  July  11,  1862,  at  Sperryville,  Va. 

Lawrence  Rumbacher,  drafted  ; mustered  out  June  9,  1865,  at  Washing- 
ton, D.  C.,  by  order  of  war  department. 

Corwin  K.  Sites,  mustered  out  with  company  July  11,  1865  ; veteran. 

Samuel  Stone,  wounded  and  captured  May  2,  1863,  at  battle  of  Chancellors- 
ville, Va.  ; mustered  out  with  company  July  11,  1865  ; veteran. 

Michael  Schifiler,  mustered  out  with  company  July  11,  1865;  veteran. 

Reed  A.  Stacks,  wounded  July  12,  1864,  in  action  at  Chattahoochie  River, 
Ga.  ; mustered  out  with  company  July  11,  1865. 


1 


' 

. 


Military  History. 


iS 


Joseph  Soncraut,  drafted  ; mustered  out  May  31,  1865,  at  David’s  Island, 
N.  Y.f  by  order  of  war  department. 

Jonathan  Shell,  wounded  June  15,  1864,  in  battle  of  Kenesaw  Mountain; 
mustered  out  August  11,  1865,  by  order  of  war  department ; veteran. 

George  W.  Steward,  died  July  14,  1863,  of  wounds  received  July  4,  1863, 
in  battle  of  Gettysburg,  Penn. 

Thomas  T.  Spafford,  died  March  3,  1863,  at  Brooks’s  Station,  Va. 

William  Starkey,  killed  July  3,  1863,  in  battle  of  Gettysburg,  Penn. 

John  A.  Seawalt,  killed  August  27,  1864,  at  Turner’s  Ferry,  Ga. 

Elias  Saddoris,  drafted;  died  Feb.  28,  1865,  in  hospital  at  Savannah,  Ga. 

Jesse  Sneath,  discharged  May  23,  1862,  at  Franklin,  Va. 

George  W.  Stull,  transferred  to  company  H,  Seventh  Veteran  Reserve  Corps, 
January  12,  ^864. 

Henry  H.  Trowbridge,  died  July  30,  1862,  at  Baltimore,  Md. 

William  H.  Tallman,  killed  August,  30,  1862,  in  battle  of  Bull  Run,  Va. 

Benjamin  Wagner,  drafted;  mustered  out  with  company,  July  11,  1865. 

John  A.  Wilson,  discharged  March  25,  1863,  at  Brooks’s  Station,  Va.,  on 
surgeon’s  certificate  of  disability. 

Barney  Weigle,  wounded  August  30, 1862,  in  battle  of  battle  of  Bull  Run  ; 
discharged  January  9,  1863. 

Fernando  West,  discharged  December  26,  1862,  on  surgeon’s  certificate  of 
disability. 

Enoch  B.  Watson,  wounded  August  30,  1862,  in  battle  of  Bull  Run,  Va. ; 
May  15,  1864,  in  battle  of  Resaca,  Ga. ; transferred  to  company  I,  Seventeenth 
Veteran  Reserve  Corps  August  3,  1864;  veteran. 

George  M.  Wagar,  transferred  to  Sixteenth  company,  Second  Battalion, 
Veteran  Reserve  Corps,  August  5,  1863. 

John  B.  York,  killed  May  2,  1863,  in  battle  of  Chancellorsville,  Va. 

THE  SIXTY-FOURTH  INFANTRY. 

This  regiment  formed  a portion  of  the  Sherman  Brigade.  It  was  organized 
and  recruited  at  Mansfield  during  the  summer  and  fall  months  of  1S61.  In 
several  companies  of  the  regiment  were  men  from  Erie  county,  although  no 
considerable  portion  of  either  company  was  from  here. 

At  Nashville,  Tenn.,  the  Sixty-fourth  joined  the  national  forces.  Its  first 
lively  battle  was  fought  at  Pittsburg  Landing,  on  the  7th  of  April,  and  even 
here  but  a part  of  the  regiment  was  engaged.  General  Garfield  commanded 
the  brigade.  It  participated  in  the  events  just  preceding  and  in  the  battle  of 
C°rinth,  and  afterward  built  Fort  Harker,  at  Stevenson.  It  joined  in  pursuit 
of  Bragg  in  August,  and  was  repulsed  in  a battle  with  the  rebels  at  Munfords- 
ville.  The  next  important  battle  was  at  Stone  River,  where  the  regiment  was 
attached  to  Crittenden’s  Corps  and  Wood’s  Division.  In  this  fight  it  was  more 


History  of  Erie  County. 


152 

or  less  closely  engaged  for  three  days  and  lost  about  seventy-five  men  in  killed 
and  wounded.  For  some  days  preceding  Chickamauga  it  was  skirmishing  fre- 
quently, and  in  the  main  battle  was  closely  engaged  during  the  whole  day  on 
the  19th  of  September.  It  here  lost  over  one  hundred  in  killed,  wounded  and 
missing.  On  November  25th  it  was  engaged  at  Mission  Ridge  with  but  slight 
loss.  In  January,  1864,  about  three-fourths  of  the  regiment  veteranized,  after 
which  the  men  returned  home  on  a thirty-days’  furlough. 

The  regiment  joined  Sherman’s  army  and  participated  in  the  charge  at 
Rocky  Face  Ridge.  Loss,  twenty-one  killed  and  sixty  five  wounded.  Next 
came  Resaca,  on  June  14th,  and  thereafter  daily  skirmishing  until  the  20th  of 
July,  at  which  time  it  took  part  in  the  fight  at  Peach  Tree  Creek.  Until  the 
latter  part  of  August  the  regiment  was  almost  daily  under  fire.  It  next  en- 
gaged at  Jonesboro,  September  3d,  and  then  at  Lovejoy  Station,  on  the  6th. 

After  the  fall  of  Atlanta  the  Sixty- fourth  encamped  in  the  city,  but  two 
weeks  later,  with  the  Fourth  Corps,  joined  in  pursuit  of  Hood’s  forces  as  far 
as  Chattanooga.  Here  four  hundred  recruits  were  added  to  the  regiment  and 
the  veterans  were  paid  off.  After  following  Hood  about  fifty  miles  south  of 
Chattanooga  the  regiment  returned  to  that  point,  after  which  it  was  sent  to 
Athens,  Ala.,  and  thence  marched  to  Pulaski  and  Spring  Hill,  at  which  latter 
place  it  had  another  sharp  fight.  From  Spring  Hill  the  regiment  marched  to 
Franklin,  Tenn.,  and  engaged  in  the  battle  there  with  heavy  loss.  After  that 
it  returned  to  Nashville  and  was  engaged  in  sorties  and  battles  before  that  city. 
It  then  pursued  Hood  again  and  finally  went  into  camp  at  Huntsville,  but  soon 
left  and  moved  to  Decatur  and  Athens,  remaining  about  two  months  and  then 
returned  to  Huntsville;  thence  into  East  Tennessee  and  soon  after  returned  to 
Nashville.  From  the  latter  place  it  was  sent  to  New  Orleans  where  many  died 
from  sickness.  About  the  middle  of  September,  1865,  the  Sixty-fourth  went 
to  Victoria,  Texas,  where  on  the  3d  of  December  following  the  men  were  paid 
off,  discharged  and  sent  home. 

THE  SIXTY-FIFTH  INFANTRY. 

The  Sixty-fifth  was  one  of  the  regiments  raised  at  Mansfield,  and  known  as 
the  “ Sherman  brigade,”  having  been  recruited  mainly  through  the  efforts  of 
Hon.  John  Sherman.  It  was  organized  at  Camp  Buckingham,  and  was  mus- 
tered into  service  on  the  first  of  December,  1861. 

Erie  county  was  represented  in  this  regiment  by  about  thirty-five  men, 
nearly  all  of  whom  were  members  of  Company  G,  while  a few,  and  only  a few, 
were  scattered  through  other  companies. 

The  army  life  and  experiences  of  this  regiment,  according  to  Whitelaw 
Reid,  in  his  “ Ohio  in  the  War,”  were  as  follows:  “The  regiment  left  Mans- 
field for  active  duty,  on  the  iSth  of  December,  and  moved,  by  way  of  Cincin- 
nati, to  Louisville,  Ky.,  where  it  remained  for  a week,  and  then  marched  to 


' 


Military  History. 


i55 


(Jamp  Morton,  arriving  there  on  the  30th.  The  Sixty- fifth  was  assigned  to  a 
origade  composed  of  the  Sixty-fourth  and  Sixty-fifth  Ohio,  the  Fifty-first  In- 
i.ana  and  Ninth  Kentucky.  Colonel  Harker,  of  the  Sixty- fifth,  commanded 
the  brigade,  and  General  Wood  the  division.” 

On  January,  13,  1862,  the  brigade  broke  camp  and  proceeded  to  Hall’s 
Gap,  arriving  there  on  the  24th,  when  it  was  at  once  placed  at  work  to  cordu- 
roy the  roads.  On  account  of  the  swampy,  miasmatic  nature  of  the  country 
many  of  the  men  fell  sick  and  died.  On  February  7 the  regiment  left  this 
place  and  marched  to  Lebanon,  where  by  rail  it  proceeded  to  Green  River, 
and  remained  in  camp  at  Munfordsville,  until  the  23d,  after  which  it  went  to 
Nashville,  arriving  there  on  March  13,  tired  and  worn  from  having  marched 
over  obstructed  roads,  and  carrying  baggage  over  places  impassable  for  the 
loaded  wagons. 

In  the  latter  part  of  March,  with  General  Garfield  commanding  the  brigade, 
the  regiment  again  took  up  the  line  of  march  by  way  of  Columbia  to  Savan- 
nah, and  thence  by  steamer  to  Pittsburg  Landing,  at  which  place  a fight  was 
in  progress,  but  the  Sixty-fifth  was  not  engaged  though  on  the  field.  Follow- 
ing close  upon  this  event  came  the  siege  of  Corinth,  in  which  the  regiment 
participated,  being  under  fire  much  of  the  time  and  meeting  with  some  loss. 
After  the  enemy  evacuated  the  place  the  regiment  moved  to  Bridgeport,  and 
was  assigned  to  guard  duty  along  the  Tennessee  River,  until  the  latter  part  of 
August,  when  it  joined  in  pursuit  of  Bragg’s  retreating  forces,  and  finally 
reached  Perryville  late  in  September.  A week  later  it  marched  to  Nashville. 
At  this  place  the  army  was  reorganized,  the  Sixty-fifth  holding  its  place  in  the 
bngade,  with  Colonel  Harker  in  command.  On  December  26  the  brigade 
moved  on  the  Nashville  Pike,  fighting  its  way  into  Lavergne,  across  Stewart’s 
Creek,  and  up  to  Stone  River.  On  the  29th,  at  night,  the  regiment  forded 
the  river,  armpit  deep,  in  the  face  of  a galling  fire,  and  gained  the  opposite 
bank,  where  they  formed  and  engaged  the  enemy;  but  supporting  troops  fail- 
in&  to  arrive  they  were  forced  to  retire,  which  was  done  in  good  order.  The 
men  lay  on  their  arms  all  night  and  early  the  next  day  moved  to  the  support 
°f  McCook’  s corps,  which  was  having  much  the  worst  of  it  in  a fierce  battle. 
^ or  eight  long  hours  the  regiment  was  engaged  before  the  enemy  was  finally 
Put  to  rout.  The  loss  of  the  Sixty- fifth  in  this  engagement  amounted  to  nearly 
0ne  hundred  and  seventy- five  killed,  wounded  and  missing.  Forty  officers  and 
men  were  killed.  Stone  River  was  the  most  destructive  battle  in  which  the 
regiment  participated. 

At  Chickamauga,  on  September  19  and  20,  the  regiment  was  again  en- 
*a'ged,  but  on  the  last  named  day  retreated  to  Mission  Ridge,  thence  fell  back 
x0  Chattanooga,  at  which  latter  place,  on  November  23-25,  it  was  again  closely 
engaged  and  lost  heavily,  there  being  in  killed,  wounded  and  missing  no  less 
^an  one  hundred  men.  Added  to  this  was  the  loss  in  the  battle  at  Mission 
tvJdge,  on  the  25th,  in  which  thirteen  were  killed  and  two  wounded. 


■ 


1 54 


History  of  Erie  County. 


The  regiment  next  participated  in  the  Atlanta  campaign,  and  was  engaged 
at  Rocky  Face  Ridge,  May  5-9,  1864;  at  Adairsville,  May  17,  18;  at  New 
Hope  Church,  May  28  ; at  Kenesavv  Mountain,  from  June  9 to  30,  losing  ten 
in  killed  and  wounded  ; at  Big  Shanty,  on  June  28  ; at  Peach  Tree  Creek,  with 
a loss  of  four  killed,  one  wounded  and  one  missing.  During  the  siege  of 
Atlanta  the  regiment  was  also  engaged.  It  participated  in  the  flanking  move* 
ment  to  Jonesboro,  and  from  there  advanced  to  Lovejoy.  After  the  rebels 
evacuated  Atlanta  the  regiment  returned  to  that  place  and  went  into  camp. 
Three  weeks  later  it  joined  in  pursuit  of  Hood.  It  marched  to  Mission  Ridge, 
and  thence,  by  rail,  went  to  Alpine,  Ga.  After  four  days  of  rest  it  again 
moved  to  Chattanooga,  and  did  guard  duty  along  a line  of  railroad  near  the 
Tennessee  River.  On  November  29  it  participated  in  the  battle  at  Spring- 
field,  losing  forty-one  in  killed,  wounded,  captured  and  missing.  Again, 
on  the  30th,  at  Franklin,  it  was  engaged  with  a loss  of  forty-two  men. 

On  the  3d  of  October  the  non -veterans  were  discharged  and  sent  home. 
This  left  the  Sixty-fifth  with  only  one  hundred  and  thirty  available  men.  The 
last  battle  of  the  regiment  was  fought  at  Nashville,  Tenn.,  on  the  1 5th  and  1 6th 
of  December,  1864,  and  after  following  the  defeated  rebels  for  some  time,  re- 
turned to  the  city  and  went  into  camp. 

In  June,  1865,  the  regiment  moved  from  Nashville  to  Johnsonville,  where 
it  embarked  on  transports  for  New  Orleans.  It  remained  here  for  several 
weeks,  and  was  then  ordered  to  Texas,  where  it  performed  garrison  duty  at 
San  Antonio  until  December,  1865,  when  it  was  ordered  to  Camp  Chase,  Q., 
and  was  mustered  out,  paid  and  discharged,  on  the  2d  day  of  January,  1866. 

Roster — Fie7d  and  Staff. 

Charles  G.  Harker,  colonel;  promoted  to  brigadier-general  September  20; 
1863  ; killed  June  27,  1864,  in  battle  of  Kenesaw  Mountain,  Ga. 

Daniel  French,  lieutenant-colonel;  resigned  August  8,  1862. 

Alexander  Cassil,  lieutenant-colonel ; promoted  from  captain  company  A, 
August  8,  1862;  resigned  March  22,  1863. 

Horatio  N:  Whitbeck,  lieutenant-colonel ; promoted  to  major  from  captain 
company  E,  October  7,  1862;  wounded  December  31,  1862,  in  battle  of  Stone 
River;  promoted  to  lieutenant-colonel  March  22,1863;  wounded  September 
19,  1863,  in  battle  of  Chickamauga,  and  June  27,  1864,  in  battle  of  Kenesaw 
Mountain;  discharged  August  16,  1S65,  for  wounds. 

Orlow  Smith,  lieutenant-colonel ; promoted  to  major  from  captain  company 
G,  September  22,  1863;  to  lieutenant-colonel,  October  10,  1865;  to  colonel, 
November  24,  1865,  but  not  mustered;  mustered  out  November  30,  1S65. 

James  Olds,  major;  resigned  October  7,  1862. 

Samuel  C.  Brown,  major  ; promoted  from  captain  company  H,  March  22. 
1863  ; died  September  22,  1S63,  from  wounds  received  in  battle  of  Chicka- 
mauga, Ga. 


. 


Military  History. 


i5  5 


Brewer  Smith,  adjutant;  appointed  sergeant-major  from  corporal  company 
G;  promoted  to  second  lieutentant  January  I,  1863,  and  acting  adjutant 
March  I,  1863;  to  first  lieutenant  and  adjutant  March  23,  1863;  to  captain 
company  K,  August  29,  1864. 

John  C.  Zollinger,  regimental  quartermaster;  appointed  from  first  lieutenant 
company  K,  February  13,  1865  ; mustered  out  November  30,  1865  5 veteran. 

Roster  Compcuiy  G. — Erie  County  Men. 

Clark  S.  Gregg,  first  lieutenant ; appointed  November  26,  1861  ; died  May 

11,  1862,  at  St.  Louis,  Mo.,  of  disease. 

Dolsen  Van  Kirk,  second  lieutenant;  promoted  from  first  sergeant  August 

12,  1862  ; killed  December  31,  1862,  in  battle  of  Stone  River,  Tenn. 

Patrick  R.  Nohilly,  first  sergeant;  appointed  corporal  June  12,  1862  ; ser- 
geant, November  1,  1863  ; first  sergeant,  July  31,  1864;  killed  November  29,. 
1S64,  in  battle  of  Spring  Hill,  Tenn. ; veteran. 

John  C.  Zollinger,  sergeant;  promoted  to  quartermaster-sergeant  July  13,. 
1864;  veteran. 

William  Clark,  sergeant ; mustered  as  private;  appointed  sergeant;  mus- 
tered out  December  14,  1864,  at  Nashville,  Tenn.,  on  expiration  of  term  of 
service. 

August  Keimlin,  sergeant;  appointed  from  corporal;  transferred  to  com- 
pany F,  seventh  regiment  Veteran  Reserve  Corps. 

Adam  Apple,  sergeant;  appointed  corporal  November  1,  1864;  wounded 
November  29,  1864,  in  battle  of  Spring  Hill,  Tenn.  ; appointed  sergeant  May 
I,  1865  5 mustered  out  November  30,  1865  ; veteran. 

John  V.  Nicholai,  sergeant ; mustered  as  private ; appointed  sergeant  ; 
transferred  to  company  B,  Seventh  Veteran  Reserve  Corps,  September  1,  1S63. 

Brewer  Smith,  corporal;  appointed  corporal  November  11,  1861;  pro- 
moted to  sergeant-major  June  1,  1862. 

H.  C.  Jennings,  corporal;  discharged  January  26,  1863,  at  Murfreesboro,. 
Tenn.,  on  surgeon’s  certificate  of  disability. 

Privates. 

John  Boyd,  transferred  to  forty-third  company  second  battalion  Veteran 
Reserve  Corps,  August  31,  1863. 

John  Brown,  veteran  ; no  other  record  found. 

Christian  F.  E.  Blaich,  discharged  May  20,  1863,  at  Murfreesboro,  Tenn.,. 
on  surgeon’s  certificate  of  disability. 

Martin  Casey,  died  October  22,  1862,  at  Nashville,  Tenn. 

John  C.  Ernst,  discharged  August  18,  1864,  at  Camp  Dennison,  O.,  on 
burgeon’s  certificate  of  disability. 

John  Geideman,  mustered  out  December  14,  1864,  at  Nashville,  Tenn.,  on 
expiration  of  term  of  service. 


■ 


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: • '•  P- 

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156 


History  of  Erie  County. 


Theodore  Geesey,  died  October  I,  1862,  at  Louisville,  Ky. 

Fred.  Koegle,  died  October  4.  1862,  at  Louisville,  Ky. 

Henry  Leidkie,  discharged  November  1,  1864,  at  Camp  Dennison,  O.,  on 
surgeon’s  certificate  of  disability. 

James  Murty,  no  record  found. 

John  Murphy,  wounded  December  31,  1862,  in  battle  of  Stone  River. 
Tenn.;  wounded  December  15.  1864,  in  battle  of  Nashville,  Tenn.  ; discharged 
to  date  November  25,  1865,  at  Columbus,  O.  ; veteran. 

John  Malaney,  discharged  January  18,  1865,  by  order  of  war  department. 

Michael  Nash,  mustered  out  December  14,  1864,  at  Nashville,  Tenn.,  on 
-expiration  of  term  of  service. 

James  Nolan,  died  January  30,  1863,  at  Nashville,  Tenn.,  of  wounds  re- 
ceived December  31,  1862,  in  battle  of  Stone  River,  Tenn. 

George  W.  Philo,  died  April  30,  1862,  at  Nashville,  Tenn. 

Peter  Sharp,  transferred  to  third  company  second  battalion  Veteran  Re- 
serve Corps,  April  29,  1864. 

John  Sullivan,  mustered  out  December  14,  1864,  at  Nashville,  Tenn.,  on 
expiration  of  term  of  service. 

J.  C.  Weidemier,  discharged  June  10,  1862,  at  Louisville,  Ky.,  on  surgeon’s 
certificate  of  disability. 

William  Walsh,  discharged  April  6,  1863,  at  Murfreesboro,  Tenn.,  on  sur- 
geon’s certificate  of  disability. 

THE  SEVENTY- SECOND  INFANTRY. 

This  regiment  in  the  main  was  recruited  in  the  county  of  Sandusky,  Com- 
panies A,  B,  C,  D,  E,  F,  H,  and  I,  being  raised  almost  wholly  in  that  county, 
while  Company  G,  and  a very  small  contingent  of  Companies  Hand  A were  re- 
cruited in  Erie  county.  Company  K was  principally  from  Medina  county,  and 
a few  men  in  C and  E were  from  Wood  county. 

The  regiment,  about  nine  hundred  and  fifty  strong,  left  Fremont  for  Camp 
Chase,  on  the  24th  of  January,  1862.  In  February  it  was  ordered  to  General 
Sherman’s  army  and  reported  at  Paducah,  where  it  was  brigaded  with  the  For- 
ty-eighth  and  Seventieth  Ohio  Regiments,  and  placed  under  command  of  Col- 
onel Buckland. 

The  first  regular  engagement  in  which  the  Seventy-second  took  part  was  at 
Pittsburg  Landing,  and  it  was  not  until  the  third  day’s  proceedings  at  that  place 
that  it  became  fully  initiated  in  army  service.  On  this  day,  the  6th  of  Apri'. 
1862,  the  brigade  to  which  our  regiment  belonged  withstood  three  successive 
attacks  from  the  enemy,  and  firmly  held  their  position  until  General  Sherman 
ordered  it  to  retire.  The  next  day  it  was  again  engaged  and  took  part  in  the 
■charge  that  routed  the  rebels  and  drove  them  from  the  field.  This  battle  cost 
the  regiment  one  hundred  and  thirty- five  men  in  killed,  wounded  and  missing 


■ -■« » : ■ ' J Ir  rjr.> 


Military  History. 


157 


During  the  service  of  the  regiment  down  to  and  after  the  siege  of  Corinth, 
the  ranks  were  fearfully  reduced  by  disease,  and  nearly  as  many  were  lost  or 
nhtted  for  field  service  from  this  cause,  as  by  the  results  of  battle.  At  Cor- 
inth the  regiment  was  again  closely  engaged.  Colonel  Buckland  returned  to 
the  command  of  the  regiment,  and  General  Denver  took  the  brigade.  After 
Corinth  the  army  proceeded  to  Memphis,  the  Seventy-second  being  stationed 
at  Fort  Pickering.  While  here  it  was  brigaded  with  the  Thirty-second  Wis- 
consin, the  Ninety-third  Indiana,  Ninety-third  Illinois,  and  the  One  Hundred 
and  Fourteenth  Illinois,  and  designated  as  the  First  Brigade  of  the  Third  Di- 
vision, Colonel  Buckland  again  assuming  command  of  the  brigade,  and  General 
Lauman  the  division. 

While  holding  the  bridge  over  Wolf  River  the  brigade  had  a taste  of  guer- 
rilla tactics,  but  it  did  them  no  loss.  It  remained  in  this  place  some  two  weeks 
and  in  January,  1863,  received  orders  to  proceed  to  Corinth,  where  it  arrived 
after  a long  and  weary  march  in  the  dead  of  winter.  Here  the  brigade  was 
assigned  to  the  Sixteenth  Corps,  and  placed  on  picket  duty  at  White’s  Station, 
nine  miles  from  the  city.  The  strength  of  the  regiment  was  increased  while  at 
this  place  by  about  forty  nine  months  recruits,  and  other  men  formerly  of  the 
command  who  had  been  absent  and  sick. 

About  the  middle  of  March  commenced  the  movement  southward,  and  by 
a series  of  journeys  by  land  and  by  water  until  Jackson,  Mississippi,  was  reached 
and  a battle  fought  on  the  14th  of  May,  and  after  that  came  the  labor  of  the 
siege  of  Vicksburg.  After  the  surrender  of  that  city  the  regiment  participated 
in  the  movement  against  General  Johnson,  at  Jackson,  and  afterward  pursued 
the  rebels  to  Brandon  where  another  engagement  took  place.  In  September 
the  command  joined  in  the  four  days’  scout  to  Mechanicsville,  and  on  the  15th 
of  October  moved  on  General  McPherson’s  expedition  to  Canton,  but  soon  af- 
terward went  into  camp  in  rear  of  Vicksburg.  From  here  it  went  to  guard  duty 
on  a line  of  railroad  between  Memphis  and  Charleston.  This  occupied  the  re- 
mainder of  the  year.  On  January  2 the  men  of  the  Seventy-second  re-enlisted 
•ind  moved  to  Memphis,  and  after  taking  part  in  the  expedition  to  the  Talla- 
natchie  River,  returned  to  Ohio  on  veteran  furlough  on  the  23d  of  February, 
1S64. 

Early  in  April,  having  been  strengthened  by  many  recruits,  the  regiment 
returned  again  to  the  seat  of  operations  and  made  a stand  at  Paducah  to  defend 
that  place,  and  shortly  after  moved  to  Memphis  where  it  remained  till  the  30th 
°f  April,  when  it  again  joined  an  expedition  against  the  rebel  Forrest,  thence 
to  Bolivar,  and  from  there  to  Ripley,  but  soon  returned  to  Memphis.  In  June 
Allowing  twelve  regiments,  of  which  the  Seventy-second  was  one,  again  started 
in  pursuit  of  Forrest,  and  found  him  much  to  their  sorrow  at  Brice’s  Cross 
Eoads,  and  were  badly  defeated  and  routed,  losing  a part  of  their  wagon -train 
a°d  destroying  the  rest.  They  retreated  in  disorder  and  confusion,  and  escaped 
21 


• , 


158 


History  of  Erie  County. 


annihilation  or  capture  only  by  a rapid  retreat  to  Memphis,  nevertheless,  manv 
were  killed  and  captured.  After  this  disastrous  campaign  the  regiment,  or 
what  was  left  of  it,  was  attached  to  the  First  Brigade  of  the  Sixteenth  Corps. 
It  next  participated  in  the  battle  at  Tupelo  in  which  the  rebels  were  defeated, 
as  they  were  also  at  Tishomingo  Creek.  In  both  of  these  fights  the  brunt  of 
battle  fell  upon  the  brigade  of  the  Seventy-second,  and  its  loss  amounted  to 
twenty-five  men.  The  regiment  then  joined  the  Atlanta  expedition,  but  Mower 
having  charge  of  the  division,  was  ordered  to  Arkansas  to  resist  Price,  but 
failed  to  meet  him.  It  then  marched  northward  continuing  eighteen  days,  and 
finally  reached  the  Mississippi,  where  it  embarked  on  transports  for  St.  Louis, 
thence  moved  to  Jefferson  City.  It  then  pursued  Price’s  cavalry  as  far  as  Lit- 
tle Santa  Fe,  and  then  turned  back  to  St.  Louis,  which  point  was  reached  on 
the  1 6th  of  November. 

The  Seventy-second  next  participated  in  the  battle  at  Nashville,  December 
7th  and  8th,  and  also  at  Walnut  Hills  soon  afterward.  McMillan’s  Brigade  in 
this  battle  numbered  less  than  twelve  hundred  effective  men,  still  they  captured 
-two  thousand  prisoners  and  thirteen  pieces  of  artillery,  but  sustained  a loss  of 
one  hundred  and  sixty  of  its  own  force.  The  division  then  moved  to  Eastport, 
Miss.,  and  went  into  camp.  In  February,  1865,  the  brigade  moved  to  New 
Orleans  and  camped  on  the  old  battle-ground.  On  the  28th  of  the  same  month 
it  went  to  Dauphin  Island  ; moved  to  the  east  side  of  Mobile  River  on  the  19th 
of  March,  and  on  the  27th  laid  siege  upon  Spanish  Fort,  which  was  evacuated 
on  the  8th  of  April.  The  next  day  it  captured  Fort  Blakeley.  It  was  then  or- 
dered to  Meriden,  Miss.,  where  it  was  assigned  to  garrison  duty.  In  September 
the  Seventy-second  moved  to  Corinth,  and  soon  afterward  to  Vicksburg,  where 
it  was  mustered  out  September  1 1,  1865,  after  which  it  returned  to  Camp  Chase 
and  was  paid  and  discharged. 

Roster  Company  G — Unofficial. 

James  Fernald,  captain  ; mustered  out  with  regiment. 

William  C.  Biddle,  first  lieutenant;  promoted  to  captain;  transferred  to 
company  E. 

John  H.  Poyer,  second  lieutenant;  resigned  December  3,  1862. 

Jacob  M.  Beecher,  first  sergeant;  promoted  to  first  lieutenant  in  U.  S.  Col- 
ored Infantry,  April  17,  1864 

Jonas  Stanbury,  first  sergeant;  wounded  at  siege  of  Spanish  Fort,  Ala.; 
mustered  out  with  company. 

George  Downing,  sergeant;  mustered  out  with  company;  veteran. 

Charles  Hawes,  sergeant;  mustered  out  with  company;  veteran. 

William  P.  Shilk,  sergeant;  mustered  out  with  company;  veteran. 

George  Taylor,  sergeant;  mustered  out  with  company;  veteran. 

Robert  Dalzell,  corporal;  mustered  out  with  company;  veteran. 


' 

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Military  History. 


59 


Elihu  Fernald,  corporal;  promoted  to  sergeant;  transferred  to  company 
E.;  veteran. 

Christian  Eyle,  musician;  discharged  August  7,  1865  ; veteran. 

Privates. 

Erasmus  H.  Andress,  not  on  muster-out-roll;  Sidney  Adams,  mustered  out 
with  company,  veteran  ; John  R.  Ackers,  not  on  muster-out- roll ; Ebenezer  G. 
Allen,  mustered  out  with  company;  Burel  Butman,  mustered  out  with  com- 
pany; David  Brownell,  veteran,  mustered  out  with  company ; Charles  Barber, 
mustered  out  with  company;  Peter  Brones,  mustered  out  with  company;  Lewis 
C.  Clark,  veteran,  mustered  out  with  company ; Wilson  S.  Crum,  veteran,  dis- 
charged August  7,  1865;  John  Coon,  John  Call,  Samuel  Dailey,  Edward 
Daniels,  veteran,  mustered  out  with  company;  Willard  Dike,  discharged  De- 
cember 14,  1864;  William  Davie,  discharged  December  14,  1864;  Henry  W. 
Dakin,  discharged  December  14,  1S64;  Christopher  Edwards,  Erastus  Erskin, 
veteran,  discharged  May  13,  1865;  Henry  L.  Ewing,  discharged  June  11,  1864; 
Louis  A.  Ervin,  Thomas  C.  Fernald,  Hiram  B.  French,  Henry  French,  Eu- 
gene Frankenburg,  died  in  Andersonville  prison;  Norman  Foster,  veteran, 
mustered  out  with  company;  John  Franigan,  Edward  B.  Fuller,  Edward  Gibbs, 
Nicholas  L.  Grow;  John  Haughn,  discharged  December  14,  1864;  Alfred 
Haun  ; Charles  Haughn,  discharged  to  accept  promotion  July  10,  1864  ; Fran- 
cis Higgins,  James  Hagenv,  Solomon  Hower;  Charles  Harley,  veteran,  dis- 
charged August  7,  1865  ; Joseph  Imhaf,  David  H.  James,  John  H.  Jefferson, 
Frantz  Kromer,  Charles  Kramus,  Andrew  Laughlin;  John  V.  Ladd,  discharged 
October  29,  1864;  Comfort  M.  Lewis,  Charles  Lausen,  George  W.  Lewis,  Ru- 
fus W.  Lawrence,  Dennis  Lavler ; William  H.  McEnalley,  veteran,  mustered 
out  with  company;  Dennis  Mark;  Philip  Mons,  died  in  rebel  prison  ; Michael 
McCarty;  Augustus  Mulchey,  veteran,  mustered  out  with  company ; Robert 
Meek,  William  Perry,  John  Plum,  Calvin  R.  Porter,  James  L.  Porter,  William 
Rood,  William  L.  Robertson  ; Albert  Rice,  veteran,  mustered  out  with  com- 
pany ; Augustus  Rice,  George  W.  Reed ; George  H.  Sutherland,  discharged 
December  14,  1864;  Erastus  Squires,  Merritt  Sextons,  John  C.  Steward,  dis- 
charged by  reason  of  fracture  of  right  ankle  September  27,  1864;  James  M. 
^mith,  Frederick  Schafer;  William  Seitt,  discharged  February  10,  1865  ; Henry 
^prow,  Morris  Sweet,  John  Shadenck,  Joseph  R.  Turner,  Benjamin  Thurlby  ; 
JohTi  D.  Turner,  veteran,  mustered  out  with  company;  Michael  Parchner;  Jon- 
athan  Taylor,  recruit,  mustered  out  with  company;  DeWitt  C.  Vance,  died  of 
"ounds  August  8,  1864;  Isaac  Vanderpool,  Henry  Wile,  Thomas  J.  Wright, 
Garrison  Warren,  William  H.  Walker. 

THE  ONE  HUNDRED  AND  FIRST  INFANTRY. 

This  regiment  was  organized  during  the  summer  of  1862,  and  at  a time 


■ 


i6o 


History  of  Erie  County. 


when  almost  every  engagement  resulted  disastrously  to  the  Union  anus,  and 
at  a time,  too,  when  it  required  something  more  than  enthusiasm  or  more  love 
of  excitement  to  become  a soldier;  it  was  a stern  and  positive  duty,  and  the 
recruits  knew  full  well  that  untold  privations  and  hardships  awaited  them 
The  One  Hundred  and  First  was  raised  in  the  counties  of  Crawford,  Wvandot 
Huron,  Erie  and  Seneca;  the  contingent  from  Erie  county  comprising  com- 
pany B and  a large  part  of  company  G. 

On  the  4th  of  September,  1862,  and  before  being  fully  organized  for  held 
duty,  the  command  proceeded  under  orders  hurriedly  to  Cincinnati,  and  thence 
to  Covington,  Ky.,  to  repel  the  threatened  invasion  of  Kirby  Smith’s  forces; 
and  on  the  24th  the  regiment  moved  to  Louisville,  when  it  was  placed  in  Car- 
lin’s Brigade,  Mitchell’s  Division,  and  attached  to  the  army  under  General 
Buell. 

Soon  after  the  1st  of  October  commenced  the  pursuit  of  Bragg's  rebel 
force,  which  culminated  in  the  battle  of  Perrysville  on  the  8th.  Again  the  re- 
treating rebels  were  overtaken  and  their  rear  guard  attacked  at  Lancaster. 
The  regiment  then  moved  to  Nashville,  Tenn.,  where  General  Jefferson  C. 
Davis  took  command  of  the  division,  and  on  the  26th  of  November  joined  the 
army  of  the  Cumberland,  General  Rosecrans  being  chief  in  command.  At 
this  time  was  fought  a battle  near  Nashville,  at  Knob  Gap,  where  the  regiment 
made  an  excellent  record  for  coolness  and  bravery,  being,  as  they  were  much 
of  the  time,  under  a heavy  and  telling  fire  from  infantry  and  artillery. 

On  December  30  commenced  the  battle  at  Stone  River,  the  brigade  to 
which  the  One  Hundred  and  First  belonged  having  the  right  of  the  line  and 
was  the  first  on  the  field.  On  the  day  following  they  had  it  “ hot  and  heavy,” 
no  sooner  being  driven  from  one  position  than  they  made  a determined  stand 
at  another,  all  through  the  day.  They  held  their  position  on  the  right  until 
January  2,  when  the  brigade  was  ordered  to  support  the  left.  From  this 
time  until  April  the  regiment  was  posted  at  or  near  Murfreesboro,  from  which 
point  they  were  constantly  moving  on  various  wearying  expeditions;  but  from 
April  to  June  it  rested  in  camp  at  Tullahoma. 

In  June  was  fought  the  battle  at  Liberty  Gap,  after  which,  in  August,  the 
brigade  crossed  the  mountains  into  Georgia,  but  returned  shortly  afterward 
and  took  part  at  the  Chickamauga  battle,  August  19  and  20.  In  this  fight 
the  One  Hundred  and  First  made  a fierce  charge  and  regained  a national  bat- 
tery, fighting  over  the  guns  with  clubbed  muskets.  After  this  splendid 
achievement  the  command  retired  to  Chattanooga,  where  the  regiment  was 
made  a part  of  the  First  Brigade,  First  Division,  Fourth  Army  Corp-  During 
the  latter  part  of  October  the  brigade  moved  to  Bridgport.  Ala.,  where  it  re- 
mained in  camp  until  January  16,  1S64,  when  it  proceeded  to  Oldi.-./.ih,  Tenn 

The  regiment  participated  in  the  Atlanta  campaign  in  1864,  making  its 
first  move  ;n  May,  and  first  engaging  the  enemy  at  Catoosa  Spring-,  and  drove 


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Military  History. 


161 


him  as  far  as  Tunnel  Hill,  from  which  place  it  went  to  Buzzard  Roost  Gap, 
where  misfortune  awaited  it,  as  the  command  got  much  the  worst  of  it  in  a 
mountain  fight,  and  was  compelled  to  seek  refuge  behind  rocks  and  remain 
concealed  until  late  in  the  evening.  It  afterward  took  part  in  the  operations 
about  Atlanta  during  the  siege  of  that  city,  and  fought  at  that  place  and  at 
jonesboro  and  Lovejoy.  At  Franklin  it  regained  an  important  position  that 
another  command  had  lost. 

The  regiment  was  afterward  engaged  at  Nashville,  and  pursued  Hood’s 
retiring  force  for  a time,  but  soon  after  went  into  camp  at  Huntsville.  At  this 
place,  on  the  I2th  of  June,  1865,  the  One  Hundred  and  First  was  mustered 
out  of  service.  Soon  after  it  returned  to  Camp  Taylor,  where  the  men  were 
paid  and  discharged. 

Roster  Field  and  Staff. 

Leander  Stern,  colonel  ; killed  December  26,  1862. 

Isaac  M.  Kirby,  colonel ; promoted  from  major  ; mustered  out  with  regi- 
ment. 

John  Trautz,  lieutenant-colonel;  resigned  October  14,  1862. 

Moses  F.  Wooster,  lieutenant-colonel ; promoted  from  major ; died  of 
wounds  January  3,  1863. 

John  Messer,  lieutenant-colonel;  resigned  January  7,  1864. 

Bedan  D.  McDonald,  lieutenant-colonel  ; promoted  from  major  ; mustered 
out  with  regiment. 

Daniel  H.  Fox,  major;  promoted  from  captain;  resigned  September  28, 

1864. 

John  A.  Lattimer,  major;  promoted  from  captain;  mustered  out  with 
regiment. 

Roster  Company  B. — Unofficial. 

This  company  was  raised  in  and  about  the  city  of  Sandusky ; mustered  in 
August  30,  1862  ; mustered  out  June  12,  1865. 

Thomas  C.  Fernald,  captain;  resigned  on  account  of  disability  January 
25*  1863. 

Stephen  P.  Beckwith,  first  lieutenant;  promoted  to  captain  February  I, 
1863  i resigned  November  30,  1864,  by  reason  of  disability. 

Otis  L.  Peck,  second  lieutenant;  dishonorably  discharged  January  25, 

1865. 

John  M.  Butler,  first  sergeant;  promoted  to  first  lieutenant  Januarv  25, 
1863;  resigned  December  29,  1863. 

Charles  E.  Smith,  sergeant;  discharged  for  disability  February  14,  1S63. 

Jay  C.  Butler,  sergeant;  promoted  to  second  lieutenant  January  25,  1S63  ; 
to  first  lieutenant  March  29,  1864,  and  to  captain  March  16,  1865. 

James  Gordon,  sergeant;  discharged  for  disability  March  8,  1S63. 


62 


History  of  Erie  County. 


Simeon  Huntington,  sergeant ; wounded  at  Stone  River;  died  from  wounds 
January  19,  1863. 

Alonzo  R.  Sharp,  corporal  ; discharged  for  disability  June  1,  1863. 

Henry  j.  Bly,  corporal  ; discharged  February  17,  1863,  for  wounds  re- 
cieved  at  Stone  River. 

Joshua  B.  Davis,  corporal ; transferred  to  First  United  States  Engineers 
July  29,  1864. 

William  D.  Taylor,  corporal;  promoted  to  sergeant  January  25,  1864; 
mustered  out  with  company. 

Francis  L.  Pease,  corporal  ; transferred  to  Veteran  Reserve  Corps  April  6, 
1864. 

William  B.  Rice,  corporal  ; promoted  to  sergeant  January  25,  1863. 

Jacob  Merkley,  corporal ; mustered  out  with  company. 

John  W.  Ward,  corporal ; discharged  for  disability  March  8,  1863. 

George  W.  Hill,  musician  ; died  at  Perryville,  Ky.,  November  12,  1862. 
William  P.  Barton,  wagoner ; mustered  out  with  company. 

Privates. 

Harper  Austin,  mustered  out  with  company. 

Seth  A.  Barton,  transferred  to  Veteran  Reserve  Corps  January  4,  1864. 
William  P.  Bartow,  no  record  found. 

William  Burrell,  died  in  service. 

Allen  M.  Curran,  promoted  to  sergeant  January  25,  1863. 

William  H.  Carpenter,  discharged  for  disability  January  15,  1863. 

Edwin  Claflin,  discharged  April  5,  1865,  by  reason  of  accidental  wound. 
Robert  Cullen,  mustered  out  with  company. 

Wilbur  F.  Cowles,  promoted  to  first  sergeant  January  25,  1863  ; captured 
at  battle  of  Chickamauga. 

William  H.  Coveil,  transferred  to  Marine  Corps  May  3,  1863. 

John  W.  Dodge,  transferred  to  Veteran  Reserve  Corps  February  4,  1S64 
Milton  C.  Dodge,  missing  in  battle  at  Chickamauga  September  20,  1863. 
Simeon  A.  Davis,  transferred  to  Veteran  Reserve  Corps  May  3,  1864. 
Charles  B.  Dennis,  mustered  out  with  company. 

Henry  M.  Elwood,  discharged  for  disability  December  20,  1862. 

Sidney  W.  Faxton,  discharged  for  disability  January  28,  1863. 

James  C.  Fitch,  discharged  for  disability  May  29,  1865.  ♦ 

Amos  W.  Fox,  transferred  to  Veteran  Reserve  Corps  July  1,  1S63. 

Alfred  Foreman,  discharged  for  disability  January  14,  1S63. 

Theodore  Ford,  wounded  in  battle  at  Chickamauga,  Tenn.,  September  I9r 
1863. 

Alfred  Grant,  discharged  for  disability  January  24,  1863. 

Leonard  Gay,  discharged  for  disability  January  10,  1863. 


•• 

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Military  History. 


163 

James  Glinn,  died  in  service  November  5,  1862. 

Charles  Gross,  transferred  to  Veteran  Reserve  Corps  (date  unknown). 
Alexander  C.  Hosmer,  transferred  to  company  A ; promoted  to  second 
lieutenant 

William  L.  Hutton,  discharged  for  disability  October  7,  1863. 

Jerome  Holly,  died  May  8,  1863. 

Albert  Hinman,  discharged  by  reason  of  wounds  received  at  Stone  River. 
Harrison  J.  Hammond  died  in  service  February  14,  1863. 

Francis  Houseman,  transferred  to  Veteran  Reserve  Corps,  March  18,  1864. 
Orlando  Holly,  died  in  service  November  8,  1862. 

Smith  Harrington,  discharged  for  disability  February  24,  1863. 

David  Hinds,  transferred  to  Veteran  Reserve  Corps. 

Oliver  Holbrook,  discharged  for  disability  March  10,  1863. 

Martin  Ingles,  died  in  service  December  9,  1863. 

James  L.  Hill,  no  record  found. 

Philip  Kuntz,  not  on  muster-out  roll. 

Emmitt  Lincoln,  transferred  to  marine  service. 

George  W.  Littleton,  mustered  out  with  company. 

James  H.  Laden,  discharged  for  disability  April  7,  1863. 

George  W.  Ladd,  promoted  to  sergeant  January  25,  1863. 

Justus  Luhrs,  promoted  to  corporal  June  1,  1864. 

Charles  McGettigan,  transferred  to  Veteran  Reserve  Corps  May  3,  1S04. 
Dennis  Mullen,  mustered  out  with  company. 

Joseph  T.  Marshall,  discharged  February  28,  1863,  from  wounds  received 
at  Stone  River. 

William  Meacham,  mustered  out  with  company. 

John  F.  Miller,  died  May  26,  1864,  from  wounds  received  at  Nashville, 
Tenn. 

J.  Edward  Matthews,  promoted  to  hospital  steward  April  14,  1863. 

Charles  D.  Pierce,  discharged  for  disability  June  1 1,  1863. 

Edwin  C.  Pomroy,  died  June  30,  1864,  from  wounds  received  at  Chatta- 
nooga, Tenn. 

Oscar  Pertschman,  promoted  to  corporal  March  1,  1S65. 

Henry  B.  Penfield,  discharged  for  disability  December  30.  1863. 

William  R.  Pope,  discharged  March  12,  1864,  by  reason  of  wounds  received 
at  Chickamauga. 

Theodore  Rebadue,  captured  at  Huntsville. 

Aden  Rice,  clerk  at  head  quarters,  F'ourth  Corps,  mustered  out  with  com- 
pany. 

Robert  Sankey,  died  at  Nashville,  Tenn. 

Thomas  Shea,  deserter. 

Jay  C.  Smith,  promoted  to  sergeant-major  January  4,  1863. 


■'  too  bs- 


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164 


History  of  Erie  County. 


Robert  Schell,  mustered  out  with  company. 

Charles  Shupe,  prisoner  of  war  ; no  record  of  discharge. 

Orange  Seamons,  discharged  for  disability  January  9,  1863. 

Bradford  J.  Severy,  mustered  out  with  company. 

Ralph  E.  Taylor,  discharged  for  disability  October  9.  1863. 

David  W.  Thompson,  transferred  to  Veteran  Reserve  Corps  September  20, 

1863. 

Royal  A.  Tucker,  discharged  for  disability  May  29,  1865. 

Joseph  H.  Terrill,  captured  September  20,  1863,  and  died  in  prison  April 
I,  1865. 

Joel  S.  Wolverton,  discharged  for  disability  December  30,  1862. 

Daniel  Wood,  discharged  for  disability  January  7,  1864. 

Mack  Wood,  discharged  for  disability  December  30,  1863. 

Anton  Wauck,  discharged  for  disability  December  30,  1863. 

Henry  O.  Wright,  transferred  to  Veteran  Reserve  Corps. 

Samuel  G.  Wright,  discharged  for  disability  December  30,  1863. 

Dustin  Washburn,  transferred  to  United  States  Engineers  August  29,  1864. 
Jacob  Young,  promoted  to  corporal  March  1,  1865;  mustered  out  with 
company. 

Jacob  M.  Zimmerman,  missing  at  Chickamauga  ; died  in  rebel  prison  Janu- 
ary 9,  1864. 

Additional  names  of  company : Rolla  Meeker,  no  record  ; Anson  Doug- 
lass, no  record  ; Christian  Wall,  deserter ; George  W.  Hill,  died  in  service ; 
Thomas  Johnson,  deserted  at  Covington,  Ky. 

Roster  Company  G,  Unofficial. 

This  company  was  recruited  mainly  in  the  east  and  west  parts  of  the  coun- 
ty, one  'portion  from  Margaretta  township  and  the  other  from  Berlin,  Flor- 
ence and  other  localities,  while  a few  were  from  outside  the  county. 

John  Messer,  captain  ; promoted  to  lieutenant-colonel  to  date  January  3. 
1863;  resigned  January  7,  1864. 

John  P.  Fleming,  first  lieutenant ; promoted  to  captain  May  23,  1863  ; mus- 
tered out  with  the  company. 

Horace  D.  Olds,  second  lieutenant;  promoted  to  first  lieutenant  May  27. 
1863  ; discharged  December  25,  1864,  to  accept  promotion  in  First  United 
States  Volunteer  Veteran  Engineer  Corps. 

William  H.  Van  Ness,  first  sergeant;  discharged  October  26,  1863. 
Ambrose  B.  C.  Dunman,  sergeant;  captured  September  19,  1863. 
Jonathan  Cooke,  sergeant;  transferred  to  First  United  States  Veteran  En- 
gineer Corps,  August  7,  1864. 

George  W.  Fleming,  sergeant;  discharged  March  4,  1863. 

Squire  A.  Butler,  corporal;  promoted  to  first  sergeant  May  3,  1S64;  mus- 
tered out  with  the  company. 


. 


Military  History. 


165 


George  Mordorf,  corporal;  promoted  to  sergeant  July  2,  1864;  mustered 
out  with  company. 

Isaac  C.  Capen,  corporal;  promoted  to  sergeant  March  4,  1863  ; killed  in 
battle  September  19,  1863. 

Francis  M.  Miller,  corporal;  discharged  October  18,  1862. 

George  L.  Smith,  corporal  ; died  December  4,  1862. 

Jasper  F.  Webster,  corporal  ; promoted  to  second  lieutenant  May  3,  1864  5 
to  first  lieutenant  February  1,  1S65  ; mustered  out  with  company. 

John  White,  corporal;  promoted  to  sergeant  October  15,  1863  ; mustered 
out  with  company. 

Roderick  Russell,  musician;  discharged  March  26,  1863. 

Privates. 

Franklin  Andrews,  promoted  to  corporal  March,  1865. 

Emerson  Andrews,  mustered  out  with  company. 

Squire  Abbott,  mustered  out  with  company. 

Henry  E.  Burbank,  not  on  muster-out  roll. 

Isaac  Baldwin,  died  June  12,  1863. 

Daniel  S.  Barber,  discharged  February  21,  1863. 

Oliver  W.  Benschoter,  died  December  28,  1862. 

Albert  A.  Blair,  mustered  out  with  company. 

James  C.  Burkholder,  transferred  to  Veteran  Reserve  Corps  May  27,  1864. 
Walter  C.  Beardsley,  captured  September  19,  1863. 

Oliver  M.  Butler,  mustered  out  with  company. 

Marcus  Crawnell,  wounded  December  15,  1864;  mustered  out  with  com- 
pany. 

John  Daniels,  died  January  19,  1863. 

Hezekiah  S.  Drake,  promoted  to  corporal  March  1,  1865. 

John  J.  Dunning,  discharged  July  16,  1863. 

William  Dunham,  killed  at  Kenesaw  Mountain  June  25,  1864. 

Floron  Dalzell,  died  January  28,  1863. 

Henry  E.  Dwight,  mustered  out  with  company. 

Henry  D.  Fisher,  mustered  out  with  company. 

Alpha  B.  Falley,  discharged  June  23,  1863. 

George  L.  Fowler,  promoted  to  sergeant  July  I,  1864;  mustered  out  with 
company. 

Ralph  G.  Fuller,  mustered  out  with  company. 

James  Ford,  transferred  to  Mississippi  Marine  Brigade  March  11,  1863. 
Alfred  Ford,  discharged  for  wounds  May  13,  1865. 

Peter  Grimer,  transferred  to  Signal  Corps  October  22,  1863. 

Oliver  Gardner,  mustered  out  with  company. 

Daniel  W.  Harris  mustered  out  with  company. 


■ 


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History  of  Erie  County. 


i 66 


George  Hewitt,  killed  in  battle  of  Stone  River  January  5,  1863. 

George  Hoover,  mustered  out  with  company. 

Jacob  Hay,  transferred  to  Veteran  Reserve  Corps  May  3,  1864. 

William  Hutchinson,  killed  in  battle  of  Nashville,  Tenn.,  December  5,  1864. 
Malachi  Humphrey,  discharged  for  wounds  May  25,  1865. 

Daniel  B.  Higgins,  mustered  out  with  company. 

Miles  E.  Hale,  discharged  January  31,  1863. 

Edgar  F.  Horn,  transferred  to  Veteran  Reserve  Corps. 

Alba  Howey,  mustered  out  with  company. 

John  Howey,  transferred  to  Veteran  Reserve  Corps. 

John  Howell,  mustered  out  with  company. 

Frederick  Houck,  mustered  out  with  company. 

Benjamin  Jones,  mustered  out  with  company. 

Peter  Landin,  discharged  February  7,  1863. 

Laban  D.  Lowrey,  discharged  December  n,  1863. 

Charles  Long,  mustered  out  with  company. 

Alexander  Lewis,  died  December  2,  1862. 

Charles  D.  Morehouse,  discharged  February  28,  1864. 

Curtis  B.  Mullenox,  killed  in  battle  of  Stone  River  January  2,  1863. 
Andrew  Menikle,  killed  in  battle  of  Stone  River,  January  2,  1863. 

Francis  Magill,  transferred  to  Veteran  Reserve  Corps. 

La  Fayette  Miller,  transferred  to  Engineer’s  Corps,  August  7,  1864. 

Daniel  Myers,  mustered  out  with  company. 

Andrew  J.  Miller,  promoted  to  corporal  March  1,  1865. 

William  Munson,  transferred  to  Veteran  Reserve  Corps  April  10,  1864. 
George  B.  Morse,  promoted  to  corporal  January  1,  1865. 

Leroy  Mullenox,  died  from  wounds  July  25,  1864. 

Lewis  Osborn,  died  in  Libby  Prison  December  14,  1863. 

Stephen  Paxton,  promoted  to  corporal  May  10,  1863  ; mustered  out  with 
company. 

James  J.  Pike,  discharged  January  6,  1864. 

David  Plue,  promoted  to  corporal  July  1,  1864;  mustered  out  with  com- 
pany. 

John  Russet,  mustered  out  with  company. 

Charles  Russet,  mustered  out  with  company. 

Giles  W.  Ray,  promoted  corporal  July  1,  1864. 

Horace  V.  Ramsdell,  discharged  for  wounds  March  II,  1863. 

Lyman  B.  Russell,  mustered  out  with  company. 

Almon  W.  Sherman,  mustered  out  with  company. 

Elisha  D.  Smith,  discharged  June  4,  1S64. 

Russell  Sanders,  discharged  August  15,  1863. 

George  W.  Shaffer,  died  June  19,  1864. 


■ 


. 

■ 


Military  History. 


i 67 


Alfred  Sutton,  mustered  out  with  company. 

De  Witt  Thompson,  mustered  out  with  company. 

Martin  V.  Wilbur,  discharged  for  wounds  March  27,  1865. 

John  D.  Wheat,  mustered  out  with  company. 

Maddison  E.  Wells,  promoted  to  sergeant  July  1,  1864;  mustered  out 
with  company. 

George  W.  Wheal,  discharged  February  4,  1863. 

Andrew  Bradley,  starved  to  death  in  Andersonville  prison  September  24, 
1S64;  captured  September  23,  1863. 

THE  ONE  HUNDRED  AND  SEVENTH  INFANTRY. 

This  was  one  of  the  many  regiments  composed  of  steady-going  Germans 
that  joined  the  Union  army.  Many  of  those  who  were  in  what  was  known  as 
the  German  regiments  were  unable  to  speak  English,  and  some  were  taken 
prisoners  by  the  rebels.  When  the  “ Johnnies”  found  so  strong  a foreign 
element  among  the  Union  soldiers,  they  supposed  as  a matter  of  course  that 
the  North  had  been  receiving  aid  from  Germany,  and  were  at  great  loss  to 
thoroughly  understand  it.  This  was  noticeably  the  case  among  the  Pennsyl- 
vania regiments,  a large  number  of  whom  were  what  might  aptly  be  termed 
“solid  Dutch.” 

The  German  regiments  were,  as  a rule,  somewhat  slow  in  their  movements, 
but  they  were,  nevertheless,  generally  on  hand  when  wanted.  They  were 
hard,  determined  fighters,  and  made  excellent  soldiers.  The  One  Hundred 
and  Seventh  was  a part  of  the  Second  Brigade,  First  Division,  and  Eleventh 
Army  Corps,  under  command  of  Major-General  Sigel,  whose  fighting  qualities 
were  well  known  all  through  the  army. 

One  company,  F,  of  this  regiment,  was  raised  in  Erie  county  and  was 
called  the  “Sandusky  Yaegers.”  The  regiment  rendezvoused  at  Camp  Taylor, 
near  Cleveland,  and  first  took  to  the  field  in  September,  1862,  at  Covington, 
Ey.,  where  Kirby  Smith  was  threatening  an  invasion.  After  this  scare  was 
passed  the  regiment  came  to  Delaware,  O.,  but  soon  left  for  work  and  duty  on 
the  defenses  about  the  national  capital.  In  November  it  went  into  Virginia,  at 
Stafford  Court  House,  at  which  place  it  was  assigned  to  Sigel’s  army  as  already 
stated.  Some  two  weeks  later  it  participated  in  the  movement  designed  to 
bring  the  command  in  rear  of  Fredericksburg,  and  acting  with  Burnside’s 
Corps,  make  a second  attack  on  the  city,  but  the  exceedingly  bad  condition  of 
the  roads  made  the  plan  fail. 

In  the  early  part  of  May,  1863,  the  regiment  participated  in  the  battle  of 
Chancellorsville,  but  Stonewall  Jackson  proved  too  much  for  Howard,  and 
defeated  him  with  serious  loss,  the  One  Hundred  and  Seventh  alone  losing 
two  hundred  and  twenty-nine  in  killed,*  wounded  and  captured.  After  this 
the  regiment  lay  in  camp  at  Brooks’s  Station  until  the  12th  of  June,  at  which 


i6S 


History  of  Erie  County. 


time  it  moved  northward  to  engage  with  the  forces  against  General  Lee.  It 
took  a prominent  part  in  the  Gettysburg  fight,  commencing  July  I,  and  was 
engaged  actively  for  that  and  the  next  day.  The  regiment  went  into  the  bat- 
tle about  five  hundred  strong,  and  its  total  loss  in  killed,  wounded  and  missing 
amounted  to  nearly  four-fifths  of  that  number.  This  was  a terrible  fight  for 
the  One  Hundred  and  Seventh,  and  their  loss  was  in  a measure  offset  by  their 
capture  of  a stand  of  colors  from  the  famous  Louisiana  Tigers.  Having  but  a 
trifle  over  one  hundred  serviceable  men  left,  the  command  joined  in  the  pur- 
suit of  Lee’s  army,  following  it  to  Hagarstown,  thence  to  Catlett’s  Station. 

The  regiment  started  by  boat  for  Folly  Island  on  the  1st  of  August,  and 
remained  at  that  place  performing  garrison  and  picket  duty  until  the  following 
February,  when  an  expedition  was  made  to  Seabrook  Island  and  Jones's 
Island.  After  that  it  went  to  Jacksonville,  Fla.,  where  it  remained,  except  for 
about  a month,  until  December,  1S64.  Its  fighting  days  were  now  about 
over,  nevertheless,  until  the  latter  part  of  March,  1865,  it  performed  valuable 
service,  and  had  a short,  but  sharp  brush  with  the  rebels  at  Sumpterville, 
capturing  three  pieces  of  artillery  and  a number  of  horses  and  prisoners. 
Afterward,  at  Singleton’s  Plantation,  it  captured  a railroad  train  and  a large 
amount  of  stores  and  ammunition. 

After  Lee’s  surrender  the  regiment  went  to  Charleston,  where  it  remained 
on  provost  duty  until  July  10,  when  it  was  mustered  out,  sent  home  and  dis- 
charged from  the  service. 

Roster , Field  and  Staff. 

Seraphim  Meyer,  colonel;  resigned  February  8,  1864,  for  disabilities. 

Charles  Mueller,  lieutenant-colonel;  resigned  October  24,  1863. 

John  S.  Cooper,  lieutenant-colonel ; mustered  out  with  regiment. 

George  Arnold,  major;  resigned  August  21,  1863. 

August  Vignos,  major;  resigned  September  30,  1864. 

Edward  S.  Meyer,  major;  resigned  January  1,  1865. 

F.  C.  Suhner,  major  ; mustered  out  with  regiment. 

Roster  Company  F,  not  Official. 

Henry  Bernhard,  first  sergeant;  discharged  March  2,  1863. 

George  Beck,  sergeant;  missing  in  action  at  Gettysburg  July  1,  1863. 

Justus  Thornberg,  sergeant;  promoted  to  first  lieutenant;  wounded  May 
2,  1863. 

Leopold  Weinman,  sergeant ; mustered  out  with  company. 

Carl  Groesch,  sergeant;  discharged  December  2 2,  1862. 

John  Becker,  corporal;  mustered  out  with  company. 

Frederick  Frey,  corporal;  promoted  sergeant  March  5,  1863;  mustered 
out  with  company. 


■ 

- 


* 


Military  History. 


169 


Charles  Wahler,  corporal  ; wounded  at  Gettysburg  July  1,  1863. 

Henry  Roder,  corporal ; mustered  out  with  company. 

Henry  Frey,  corporal;  died  November  1,  1862. 

Joseph  Fels,  corporal  ; discharged  for  wounds  May  27,  1864. 

Stephen  Schnurr,  musician  ; mustered  out  with  company. 

Joseph  Meier,  wagoner;  mustered  out  with  company. 

Privates. 

Herman  Breunmy,  discharged  April,  1863. 

Jacob  Bretz,  died  October  8,  1863. 

T.  Xavier  Buerge,  mustered  out  with  company. 

Augustine  Burzikafer,  mustered  out  with  company. 

Jacob  Beecher,  mustered  out  with  company. 

John  Bucher,  mustered  out  with  company. 

Frederick  Biehl,  captured  at  Gettysburg  ; eight  months  a prisoner. 

Adam  Bergheeler,  promoted  corporal  ; mustered  out  with  company. 

John  Becker,  wounded  at  Gettysburg ; promoted  corporal. 

John  Breil,  died  May  14,  1865. 

Frederick  Busch,  mustered  out  with  company. 

Joseph  Bishop,  died  December  31,  1862. 

Andrew  Bengel,  killed  in  action  March  2,  1863. 

John  Ernst,  transferred  to  Veteran  Reserve  Corps,  September  26,  1S63. 
Jacob  Ensdorff,  promoted  to  sergeant  October  1,  1864;  mustered  out  with 
company. 

Charles  Franck,  mustered  out  with  company. 

John  G.  Fott,  mustered  out  with  company. 

Charles  Gerdes,  mustered  out  with  company. 

Edward  Gessler,  mustered  out  with  company. 

Edward  Giteman,  mustered  out  with  company. 

John  Hormes,  transferred  to  Veteran  Reserve  Corps  by  reason  of  wounds. 
George  Helmech,  killed  in  action  at  Gettysburg  July  2,  1863. 

Henry  Hossle,  mustered  out  with  company. 

William  Heinzmann,  not  on  muster-out  roll. 

William  Hacker,  missing  at  Gettysburg  July  1,  1863. 

Martin  Indlekofer,  died  June  19,  1865. 

John  Kastor,  mustered  out  with  company. 

Charles  Krumbholz,  not  on  muster-out  roll. 

Henry  Kappel,  promoted  corporal  March  1,  1864. 

Anton  Lung,  mustered  out  with  company. 

Ferdinand  Loeblein,  killed  in  action  May  2,  1863. 

Alphouse  J.  Lefflor,  not  on  muster-out  roll. 

Frank  Mangin,  mustered  out  with  company 


. 


■ 


170 


History  of  Erie  County. 


John  Moos,  mustered  out  with  company. 

Jacob  G.  Miller,  absent,  sick  when  company  was  mustered  out. 

Conrad  Missig,  promoted  to  corporal  March  i,  1864;  wounded  May  2, 
1863,  in  breast  and  shoulders. 

August  Mathew,  transferred  to  Veteran  Reserve  Corps  May  20,  1863. 

Joseph  Mueller,  mustered  out  with  company. 

Frank  Newberger,  transferred  to  Veteran  Reserve  Corps  May  20,  1863. 

Gustav  Philips,  promoted  to  corporal  November  24,  1862;  wounded  in 
action  May  2,  1863  ;j  transferred  to  Veteran  Reserve  Corps  August  22,  1S64. 

Peter  Reader,  transferred  to  Veteran  Reserve  Corps  March  5,  1864,  for 
reason  of  wounds. 

Peter  Reis,  died  from  wounds  July  10,  1863. 

August  Raber,  died  of  wounds  August  2,  1863. 

Nicholas  Rimel,  died  in  Libby  Prison. 

Henry  Ross,  mustered  out  with  company. 

John  Surren,  transferred  to  Veteran  Reserve  Corps  February  1,  1864. 

William  Sneider,  promoted  to  principal  musician. 

Adam  Schaul,  wounded  in  action  March  1,  1863  ; mustered  out  with  com- 
pany. 

Valentine  Scheidler,  not  on  muster-out  roll. 

John  Schomer,  mustered  out  with  company. 

John  Smith,  not  on  muster-out  roll. 

Christian  Thomas,  mustered  out  with  company. 

Wendel  Viethauer,  not  on  muster-out  roll. 

Jacob  Walter,  wounded  in  action  May  2,  1863;  mustered  out  with  com- 
pany. 

Garret  Walter,  missing  at  Gettysburg^  July  1,  1863. 

Anthony  Wintersteller,  not  on  muster-out  roll. 

Jacob  Zuber,  not  on  muster-out  roll. 

THE  ONE  HUNDRED  AND  TWENTY-THIRD  INFANTRY. 

This  was  among  the  latter  regiments  raised  in  Ohio  for  the  three  years 
service.  It  was  mustered  into  service  by  companies  during  the  months  of 
September  and  October,  1862.  Erie  county  was  represented  by  company  G 
and  a small  portion  of  K,  the  larger  part  of  the  latter  being  recruited  at  Tiffin 
and  vicinity.  The  regiment  rendezvoused  and  was  organized  at  Camp  Mon- 
roeville, in  Huron  county,  and  immediately  after  the  muster-in  of  the  last  com- 
pany it  was  ordered  to  Zanesville  ; thence  into  Virginia,  where  its  time  seems 
to  hav^  been  occupied  in  scouting  and  marching  from  place  to  place,  and 
eventually  brought  up  at  Webster,  not  twenty-five  miles  from  its  starting 
place.  Soon  afterwards  the  regiment  went  to  New  Creek  and  remained  there 
in  camp  until  the  12th  of  December.  In  January  it  marched  to  Morehead  to 


Military  History. 


171 

relieve  the  One  Hundred  and  Sixteenth  Ohio,  and  on  the  10th  left  that  place 
for  Romney.  Here  it  was  employed  in  scouting  duty  along  the  line  of  the 
Baltimore  and  Ohio  Railroad,  and  while  so  doing  one  company  of  the  One 
Hundred  and  Sixteenth  and  a small  detail  of  the  One  Hundred  and  Twenty- 
third  were  captured  by  McNeil’s  Cavalry. 

But  this  loss  was  comparatively  trifling  as  against  that  that  fell  to  the  regi- 
ment at  Winchester  on  the  13th  of  June  and  the  days  following,  and  although 
the  men  fought  like  demons,  this  regiment  making  three  desperate  charges  in 
attempting  to  break  through  the  rebel  lines,  it  was  of  no  avail ; they  were  sur- 
rounded, their  retreat  cut  off,  and  the  command,  with  but  few  exceptions,  were 
captured  and  taken  to  Richmond.  The  officers  were  confined  in  Libby  prison, 
but  a few  managed  to  effect  their  escape.  The  privates  were  exchanged  in  the 
course  of  a few  months  and  sent  to  the  parole  camps  at  Annapolis,  and  at 
Camp  Chase,  O. 

About  the  1st  of  April,  1864,  the  regiment  was  re- assembled  at  Martins- 
burg,  and  from  thence  moved  to  Winchester,  the  city  of  their  recent  downfall. 
From  here  it  moved,  under  General  Sigel,  up  the  Shenandoah  and  engaged  in 
battle  at  New  Market,  on  May  15  th,  but  with  heavy  loss  was  compelled  to 
retreat  to  Cedar  Creek.  Here  General  Sigel  was  succeeded  by  General  Hunter 
in  the  command  of  this  branch  of  the  army.  On  the  5th  of  June  Port  Repub- 
lic was  fought  and  two  thousand  prisoners  taken  from  the  Confederacy.  After 
this  commenced  Hunter’s  retreating  fight  from  Lynchburg  to  Salem,  a retreat 
memorable  for  its  disasters,  and  when  the  command  arrived  at  Gauley  Bridge 
it  was  in  a most  forlorn  and  pitiable  condition.  On  the  6th  of  July  the  regi- 
ment reached  Parkersburg,  and  thence  marched  to  Martinsburg,  which  latter 
place  it  left  two  and  a half  months  before  with  seven  hundred  men,  but  on  its 
return  could  muster  but  two  hundred  and  fifty. 

With  the  Army  of  West  Virginia  the  One  Hundred  and  Twenty- third 
fought  at  Snicker’s  Ferry  on  July  1 8th,  and  afterward  joined  in  the  pursuit  of 
the  rebels  with  alternating  success  and  reverses  for  some  days.  Then  the  regi- 
ment joined  the  army  under  Phil  Sheridan.  It  participated  in  the  battle  at 
Herryville,  on  September  19;  at  Strasburg ; at  Cedar  Creek,  on  October  19th, 
when  Sheridan  made  his  famous  ride  and  turned  disaster  into  victory  ; at  Hat- 
cher’s Run,  on  the  2d  of  April  of  the  following  year;  at  High  Bridge,  where 
the  One  Hundred  and  Twenty- third  was  again  captured  and  taken  to  Appo- 
mattox Court  House.  But  at  this  place  the  whole  of  Lee's  army  surrendered 
to  General  Grant,  and  thus  the  prisoners  were  rescued. 

The  regiment  then  returned  to  Camp  Chase,  O.,  where  on  the  12th  of  June 
the  men  were  mustered  out  of  service. 

Roster  Field  and  Staff. 

William  T.  Wilson,  colonel ; mustered  out  with  regiment. 

Henry  B.  Hunter,  lieutenant-colonel;  discharged  December  8,  1864. 


172 


History  of  Erie  County. 


Horace  Kellogg,  lieutenant-colonel  ; promoted  from  captain  ; mustered  out 
with  regiment. 

A.  Baldwin  Norton,  major;  resigned  March  3,  1863. 

John  \V.  Chamberlain,  major  ; promoted  from  captain  ; mustered  out  with 
regiment 

Roster  Company  G.  — Unofficial. 

Mustered  in  September  24,  1862;  mustered  out  June  12,  1865. 

Charles  H.  Riggs,  captain;  died  September  15,  1864,  from  starvation  while 
in  rebel  prison  at  Charleston,  S.  C. 

Charles  H.  Rosenbaum,  first  lieutenant ; promoted  from  private  to  first 
lieutenant;  to  captain  March  7,  1865. 

Frank  B.  Colver,  second  lieutenant ; promoted  to  first  lieutenant  June  i, 
1863  ; discharged  by  special  order  of  war  department  April  4,  1865. 

Sherman  A.  Johnson,  first  sergeant;  promoted  to  second  lieutenant  Janu- 
ary 14,  1864;  discharged  for  wounds  June  15,  1865. 

George  A.  Scobey,  sergeant;  transferred  to  non-commissioned  staff  Aprii 
6,  1863. 

Wesley  B.  Jennings,  sergeant ; promoted  to  first  sergeant  January  1,  1864. 

Charles  M.  Keyes,  sergeant ; transferred  by  promotion  to  Company  K 
April,  1864. 

Martin  L.  Skillman,  sergeant;  captured  June  15,  1865  ; mustered  out  with 
company. 

Myron  E.  Clemons,  corporal ; promoted  to  sergeant;  wounded  at  Hatcher’s 
Run,  March  31,  1865. 

John  Steele,  corporal;  discharged  March,  1863. 

Augustus  O.  Garrett,  corporal;  promoted  to  sergeant;  captured  June  15, 
1863. 

Frank  W.  Canfield,  corporal ; discharged  for  disability. 

Jacob  Wentz,  corporal  ; died  in  rebel  prison  January  27,  1865. 

William  Gallard,  corporal;  killed  in  action  June  13,  1863. 

William  H.  Metcalf,  corporal;  name  not  on  muster-out  roll. 

William  H.  Levering,  corporal ; name  not  on  muster-out  roll. 

William  Jennings,  musician  ; mustered  out  with  company. 

William  Allen,  musician  ; mustered  out  with  company. 

George  R.  McConnelly,  wagoner;  absent  as  brigade  teamster. 

Privates. 

Louis  Buyer,  captured  June  15,  1863. 

Solomon  Brown,  died  of  wounds  November  21,  1864. 

Charles  Brumm,  discharged  for  wounds  March  20,  1865. 

Napoleon  Buyer,  absent  when  company  was  mustered  out. 

Luther  Barnard,  wounded  in  action  September  19,  1864;  captured  June 
15,  1863. 


. 


Military  History. 


173 


Henry  C.  Barnard,  captured  June  15,  1S63  ; mustered  out  with  company. 
George  N.  Bonn,  captured  June  15,  1S63  ; mustered  out  with  company. 
Jay  Bogart,  mustered  out  with  company. 

James  Burns,  captured  June  15,  1863;  mustered  out  with  company. 

Albert  D.  Buck,  mustered  out  with  company. 

Henry  Blosier,  captured  June  15,  1863  mustered  out  with  company. 
Michael  Clark,  captured  June  15,  1S63  ; mustered  out  with  company. 

John  Clavin,  discharged  for  disability. 

James  Cross,  captured  June  15,  1863  ; mustered  out  with  company. 
William  H.  Chamberlain  ; discharged  for  disability. 

Cornelius  D.  Conger,  captured  June  15,  1863;  mustered  out  with  com- 
pany. 

George  B.  Drake,  promoted  corporal;  captured  June  15,  1863  ; mustered 
out  with  company. 

Benjamin  Drake,  captured  June  15,  1863  ; mustered  out  with  company. 
Jacob  Detless,  died  from  wounds  received  in  action  November  21.  1S64. 
Martin  Dipple,  discharged  for  disability. 

Benjamin  E.  Deeley,  captured  June  15,  1863;  mustered  out  with  com- 
pany. 

Edward  Forrester,  on  detached  service. 

Conrad  Fillmore,  absent,  sick  in  hospital. 

Joseph  Groff,  captured  June  15,  1863. 

Joseph  H.  Goff,  captured  June  15,  1863  ; mustered  out  with  company. 
George  W.  Greenhoe,  captured  June  15,  1864;  mustered  out  with  com- 
pany. 

Charles  W.  Gillen,  discharged  for  disability. 

William  Golden,  captured  August  10,  1864. 

George  Golden,  jr.,  died  June  21,  1865. 

Bryant  Headley,  transferred  by  promotion  to  10 1st  United  States  Colored 
troops,  September  1,  1864. 

Charles  Hegoney,  no  date  of  muster-out. 

John  Harper,  captured  June  15,  1863. 

James  Hoyt,  died  March  6,  1863. 

William  Hoyt,  died  May  25,  1863. " 

Richard  Howe,  captured  June  15,  1863  ; mustered  out  with  company. 
Charles  Hammond,  discharged  for  disability  ; no  record. 

John  Hines,  on  detached  service. 

George  Hines,  captured  June  15,  1863  ; mustered  out  with  company. 
Henry  D.  Johnson,  died  from  wounds  received  in  action  June  15,  1863. 
Charles  G.  Knight,  promoted  to  corporal;  captured  June  15,  1863. 
Thomas.  Keyes,  captured  June  15,  1863;  mustered  out  with  company. 
Cyman  Luce,  mustered  out  with  company. 

23 


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174 


History  of  Erie  County. 


Patrick  Laughlin,  captured  May  15,  1864;  exchanged  March  11,  1865  ; 
mustered  out  with  company. 

John  La  Fere,  died  in  rebel  prison. 

Andrew  J.  Lewis,  transferred  to  Veteran  Reserve  Corps. 

Frank  Littlefield,  discharged  for  disability. 

Jonn  P.  McElwane,  died  in  rebel  prison. 

William  Morgan,  mustered  out  with  company. 

Barney  McGookey,  died  in  hospital  May  9,  1865. 

Richard  Martin,  missing  in  action  June  15,  1863. 

Foster  Neil,  captured  June  15,  1863. 

Thomas  Neil,  starved  to  death  in  Andersonville  prison. 

Theodore  Ochs,  killed  in  action  March  31,  1865. 

Albert  Ott,  killed  in  action  July  12,  1864. 

William  Oehen,  in  hospital  when  company  was  mustered  out. 

August  Raab,  absent  in  hospital  when  company  was  mustered  out. 

Conrad  Rhohella,  discharged  for  wounds  receivd  in  action  June  13,  1863. 
Delos  C.  Ransom,  captured  June  15,  1863. 

William  Reed,  captured  June  15,  1S63  ; mustered  out  with  company. 
James  Reed,  died  of  wounds  July  12,  1864. 

Samuel  E.  Stowe,  captured  June  15,  1863  ; mustered  out  with  company. 
Andrew  Strawson,  captured  October  19,  1864. 

Albert  Southey,  name  not  on  muster  roll. 

John  R.  Savenack,  mustered  out  with  company. 

Peter  Sheur,  captured  June  15,  1863  ; mustered  out  with  company. 
George  Stockley,  captured  June  15,  1863. 

George  Shesley,  on  detached  duty. 

Benjamin  Thompson,  on  detached  service. 

Frederick  Tucker,  in  hospital  when  company  was  mustered  out. 

Alfred  C.  Van  Tine,  discharged  for  wounds  February  20,  1865. 

\ George  A.  Warren,' died  in  hospital  at  Cumberland,  Md. 

Albert  L.  Walker,  promoted  to  first  lieutenant  March  14,  1865  ; assigned 
to  1 86th  Ohio  Volunteer  Infantry  Regiment. 

William  P.  Wheeler,  promoted  to  corporal ; wounded  in  action  September 
19,  1864;  discharged  from  hospital. 

Solomon  Kriss,  discharged  for  disability. 

William  Stahl,  discharged  in  hospital. 

George  Weber,  captured  June  15,  1863. 

John  G.  McGookey,  mustered  out  wfth  company. 

Richard  H.  Trimmer,  wounded  in  action;  captured  June  15,  1863. 
Thomas  Parsons,  captured  June  15,  1863. 

Milo  H.  Wagner,  wounded  in  action  ; captured  Juue  15,  1863. 

William  Kelley,  wounded  in  action;  captured  June  15,  1863. 


Military  History. 


i75 


National  Guards — One  Hundred  Days  Service. 

THE  ONE  HUNDRED  AND  FORTY-FIFTH  INFANTRY. 

This  command  was  called  into  the  United  States  service  in  the  spring  of 
1 S64,  and  was  the  first  regiment  composed  in  any  considerable  part  of  Erie 
county  volunteers,  that  enlisted  in  the  one  hundred  days  service.  Parts  of  sev- 
eral companies  were  raised  in  Erie  county.  The  regiment  rendezvoused  at 
Camp  Chase,  but  not  long  was  it  permitted  to  remain  there,  for  it  was  at  once 
ordered  to  the  national  defenses  at  Washington.  Upon  the  arrival  of  the  reg- 
iment at  the  capital  it  was  assigned  to  garrison  duty  at  Forts  Whipple,  Wood- 
bury, Cass,  Tillinghast  and  Albany,  on  the  south  of  the  <city,  on  what  is  known 
as  Arlington  Heights. 

The  men  of  the  One  Hundred  Forty-fifth,  during  their  months  of  service, 
aere  not  once  engaged  with  the  rebels,  but  their  duty  was,  nevertheless,  labo- 
rious and  severe.  At  that  period  of  the  war  the  capital  was  threatened  with 
invasion  and  the  defending  force  was  kept  constantly  on  the  alert,  ready  at  any 
minute  for  an  attack  should  it  come.  In  July  the  rebel  commander,  General 
Early,  with  his  force  made  a raid  down  the  valley  of  the  Shenandoah  River,  and 
threatened  to  lay  siege  to  Washington ; and  from  where  the  regiment  lay  en- 
camped the  noise  of  his  troops  could  be  heard,  but  he  made  no  attack. 

The  One  Hundred  and  Forty-fifth  was  in  service  from  the  10th  of  May  un- 
til the  20th  of  August,  1864,  and  after  the  expiration  of  its  term  of  enlistment 
the  men  returned  to  Camp  Chase,  where  they  were  mustered  out  of  service. 

It  is  not  deemed  important  for  the  purposes  of  this  chapter  to  furnish  a 
roster  of  this  regiment,  or  the  portion  thereof  from  Erie  county,  other  than  to 
give  the  field  and  staff,  and  the  commissioned  officers,  which  were  as  follows . 

Colonel,  Henry  C.  Ashwell  ; lieutenant-colonel,  Lloyd  A.  Lyman  ; major, 
Henry  C.  Olds  ; surgeon,  Henry  Besse ; assistant  surgeon,  John  D.  Janney  ; 
adjutant,  William  E.  Moore;  quartermaster,  James  H.  Stead;  chaplain,  W.  G. 
Williams;  captains,  Edward  M.  Jones,  Lewis  Moss,  James  Wallace,  James  M. 
Crawford,  Richard  W.  Reynolds,  John  J.  Penfield,  David  H.  James,  Archibald 
Ereswater,  William  H.  Wilson,  John  Cellar;  first  lieutenants,  Hugh  J.  Perry, 
hrederick  W.  Cogsville,  Cornelius  Hull,  David  G.  Cratty,  John  A.  Cone,  Wil- 
liam E.  Bates,  G.  W.  Flemming,  Jackson  S.  Post,  James  W.  McGookey  ; sec- 
ond lieutenants,  Joseph  S.  Hall,  James  S.  Harmon,  Henry  M.  Bronson,  John 
Neley,  John  T.  Munsell,  John  D.  Van  Deman,  E.  H.  Draper,  H.  B.  Wood, 
Chris.  R.  Caulkins,  Samuel  M.  White,  jr. , Aaron  M.  Decker. 

THE  THIRD  CAVALRY. 

This  regiment  was  recruited  largely  from  the  counties  of  Erie  and  Huron, 

contingent  from  Erie  being  represented  in  the  companies  B,  E,  I,  and  K. 
H was  organized  and  prepared  for  service  at  Camp  Monroeville,  in  Huron 


176 


History  of  Erie  County. 


county,  from  which  point  it  proceeded  to  Camp  Dennison  on  the  14th  of  Jan- 
uary, 1862,  but  one  month  later  moved  to  Jeffersonville,  Ind. 

On  the  1 8th  of  March  the  command  arrived  at  Nashville,  and  ten  days 
later  left  for  Pittsburg  Landing,  where  it  arrived  and  went  into  camp  on  April 
25.  In  May  the  first  engagement  of  the  battalion  was  had  at  Monterey,  and 
there  the  enemy  were  driven  back.  After  this  it  moved  to  a point  near  Cor- 
inth, when  it  took  a position  within  sight  of  the  rebel  lines,  but  being  com- 
pelled to  fall  back,  the  rebels  pursued  and  a brisk  battle  followed.  Again,  on 
May  27,  on  the  railroad  west  of  Corinth,  another  battle  was  fought,  and  the 
enemy  beaten. 

On  July  18  the  Third  reached  Winchester,  where  it  camped  until  August 
14,  and  then  moved  to  McMinnville.  Major  Foster  took  his  battalion  to  Dun- 
lap, five  miles  distant,  where  the  enemy  was  again  encountered  and  their 
pickets  driven  in,  after  which  the  command  returned  to  its  division.  On  Sep- 
tember 3 Nashville  was  again  reached,  thence  Gallatin,  and  from  there  to 
Mumfordsville,  arriving  at  the  latter  place  on  September  21,  just  in  time  to 
meet  the  enemy  and  drive  them  three  successive  times  into  their  earth-works, 
and  with  a loss  to  themselves  of  less  than  fifteen. 

On  the  next  day  began  the  march  to  Louisville,  arriving  October  1,  and 
from  here  the  Third  took  up  the  work  of  following  and  harassing  Bragg’s  rebel 
army,  but  on  the  20th  a detachment  of  the  regiment,  some  two  hundred  and 
fifty  strong,  fell  into  the  hands  of  the  guerrilla  John  Morgan.  The  prisoners 
were  robbed  of  their  personal  effects,  and  paroled  and  allowed  to  return  to  the 
Union  lines,  but  subsequently  sent  to  Camp  Chase.  The  remaining  force  of 
the  Second  and  Third  Battalions  was  then  stationed  along  the  railroad  between 
Bowling  Green  and  Gallatin,  where  a battle  was  soon  brought  on  against  Mor- 
gan’s force  and  a large  amount  of  supplies  taken  as  well  as  many  prisoners. 
The  regiment  then  went  into  camp  at  Hartsville. 

From  this  place  the  detachment  under  command  of  Captain  Elisha  M. 
Colver  moved  up  the  Cumberland  River  to  Carthage  to  intercept  a drove  of 
mules  and  rebel  stores,  which  were  being  removed  by  rebel  quartermasters, 
and  accompanied  by  an  escort  of  Morgan’s  raiders.  After  a chase  of  twenty- 
six  miles,  fording  the  river  four  times,  the  detachment  captured  the  entire 
train,  and  drove  off  one  hundred  and  forty- six  mules,  besides  routing  the  escort 
and  taking  seventeen  of  them  prisoners. 

During  the  greater  part  of  the  month  of  December  the  Third  was  actively 
engaged  in  skirmishing  and  foraging  through  the  enemy’s  country.  On  the 
26th  it  took  a position  on  the  right  of  Rosecrans’s  army,  near  Franklin.  On 
the  27th  a battle  was  fought  here  and  the  rebels  routed.  The  regiment  then 
moved  to  Triune,  and  at  night  again  engaged  the  enemy.  The  next  few  days 
it  saw  plenty  of  service.  On  the  29th  a reconnaissance  in  force  was  made  ; on 
the  30th  the  Third  was  assigned  to  a position  on  the  extreme  right ; and  at 


Military  History. 


i/7 


two  o’clock  on  the  morning  of  the  31st  the  rebels  made  an  advance,  whereupon 
the  brigade  to  which  the  Third  belonged  was  advanced  as  skirmishers  ; at  four 
o’clock  the  line  was  driven  in  by  Wheeler’s  Cavalry,  and  after  a sharp  battle 
of  two  hours  was  driven  from  the  field.  The  next  morning  General  McCook’s 
Corps  ammunition  train  was  captured,  but  the  Second  and  Third  Battalions  of 
the  Third  made  a dash  and  re-captured  the  whole  train,  as  well  as  a large 
number  of  prisoners.  In  this  efficient  work  the  Third  sustained  thirteen  killed 
and  a large  number  wounded. 

The  year  1863  witnessed  many  stirring  events  for  the  regiment.  On  the 
1st  the  Third  left  the  field  to  escort  a train  of  four  thousand  wagons  to  Nash- 
ville for  supplies.  The  train  was  attacked  by  the  rebel  cavalry  under  Stewart 
and  Wheeler,  but  the  attack  was  repulsed  by  the  Third,  supported  by  the 
Tenth  Cavalry.  During  the  whole  journey  the  rebels  hung  about  and  made 
frequent  attacks,  but  as  often  were  they  defeated  by  the  escorting  party.  Their 
duty  was  at  length  performed  faithfully  and  well.  After  this,  and  after  the 
battle  of  Stone  River,  the  Third  was  sent  in  pursuit  of  the  enemy,  and  at  Mid- 
dleton, Tenn.,  attacked  the  rear  guard  and  captured  a wagon  train.  It  then 
went  into  camp  at  Murfreesboro.  Here  the  Second  Battalion  was  detached 
and  sent  to  Readyville  to  battle  against  John  Morgan’s  guerrillas.  The  Third 
Battalion,  remaining  at  Murfreesboro,  was  surrounded  by  rebels  and  a sur- 
render demanded,  but  Lieutenant  Brenard.  in  command,  could  not  see  it  in  that 
light,  and  at  once  ordered  a sabre  charge,  cutting  his  way  out  and  taking  a 
number  of  prisoners. 

On  the  general  advance  of  the  army  from  Murfreesboro,  in  July,  the  Third 
was  engaged  almost  daily.  In  the  Sequatchie  Valley  the  enemy  was  encoun- 
tered, and  a running  fight  of  three  days’  duration  ensued.  During  the  battle 
at  Chickamauga  the  Third  occupied  the  extreme  left  of  the  line,  and  afterward 
pursued  Wheeler’s  Cavalry  through  Tennessee,  engaging  him  at  McMinnvi  c 
and  Farmington,  and  in  the  latter  battle  secured  a large  number  of  prisoner^. 
In  November  detachments  of  the  Third  scouted  through  the  mountains  ol  Last 
Tennessee,  and  thus  ended  the  year’s  campaigning. 

While  at  Pulaski,  Tenn.,  in  January,  1864,  the  regiment  veteranized,  but  its 
ranks  were  fearfully  decimated,  the  results  of  its  many  engagements.  It  there- 
fore became  necessary  to  recruit  and  add  to  its  effective  strength,  there  being 
then  but  four  hundred  men  fit  for  duty  in  the  whole  command.  Through  the 
efforts  of  Major  Skinner  and  Captain  Elisha  M.  Colver  nearly  one  thousand 
troops  were  raised  in  Northern  Ohio,  and  when  the  regiment  returned  to  tin* 
front,  at  Nashville,  it  numbered  over  thirteen  hundred  serviceable  men.  At 
Nashville  the  regiment  was  re-equipped,  armed  and  mounted.  Much  was  ex- 
pected of  the  command,  and  it  more  than  fulfilled  that  expectation. 

We  find  them  first  engaged  with  Rhoddy’s  command  at  Courtland,  A. a , 
early  in  May,  1864,  at  which  fight  the  rebel  loss  amounted  to  upwards  of  thirty 


I7» 


History  of  Erie  County. 


men  in  killed  and  wounded.  At  Rome  the  Third  was  on  the  left  of  Sherman's 
army,  and  was  engaged  at  Etowah,  Kenesaw  Mountain,  Noonday  Creek,  and 
at  the  crossing  of  the  Chattahoochie  River.  It  was  sent  to  Roswell,  Ga.,  to 
destroy  the  rebel  stores  and  factories  at  that  place.  In  this  affair  four  hundred 
factory  girls  were  captured  and  sent  through  the  lines.  At  McAfee  Bridge, 
on  July  9,  four  companies  of  the  Third,  commanded  by  Captain  Colver,  became 
engaged  with  a large  force  of  rebel  Texas  cavalrymen,  in  which  battle  several 
rebels  were  killed  and  a large  number  fell  into  the  regiment’s  hands  as  pris- 
oners. 

The  regiment  participated  in  the  battle  at  Peach  Tree  Creek,  in  the  raid 
upon  Covington,  Stone  Mountain,  and  in  the  Stoneman  raid,  in  each  of  which 
engagements  it  met  with  severe  losses.  After  the  fall  of  Atlanta  it  went  in 
pursuit  of  Hood’s  rebel  force,  and  was  engaged  at  the  battles  of  Franklin  and 
Nashville  ; also  in  the  Wilson  raid  through  Alabama  and  Georgia.  It  was  at 
Selina,  Montgomery,  Macon  and  Griffin,  and  in  the  chase  after  Jefferson  Davis, 
the  Confederate  president. 

Under  the  orders  of  General  Thomas,  the  Third  Cavalry  turned  over  to  the 
government  its  horses  and  arms,  at  Macon,  after  which  it  proceeded  to  Nash- 
ville and  was  mustered  out  of  service.  It  then  returned  to  Camp  Chase, 
where,  on  the  14th  of  August,  1865,  after  a severe  service  of  almost  four  years, 
it  was  paid  off  and  discharged. 


CHAPTER  XIV. 

THE  PRESS  OF  ERIE  COUNTY. 

EDUCATION  is  the  great  civilizer,  and  printing  its  greatest  auxiliary. 

Were  it  not  for  the  aid  furnished  by  the  press  the  great  mass  of  the  peo- 
ple would  still  be  groping  in  the  darkness  of  the  middle  ages,  and  knowledge 
would  still  remain  confined  within  the  limits  of  the  cloister. 

It  is  surprising,  when  searching  our  libraries,  to  discover  how  little  has 
been  written  of  the  “Art  preservative  of  all  Arts,”  and  the  educator  of  all  edu- 
cators. While  printing  has  been  the  chronicler  of  all  arts,  professions  and 
learning,  it  has  recorded  so  little  of  its  own  history  and  progress  as  to  leave 
even  the  story  of  its  first  invention  and  application  wrapped  in  mystery  and 
doubt.  We  only  know  that  from  the  old  Ramage  press  which  Faust  and 
Franklin  used,  capable  of  producing  a hundred  impressions  per  hour,  we  have 
now  the  ponderous  machine  which  turns  out  one  thousand  copies  per  minute 
In  glancing  over  the  pages  of  history,  we  discover  the  gradual  develop- 


.rsr  ■ ' 


The  Erie  County  Press. 


*79 

merits  in  the  arts  and  sciences.  We  notice  that  they  go  hand  in  hand one 

discovery  points  to  another,  one  improvement  in  the  arts  leads  to  others  con 
tinually,  and  the  results  of  the  last  fevv  centuries  show  that  observations  of  no 
apparent  use  led  to  the  most  important  discoveries  and  developments.  The 
falling  of  an  apple  led  Newton  to  unfold  the  theory  of  gravitation  and  its  rela- 
tions to  the  solar  system  ; the  discovery  of  the  polarity  of  the  loadstone  led 
to  the  construction  of  the  mariner’s  compass;  the  observation  of  the  muscular 
contraction  of  a frog  led  to  the  numerous  applications  of  galvanic  electricity  ; 
the  observation  of  the  expansive  force  of  steam  led  to  the  construction  and 
application  of  the  steam  engine  ; the  observation  of  the  influence  of  light  on 
the  chloride  of  silver  led  to  the  art  of  photography  ; the  observation  of  the 
communication  of  sound  by  the  connected  rails  of  a railroad  led  to  the  inven- 
tion of  the  telephone  ; the  impressions  taken  from  letters  cut  in  the  smooth 
bark  of  the  beech  tree  led  to  the  art  of  printing — the  art  which  transmits  to 
posterity  a record  of  all  which  is  valuable  to  the  world. 

Thus  is  progress  discernible  in  every  successive  generation  of  man.  Grad- 
ually has  he  advanced  from  a state  of  rude  barbarism  and  total  ignorance  to  a 
degree  of  perfection  which  gives  him  almost  absolute  dominion  over  all  ele- 
ments, and  in  the  pride  of  glorious  and  enlightened  manhood  he  can  exclaim 
with  Cowper : 

“I  am  monarch  of  all  I survey, 

My  right  there  is  none  to  dispute ; 

From  the  center  all  ’round  to  the  sea 
I am  lord  of  the  fowl  and  the  brute  ! ” 

So  long  as  mind  shall  occupy  its  seat,  so  long  will  progress  be  the  watch- 
word of  man,  and  onward  and  upward  will  be  his  march  to  an  endless  and  lim- 
itless ascent — where  all  the  hidden  and  occult  secrets  of  creation  will  unfold 
their  mysteries  to  his  comprehension  and  crown  him  master  of  them  all. 

The  printing  office  has  well  been  called  the  “ Poor  Boy’s  College,”  and  has 
proven  a better  school  to  many;  has  graduated  more  intellect  and  turned  it 
into  useful,  practical  channels  ; awakened  more  active,  devoted  thought,  than 
*my  alma  mater  on  the  earth.  Many  a dunce  has  passed  through  the  univer- 
sities with  no  tangible  proof  of  fitness  other  than  his  insensible  piece  of  parch 
ment — himself  more  sheepish,  if  possible,  than  his  “sheep-skin.”  There  is 
something  in  the  very  atmosphere  of  a printing  office  calculated  to  awaken  the 
mind  to  activity  and  inspire  a thirst  for  knowledge.  Franklin,  Stanhope,  Bcr- 
anger,  Thiers,  Greeley,  Taylor,  and  a host  of  other  names,  illustrious  in  the 
world  of  letters  and  science,  have  been  gems  in  the  diadem  of  typography,  and 
owe  their  success  to  the  influence  of  a printing  office. 

The  newspaper  has  become  one  of  the  chief  indexes  of  the  intelligence, 
ci vili zation  and  progress  of  the  community  in  which  it  is  published,  and  its 
bles  are  the  footprints  of  the  advancement  and  refinement  of  the  period  of  its 


History  of  Erie  County. 


180 


publication  ; and  the  printing  office  is  now  deemed  as  essential  as  the  school- 
house  or  church.  It  has  taken  the  place  of  the  rostrum  and  the  professor’s 
chair,  and,  become  the  great  teacher.  No  party,  organization,  enterprise  or 
calling  is  considered  perfect  without  its  “organ”  — the  newspaper  — as  a 
mouth-piece. 

Turning  from  this  comment  upon  the  art  of  journalism,  let  us  see  what  Erie 
county  has  done  in  the  way  of  newspaper  publications. 

THE  SANDUSKY  REGISTER. 

The  journal  now  known  as  the  Sandusky  Register  was  founded  in  the  year 
1822  by  David  Campbell,  a New  England  printer.  An  effort  was  made,  how- 
ever, in  the  year  1821,  by  this  same  person,  associated  with  Adonijah  Champ- 
lin,  to  establish  a paper  in  Sandusky,  to  be  known  as  the  Ohio  Illuminator , 
but  from  lack  of  that  substantial  support  so  essential  to  the  successful  conduct 
of  a newspaper,  or  any  other  enterprise,  the  Illuminator  never  sent  forth  its 
rays  of  light  upon  the  people  of  the  county. 

The  Sandusky  Clarion , a weekly  publication,  succeeded  the  Illuminator 
project,  and  made  its  first  appearance  on  the  22d  of  April,  1822,  David  Camp- 
bell acknowledging  its  paternity  and  assuming  its  maintenance.  It  was  a 
four-page  sheet,  four  columns  to  the  page,  printed  on  what  would  now  be 
called  coarse  paper,  and  the  advertisements  and  reading  matter  appeared  in 
much  the  same  size  and  style  of  type.  Under  the  name  of  the  Clarion  the 
paper  was  continued  until  1843,  when  Mr.  Campbell  issued  a daily  edition, 
which  he  called  the  Daily  Sa7iduskian. 

After  continuing  for  some  years  longer  the  proprietor  sold  the  entire  plant 
to  Earl  Bill  and  Clark  Waggoner.  The  former  of  these  persons  was  afterward 
chosen  clerk  of  the  United  States  District  Court  for  the  district  of  Northern 
Ohio,  while  the  latter  became  editor  of  the  Toledo  Blade.  Still  later  he  was  on 
the  editorial  staff  of  the  Toledo  Commercial , but  at  a quite  recent  day  embarked 
in  the  limitless  field  of  history. 

Messrs.  Bill  and  Waggoner  subsequently  sold  an  interest  in  the  paper  to 
Henry  D.  Cooke,  and  the  firm  style  was  thereupon  changed  to  H.  D.  Cooke  & 
Co.  Upon  taking  formal  possession  of  the  office  this  firm  dropped  the  old 
name  and  called  the  paper,  in  all  its  editions,  The  Commercial  Register , three 
editions,  daily,  tri- weekly  and  weekly,  being  printed.  H.  D.  Cooke  & Co. 
continued  the  Register  publications  for  some  twelve  years,  when  Mr.  Cooke 
retired  to  become  the  editor  of  the  State  Journal f Mr.  Waggoner  to  accept  a 
position  on  the  Toledo  Blade , whereupon  the  paper  passed  into  the  hands  of 
Bill  & Johnson. 

The  Commercial  Register  changed  hands  three  or  four  times  between  1855 
and  1869.  In  the  last  named  year  Isaac  F.  Mack  purchased  a half  interest, 
and  in  1870  the  other  half.  He  dropped  the  first  part  of  the  name,  and  since 


. 


The  Erie  County  Press. 


Si 


that  time  the  paper  has  been  called  The  Register.  In  1874  John  T.  Mack  be- 
came a part  owner,  and  for  fourteen  years  the  paper  has  been  published  under 
the  firm  name  of  I.  F.  Mack  & Bro.  In  1882  a Sunday  edition  was  started, 
and  since  that  date  has  been  published  every  morning  in  the  year.  In  1869, 
when  the  present  editor  took  charge,  the  Register  was  an  evening  daily,  but 
he  changed  it  to  a morning  paper  in  May,  1869. 

The  Register , from  the  time  of  its  establishment  to  the  death  of  that  party, 
was  an  ardent  advocate  of  Whig  principles.  It  became  Republican  in  1 S 5 6, 
and  has  so  since  remained,  being  all  these  years  the  recognized  organ  of  that 
party  in  this  county, 

From  the  office  of  the  Register  are  now  issued  four  separate  editions  — 
daily,  Sunday,  tri-weekly  and  weekly.  The  business  department  is  in  charge 
of  John  T.  Mack;  Isaac  F.  Mack  is  editor-in-chief ; C.  P.  Caldwell  has  the 
charge  of  the  Sunday  edition,  and  Charles  Kline  is  in  charge  of  the  city  de- 
partment of  the  Daily  Register. 

THE  MILAN  FREE  PRESS. 

Second  in  the  order  of  founding  in  the  county  was  the  newspaper  carrying 
the  above  head  line.  The  paper  was  established  at  Milan  in  February,  1830, 
under  the  editorial  management  and  proprietorship  of  Warren  Jenkins.  Its 
publication  continued  at  that  place  for  a single  year  only,  after  which  the  pro- 
prietor moved  to  the  county  seat  for  the  purpose  of  starting  an  anti-Masonic 
paper.  As  to  what  end  this  last  venture  finally  came  we  have  no  reliable  in- 
formation, but  it  seems  to  have  failed  of  its  main  purpose  in  extinguishing 
Free  Masonry,  judging  from  the  present  popularity  of  that  order  throughout 
the  county. 

THE  REPUBLICAN  STANDARD. 

The  Standard  came  into  existence  as  a weekly  publication  at  Sandusky  in 
the  year  1832  through  the  efforts  of  E.  and  J.  H.  Brown,  and  was  intended  to 
be  the  “ organ  ” of  the  Jacksonian  Democracy,  and  especially  to  advocate  the 
cause  of  “Old  Hickory.”  But  the  Standard  proved  to  be  a short-lived  journal, 
and  was  soon  discontinued. 

THE  HURON  COMMERCIAL  ADVERTISER. 

On  the  17th  of  January,  1837,  the  first  number  of  the  Advertiser  made  its 
appearance,  issuing  from  an  office  at  Huron,  and  from  the  editorial  manage* 
ment  of  H.  C.  Gray.  During  the  succeeding  year  the  office  was  destroyed  by 
r!re,  but  in  March,  1839,  the  paper  again  appeared  and  was  published  regu- 
Wly  until  the  year  1842,  at  which  time  the  office  was  moved  to  Sandusky  and 
a new  weekly  paper  issued  under  the  heading  of  the  Commercial  Advertiser, 
*he  publishers  being  M.  H.  Snyder  & Co.  Sandusky  seems  to  have  been,  at 
that  period  at  least,  a no  more  profitable  field  for  journalism  than  was  Huron, 

24 


io1  mbU 

- , : '' 

. 


1 82 


History  of  Erie  County. 


for  in  the  fall  of  the  year  of  its  removal  to  that  place  the  Advertiser  became 
numbered  among  the  evanescent  journals  of  the  county. 

In  the  office  of  the  paper  while  at  Huron  it  seems  that  use  was  made  of  the 
material  of  the  Milan  Times , a paper  published  at  Milan,  but  of  the  precise 
time  of  its  birth  or  death,  as  a journal,  no  reliable  information  is  obtainable. 
George  M.  Swan  is  said  to  have  been  at  one  time  connected  with  the  paper, 
and  that  he  was,  “ perhaps,”  one  of  the  original  proprietors  in  connection  with 
Mr.  Gray. 

THE  DEMOCRATIC  MIRROR. 

In  December,  1842,  William  S.  Mills  and  Sylvester  Ross  purchased  the 
material  of  the  defunct  Commercial  Advertiser  and  issued  the  first  number  of 
the  Democratic  Mirror , a weekly  paper  of  Sandusky.  These  proprietors  con- 
tinued its  publication  with  varying  success  until  the  year  1847,  when  John 
Mackey,  then  recently  admitted  to  the  bar,  but  not  yet  in  practice,  became  a 
part  owner  in  the  office,  and  the  firm  was  changed  to  Mills,  Ross  & Mackey. 

Under  the  management  of  these  gentlemen  a daily  was  started,  and  iri 
connection  with  the  weekly  edition  was  continued  for  about  two  years,  or 
until  May,  1849,  when  Mr.  Mackey  retired  from  the  firm  to  practice  law,  and 
J.  W.  Taylor,  better  known  as  “ Signal  Taylor,”  took  his  place  in  the  firm. 
During  the  fall  of  this  same  year  Mr.  Ross  was  attacked  with  cholera  and  died. 
Mills  & Taylor  continued  the  publication  until  1852,  when  the  latter  retired, 
leaving  Mr.  Mills  sole  editor  and  proprietor. 

In  the  fall  of  1853  the  paper  was  sold  to  Joseph  and  Fielding  Cable,  father 
and  son,  under  whose  control  the  name  of  both  daily  and  weekly  was  changed 
to  the  Bay  City  Mirror.  The  Cables  published  the  Mirror  but  a short  time 
and  then  sold  out  to  Asa  Dimmock,  and  he  soon  afterwards  to  Ray  Haddock. 
About  this  time  the  daily  edition  was  discontinued. 

Charles  Orton,  formerly  connected  with  the  Norwalk  Experiment,  became 
the  owner  and  proprietor  of  the  paper  in  May,  1856,  but  after  two  years’  ex- 
perience in  its  publication  disposed  of  it  to  his  son,  T.  S.  Orton,  but  one  year 
later  its  publication  was  suspended. 

THE  MILAN  TRIBUNE. 

In  the  year  1843,  the  Tribune  as  a newspaper  of  Erie  county  first  saw  the 
light  of  day.  It  was  founded  by  Clark  Waggoner,  who  brought  to  Milan  for 
the  purposes  of  the  publication  the  materials  formerly  used  by  him  in  the  pub 
lication  of  the  Lower  Sandusky  Whig.  After  publishing  the  Tribune , a weekly 
paper,  at  Milan  for  something  like  eight  years,  Mr.  Waggoner  discontinued 
operations  at  that  place  and  became  interested  in  the  Sandusky  Clarion , and 
moved  his  stock  to  the  building  in  which  the  Clarion  was  published  in  San- 
dusky. Thus  ended  the  life  of  the  Milan  Tribune.  Mr.  Waggoner  subse- 
quently severed  his  connection  with  the  Clarion  to  assume  an  editorial  position 


■ 


The  Erie  County  Press. 


183 


on  the  Toledo  Blade , but  at  a still  later  day  became  connected  with  the  Toledo 
Commercial. 

THE  INTELLIGENCE  BLATT  (GERMAN). 

This  paper  was  established  in  the  year  1851,  by  Augustus  Reimmele  and 
Herman  Ruess,  and  was  the  first  German  paper  of  the  county.  Mr.  Ruess  was 
the  editor,  and  his  partner  had  charge  of  the  business  and  mechanical  depart- 
ment The  latter  was  killed  by  an  accident  on  the  old  Mad  River  and  Lake 
Lrie  Railroad,  near  Castalia,  in  September,  1857. 

The  paper  was  continued  by  Mr.  Ruess,  and  Frederick  Kelley  until  1859, 
when  it  passed  by  sale  into  the  hands  of  Jacob  Neuert,  H.  Hamelstein  and 
Charles  Bachy.  J.  Lippart  was  the  editor.  In  November  of  the  same  year, 
1839,  the  paper  was  sold  to  Engle  & Co.,  under  whose  ownership  it  was  edited 
by  A.  Thieme  and  Frederick  Reidding.  In  May,  1861,  the  latter  became  sole 
editor  and  proprietor.  Until  1854  the  Intelligente  Blatt  pinned  its  faith  to  the 
Democratic  party,  but  in  the  year  named  it  became  Republican  in  politics. 
About  the  time  of  the  war  the  publication  of  the  paper  was  suspended. 

THE  BEACON. 

This  weekly  paper  made  its  first  appearance  at  Huron  in  the  year  1853,  un- 
der the  proprietorship  of  Mr.  Haddock ; but  it  seems  to  have  been  the  more 
remarkable  for  the  short  term  of  its  existence,  as  it  “ passed  away”  in  the  next 
year,  1854. 

THE  BAYSTADT  DEMOKRAT  (GERMAN). 

The  Demokrat,  the  outgrowth  of  which  is  the  present  Sandusky  Demokrat , 
was  established  at  the  county  seat  in  1856  by  Louis  Traub,  and  edited  bv  H. 
Raw.  In  the  fall  of  the  same  year  the  paper  was  sold  to  Frederick  Hertel, 
who  thereupon  became  editor  and  publisher.  It  advocated  the  cause  of  the 
Democracy. 

In  1873  the  property  passed  into  the  editorial  control  of  William  Senn,  and 
appeared  under  the  name  of  the  Sandusky  Demokrat , by  which  it  has  ever  since 
been  known.  Two  issues  of  the  Demokrat  are  published  each  week — a semi- 
weekly and  weekly.  It  enjoys  a very  extensive  circulation  among  the  German 
dement  of  this  county,  and  in  Ottawa,  Sandusky,  Huron  and  Lorain  as  well. 

THE  SANDUSKY  JOURNAL  AND  LOCAL. 

The  Sandusky  Journal  was  first  established  as  a weekly  newspaper  in  the 
year  1866,  in  a job  printing  office  conducted  by  Addison  Kinney  and  Frank  B. 
Colver.  This  office  was  located  in  rooms  over  where  Melville  Bro.’s  drug-store 
■ at  present  situated,  on  the  northeast  corner  of  Columbia  avenue  and  Market 
Mreet 

In  the  month  of  August  of  that  year  Messrs.  Kinney  and  Colver  were  joined 
by  John  C.  Kinney,  a brother  of  the  former,  and  the  first  number  of  the  Jour - 


.V  1.33  3HT 


History  of  Erie  County. 


184 

mil  was  issued  on  August  16,  1866.  The  new  paper  was  an  eight  column  folio, 
very  neatly  printed  for  the  times,  and  was  edited  by  John  C.  Kinney  with  vigor 
and  ability.  At  the  end  of  six  months  Mr.  Colver  retired  from  the  firm,  and 
the  paper  was  conducted  by  Kinney  Brothers  until  the  1st  of  January,  1868, 
when  M.  F.  McKelvev  became  associated  in  the  firm,  and  a daily  and  tri-weekly 
edition  of  the  Journal , were  established  as  an  experiment.  These  editions  were 
continued  with  varying  success  until  Mr.  McKelvey  went  out  of  the  firm  in 
September  of  the  same  year,  when  they  were  suspended.  The  Weekly  Journal 
was  not  affected  by  this  event,  however,  but  kept  up  its  issues  regularly  as  an 
independent  publication  until  the  nomination  of  Horace  Greeley  for  president 
in  1872.  It  then  espoused  his  cause,  and  became  the  exponent  of  Democratic 
principles,  which  it  always  afterwards  advocated. 

In  the  year  1879,  John  C.  Kinney,  who  had  been  its  editor,  felt  compelled 
by  failing  health  to  retire  from  active  business,  and  at  the  close  of  that  year  the 
Journal  was  sold  to  Frank  and  Charles  A.  Layman,  who,  on  the  8th  of  Janu- 
ary, 1880,  issued  the  paper  under  the  firm  name  of  Layman  Bros. 

After  his  retirement  from  active  business  John  C.  Kinney  acted  as  stenog- 
rapher in  the  Court  of  Common  Pleas,  but  later  his  failing  health  confined  him 
to  home,  and  in  a little  over  eight  years  after  relinquishing  control  of  the  paper 
of  which  he  was  one  of  the  founders,  he  died  at  his  residence  in  Sandusky,  on 
February  1,  1888,  at  the  age  of  fifty- eight  years. 

Layihan  Brothers,  who  were  journalists  from  Columbus,  concluded  to  re- 
issue a daily  edftifth  of  the  Journal , which  they  didJn  the  form  of  a six-column 
folio,  on  January  1,  1885,  since  which  time  it  has  continued  with  only  a brief 
interruption.  In  1882  the  office  of  publication  was  moved  from  212  Columbus 
avenue  to  the  Ramsey  block  on  Market  street,  in  rooms  formerly  occupied  by 
the  Sandusky  Tribune  and  Sandusky  Independent , the  former  paper  having 
been  published  a few  years  as  a daily  and  weekly,  and  the  latter  only  about 
three  months  as  a weekly. 

The  Layman  Brothers  sold  out  the  establishment  on  March  1,  1886,  to 
Frank  Stible  and  Felix  Breen,  who  published  the  journal,  daily  and  weekly,  for 
six  weeks  under  the  firm  name  of  Stible  & Breen.  At  the  expiration  of  that 
time  Air.  Stible  purchased  the  interest  of  Mr.  Breen,  and  continued  to  publish 
both  editions,  employing  E.  P.  Moore  as  editorial  writer.  Some  time  later,  in 
the  year  1886,  a Sunday  edition  was  added,  which  appeared  regularly  several 
months,  when  it  ceased  for  want  of  adequate  support. 

In  January,  1887,  the  Journal  office  met  with  a disaster  by  fire,  which  ne- 
cessitated the  suspension  of  the  paper’s  issue  for  some  weeks,  after  which  the 
publication  of  the  daily  edition  was  resumed  by  Mr.  Stible,  and  continued  until 
March  3,  1887,  when  the  whole  establishment  passed  by  sale  into  the  posses- 
sion of  A.  E.  Merrill  and  C.  C.  Bittner,  and  was  consolidated  with  the  Sandusky 
Local , a daily  and  weekly  newspaper  which  had  been  in  existence  as  an  oppo- 
sition Democratic  publication  for  several  years. 


The  Erie  County  Press. 


185 


The  Sa?idusky  Local  was  founded  as  a weekly  newspaper  by  Ernest  King,, 
jr.,  of  Middletown,  Conn.,  who  at  that  time  was  one  of  the  proprietors  of  the 
Middletown  Sentinel  and  Witness , one  of  the  oldest  publications  in  that  State. 
The  first  number  of  the  Local  was  issued  November  18,  1882,  as  an  indepen- 
dent weekly  newspaper  politically.  It  was  a six-column  quarto,  with  publica- 
tion office  in  the  third  story  of  No.  212  Columbus  avenue,  in  rooms  formerly 
occupied  by  the  Sandusky  Journal.  The  weekly  issue  of  the  Local  met  with 
such  continued  success  that  a daily  was  projected  and  successfully  published 
by  its  proprietor,  beginning  on  the  2d  of  April,  1883,  as  a six  column  folio. 
The  publication  of  the  paper  in  these  two  editions  was  continued  independent 
in  politics  until  November,  1884,  when  the  paper  espoused  the  cause  of 
Democracy,  that  party  at  the  time  having  no  daily  paper  to  champion  its  prin- 
ciples. In  April,  1885,  Mr.  King  finding  that  the  newspaper  property  in 
which  he  had  an  equal  interest  with  his  father  in  Middletown,  Conn.,  de- 
manded his  personal  attention,  sold  out  the  paper  to  F.  P.  Lyman  and  F.  W. 
Stevens,  the  latter  having  been  an  attachee  of  the  office  since  the  paper  was 
first  issued.  The  first  paper  appearing  under 'the  proprietorship  of  the  new 
firm  was  dated  April  27,  1885.  In  March,  1886,  O.  P.  Wharton,  a veteran 
Democratic  editor  of  Youngstown,  O.,  was  engaged  as  editorial  writer  and  con- 
tinued in  such  capacity  during  the  proprietprship  of  Lyman  & Stevens.  In 
July,  1886,  Mr.  King  having  sold  his  interest  in  his  eastern  paper,  and  desiring 
to  again  enter  the  business  in  Sandusky,  bought  out  the  interest  of  Lyman  & 
Stevens,  the  services  of  Messrs.  Wharton  and  Stevens  being  retained  by  Mr. 
Ling.  The  paper  continued  under  the  proprietorship  of  Mr.  King  until  March 
3.  1887,  when  he  received  an  advantageous  offer  from  A.  E.  Merrill  and  C.  C. 
Bittner,  who  were  desirous  of  uniting  the  two  factions  of  the  party  by  consoli- 
dating the  two  opposing  Democratic  organs,  and  the  consolidation  wras  there- 
fore effected  by  the  sale  of  the  Local  to  these  parties  on  the  above  date. 

This  purchase  finished  the  publication  of  the  I.ocal,  as  it  did  also  that  of 
file  Journal  as  a separate  concern,  the  consolidated  paper  appearing  on  March 
3.  1887,  as  the  Sandusky  Daily  Journal  and  Local , and  the  weekly  edition  on 
••larch  5,  as  the  Weekly  Journal  and  Local , under  the  firm  name  of  Merrill  & 
Bittner. 

At  the  time  this  co-partnership  was  formed,  A.  E.  Merrill  was  filling  the 
offices  of  probate  judge  of  the  county  and  president  of  the  Citizens’  National 
Bank,  so  that  the  entire  management  of  the  paper  devolved  upon  Mr.  Bittner, 
1 lawyer  By  profession,  and  who  had  previously  held  the  position  of  justice  of 
^he  peace,  and  member  of  the  board  of  education,  and,  at  this  time,  was  one  of 
L*le  ^cognized  leaders  of  the  Democracy  of  the  county.  O.  P.  Wharton  w*as 
'-'tamed  by  the  new  firm  as  editorial  writer,  as  were  also  several  of  the  attachees 
' 1 both  offices.  The  consolidated  paper  first  appeared  as  a six-column  folio, 

the  demands  for  advertising  space  was  such  that  the  new  proprietor  found 


' 


. 


. 


History  of  Erie  County. 


i 86 


it  necessary  to  enlarge  ; therefore,  in  April  the  paper  was  issued  as  a seven 
column  folio.  On  June  23,  Judge  Merrill  feeling  convinced  that  the  consoli- 
dation of  the  two  papers  had  accomplished  a much  desired  end  — the  harmony 
and  good  will  of  the  two  opposing  factions  of  the  party  — sold  out  his  interest 
to  the  active  partner  of  the  establishment,  Mr.  Bittner,  who  continued  as  the 
sole  proprietor  of  the  paper  until  November  14,  1887,  when  F.  \Y.  Stevens, 
who  had  been  connected  with  the  office  since  the  consolidation,  and  who  at  one 
time  was  one  of  the  proprietors  of  the  Sandusky  Local , formed  a co-partner- 
ship with  Mr.  Bittner  by  the  purchase  of  an  interest  in  the  paper,  which  ap- 
peared on  the  above  date,  under  the  proprietorship  of  Bittner  & Stevens,  and 
has  so  since  continued. 

THE  MILAN  ADVERTISER. 

From  the  statistical  information  furnished  by  Rowell’s  Directory  of  Ohio 
newspapers,  it  is  learned  that  the  Advertiser  is  a weekly  paper,  issued  each 
Saturday  in  size  30  by  44,  and  having  a circulation  of  over  five  hundred.  It 
appears  as  a fact,  but  not  upon  the  above  quoted  authority,  that  the  Milan 
Advertiser  is  issued  only  in  this  county,  the  type  and  press- work  being  per- 
formed at  Tiffin.  W.  B.  Starbird,  an  attorney  of  Milan,  is  the  resident  editor. 

A paper  of  this  same  name  was  founded  in  the  year  1869,  and  was  issued 
through  that  part  of  the  county  as  an  advertising  sheet,  and  without  expense 
to  its  readers.  In  the  year  following  it  became  a subscription  paper  at  one 
dollar  per  annum,  but  subsequently  the  price  was  raised  to  a dollar  and  fifty 
cents.  Several  changes  and  enlargements  were  made  in  the  size  of  the  paper 
to  keep  step  with  its  increasing  circulation.  Of  this  newspaper  the  present 
Advertiser  is  the  outgrowth. 

THE  HURON  REPORTER. 

In  the  year  1879  the  Reporter  made  its  first  appearance.  At  the  present 
day  it  appears  as  a weekly  (Thursday)  publication,  30  by  44  in  size,  with  a 
circulation  of  something  over  five  hundred  copies,  and  under  the  management 
of  D.  H.  Clock  as  editor  and  publisher. 

THE  SANDUSKY  TRIBUNE. 

On  the  30th  of  April,  1879,  the  first  issue  of  the  Daily  Tribune  made  it= 
appearance  in  Sandusky,  under  the  editorial  control  of  C.  M.  Brown  & Co. 
Some  six  weeks  later  from  the  same  office  there  came  a weekly  edition,  and* 
added  to  that,  after  an  interval  of  about  two  months,  a tri-weekly  was  issued. 
But  the  enterprise  proved  unsuccessful  from  a business  point  of  view.  The  daily 
was  continued  for  about  a year,  and  suspended  in  February,  1SS0.  The  week!)' 
and  tri-weekly  editions  were  maintained  until  the  year  1881,  when  they  d is 
appeared  from  the  sight  of  the  reading  public.  Brown  sold  the  enterprise  to 
Howe  & Rutledge,  and  it  was  under  the  latter  management  that  publication 
was  suspended. 


The  Bench  and  Bar. 


187 


THE  INDEPENDENT. 

The  Independent  succeeded  the  Tribune , and  was  published  in  the  rooms 
■occupied  by  its  predecessor.  Its  first  number  appeared  in  April,  1881,  and  its 
last  in  July  of  the  same  year.  It  was  edited  by  G.  W.  Rutlege,  one  of  the 
proprietors  of  the  defunct  Tribune . The  Independent  was  a weekly  publica- 
tion. 

THE  SATURDAY  GAZETTE. 

The  Saturday  Gazette  is  the  youngest  occupant  of  the  journalistic  field  in 
Brie  county.  It  was  established  in  Sandusky  county,  in  October,  1886,  by  C. 
C.  Hand  and  W.  I.  Jackson,  but  the  latter  on  January  1,  1887,  became  sole  edi- 
tor and  owner.  It  was  the  aim  of  the  founders  to  establish  a paper  that  should 
be  free  from  political  bias,  and  become  useful  especially  as  a clean  family 
paper.  Among  the  special  features  of  the  Gazette  one  entire  page  is  devoted 
to  musical,  dramatic,  and  athletic  news  ; another  to  humorous  sketches  and 
choice  clippings  from  the  spicy  and  popular  writers  of  the  day. 

The  Gazette  seems  to  be  established  on  a sound  basis  and  determined  “to 
stay,”  notwithstanding  the  misfortunes  that  have  overtaken  previously  founded 
weekly  journals  in  the  county. 

In  connection  with  the  press,  in  general,  of  the  county,  it  may  be  well 
enough  to  mention  the  Mercury , a Sunday  paper  published  for  a very  brief 
time  in  Sandusky  by  J.  L.  Sweeny.  It  was  started  in  1879,  but  did  not  long 
continue — long  enough,  however.  And  in  this  same  connection  there  may  be 
made  mention  of  the  several  publications  of  the  socialists  of  Berlin  township, 
but,  fortunately,  their  end  was  timely,  as  they  were  conducive  of  no  good 
results,  nor  are  we  aware  that,  during  their  brief  but  eventful  career,  they  did 
any  special  injury  to  the  good  people  of  that  locality. 

The  socialistic  publications  were  the  Age  of  Freedom,  the  Social  Revolu- 
tionist, the  Good  Time  Coming , the  New  Republic , The  Optimist , and  Kingdom 
of  Heaven , The  Principia , or  Personality , the  New  Campaign , and  the  Toledo 
Sun,  the  last  named  having  been  removed  to  this  locality  in  1875. 


CHAPTER  XV. 

BENCH  AND  BAR. 

IT  was  many  years  after  the  organization  of  Ohio  before  the  northern  por- 
tion of  the  State  had  either  bench  or  bar,  and  for  a long  time  after  the  ter- 
ritorial government  had  ceased,  the  only  courts  known  were  the  Indian  coun- 


1 88 


History  of  Erie  County. 


cil  and  the  court  martial,  while  the  bar  consisted  of  the  feathered  chief  and  the 
uniformed  commander. 

The  jurisprudence  of  the  State,  as  of  all  the  northern  territory  embraced  in 
the  Virginia  cession,  was  founded  on  the  common  law  of  England,  modified 
and  construed  by  the  several  charters  of  King  James  I to  the  early  settlers  of 
Virginia,  and  by  the  ordinance  of  1787.  In  1793,  by  the  Territorial  Legisla 
ture,  a statute  was  adopted  from  Virginia  declaring  “ that  the  common  law  of 
England  and  all  statutes  made  in  aid  of  the  common  law  prior  to  the  fourth 
year  of  James  I,  which  were  of  a general  nature,  should  be  a rule  of  decision 
until  repealed.”  By  the  second  section  of  the  act  of  February  22,  1805,  this 
act  was  repealed,  but  by  the  first  section  of  the  act  was  re-enacted  ; it  was 
again  repealed  January  2,  1806.  So  it  may  safely  be  said  that  the  British 
statutes  never  had  any  effect  in  Ohio  save  as  adopted  by  the  Legislature,  [i 
Chase,  190,  512,  528.]  The  English  common  law,  however,  so  far  as  reason- 
able in  itself,  suitable  to  the  condition  and  business  of  our  people,  and  consist- 
ent with  the  letter  and  spirit  of  the  Federal  and  State  constitutions  and  stat- 
utes, ever  has  been  and  is  followed  by  our  courts  and  may  be  said  to  constitute 
a part  of  the  common  law  of  Ohio.  [2  O.  S.  387.] 

After  the  organization  of  the  State  by  the  adoption  of  the  constitution  of 
1802,  the  written  law  of  Ohio  may  be  said  to  have  commenced,  but  the  prac- 
tice was  far  from  uniform,  and  it  was  not  until  1845,  when  the  able  work  of 
Joseph  R.  Swan,  whose  name  needs  no  title  to  the  bar  of  Ohio,  Practice  and 
Precedents,  was  published,  that  uniformity  began  to  prevail  with  either  bench 
or  bar.  Previous  to  that  time,  paraphrasing  from  the  preface  of  that  able  work, 
most  of  the  members  of  the  bar  and  bench,  whose  opinions  moulded  our  judi- 
cial system,  had  pursued  their  legal  studies  in  other  States  of  the  Union,  and 
brought  with  them  a high  respect  for  the  practice  and  decisions  of  the  courts 
where  they  were  educated.  Almost  all  the  States  of  the  Union  had  been  thus 
represented  at  our  bar  and  upon  our  bench,  and  had  produced  a very  great 
diversity  of  law  in  different  parts  of  the  State.  In  truth,  a local  common  law 
existed  to  some  extent  in  each  judicial  circuit.  In  one  the  English  common 
law  was  looked  to  as  the  only  pure  fountain  ; in  another  the  common  law  of 
England  was  modified  by  the  laws  of  New  York  ; in  another  the  common  law 
of  Massachusetts  ; in  another  of  Connecticut ; in  another  of  Pennsylvania.  The 
statutes  of  the  State  indicated  the  same  heterogeneousness.  The  practice  act 
came  from  New  Jersey  ; the  attachment  law  from  Pennsylvania;  the  adminis- 
tration law  from  Massachusetts,  and  the  non-imprisonment  act  from  New  York. 
This  state  of  things  sometimes  gave  rise  to  divisions  of  opinion  in  the  court, 
in  bank,  and  often  subjected  the  adjudications  to  severe  and  unjust  criticism. 

It  is  certainly  no  disparagement  to  the  many  able  jurists  who  aided  in  giv- 
ing to  Ohio  a uniform  and  perfect  system  of  jurisprudence,  to  say  that  to  Judge 
Swan  is  the  bench  and  bar  of  Ohio  most  indebted  for  the  desirable  consum 


- 


The  Bench  and  Bar. 


189 


m.ition  ; and  his  work  at  once  became  the  law  of  practice  to  bench  and  bar 
. roughout  the  State,  and  remained  so  until  the  enactment  of  the  code  of  civil 
rocedure  in  1853,  after  the  adoption  of  the  Constitution  of  1851. 

The  common  law  as  to  crimes,  and  the  mode  of  procedure  in  criminal  cases, 
a as  never  in  force  in  Ohio  — all  this  was  the  matter  of  legislative  enactments. 
[1  0.  132,  2 O.  S.  3S7.  100.  S.  287.] 

The  history  of  the  various  revisions  and  codifications  of  the  statutory  law 
and  modes  of  procedure  within  Ohio  is  interesting,  and  is  so  concisely  and  ac- 
curately stated  in  the  preface  to  the  first  addition  of  the  revised  statutes  made 
by  the  codifying  commission,  appointed  under  the  act  of  March  27,  1875,  and 
published  in  1880,  that  we  copy  literally  : 

“The  first  revision  was  made  during  the  session  of  the  Legislature  hel^l  at 
Chillicothe,  in  1804-5,  at  which  all  the  laws,  with  few  exceptions,  adopted  by 
the  governor  and  judges,  or  enacted  by  the  Legislature  under  the  territorial 
government  were  repealed.  That  revision  embraced  statutes  for  the  adminis- 
tration of  justice,  the  conveyance  of  property,  the  collection  of  the  revenue,  the 
organization  of  the  militia  and  the  punishment  of  crime,  and  other  statutes  pre- 
viously adopted  or  enacted  were  amended  and  re-enacted. 

“ With  these  statutes  for  a basis  other  legislatures  followed  the  example, 
and  accordingly,  the  laws  were  revised  at  the  session  of  1809-18 10,  the  ses- 
sion of  1815-1816,  the  session  1823-1824  and  the  session  of  1830-1831,  each 
revision  being  an  improvement  on  that  which  preceded  it,  the  practice  and 
other  remedial  statutes  gradually  becoming  more  liberal  and  the  penal  enact- 
ments more  humane. 

“Ini  83  5 the  statute  relating  to  felonies  was  again  revised  and  further  pro- 
vision was  made  to  simplify  the  practice,  and  in  1840  an  act  relating  to  the 
settlement  of  the  estates  of  deceased  persons,  based  on  the  statute  of  Massa- 
chusetts, was  prepared  by  Joseph  R.  Swan  and  enacted  by  the  General  Assem- 
bly. The  principal  part  of  it  has  remained  without  change  to  the  present  day. 
At  the  same  session  the  statutes  in  relation  to  wills,  elections  and  other  sub- 
lets, were  revised. 

“ Meanwhile  the  statutes  had  become  so  numerous  and  had  fallen  into  such 
confusion  that  a systematic  republication  of  the  laws  in  force  had  become  a 
necessity.  Fortunately  the  work  was  undertaken  by  one  competent  for  the 
^sk,  and  it  is  only  just  to  say  that  with  the  material  before  him,  and  in  the  ab- 
sence of  all  power  to  change  it,  perhaps  no  other  man  would  have  been  able  to 
produce  a collection  of  our  statutes  so  admirable  in  all  that  pertains  to  the 
*'ork  of  an  editor,  as  Swan’s  Statutes  of  1841.  In  18 54-5,  in  i860  and  in  1868, 
Judge  Swan  performed  the  same  task  of  collecting  and  arranging  the  statutes 
•n  force,  the  notes  to  the  edition  of  i860  having  been  prepared  by  Leander  J. 
Critchfield,  and  the  notes  to  the  edition  of  1 868  by  Milton  Sayler.  While  these 
editions  of  the  statutes  have  now  become  comparatively  useless,  they  are  none 


' 


190 


History  of  Erie  County. 


the  less  monuments  to  the  industry  and  ability  of  the  gentlemen  who  were  en- 
gaged in  their  preparation. 

“ In  this  connection  it  will  not  be  out  of  place  to  notice  a collection  of  the 
statutes  of  a more  permanent  character.  In  1833-1835  (subsequently  Chief 
Justice)  Chase  prepared  an  edition  of  the  statutes.  It  included  the  territorial 
laws,  whether  adopted  by  the  governor  and  judges,  or  enacted  by  the  Territo- 
rial Legislatures  and  the  statutes  down  to  and  including  those  of  1833.  This 
embraced  seven  volumes  of  territorial  laws  and  thirty  volumes  of  the  statute- 
of  the  State,  and  the  whole  was  republished  in  chronological  order  in  three  vol- 
umes. The  work  was  continued  on  substantially  the  same  plan  by  Maskell  E. 
Curwen,  who  republished  in  four  volumes,  the  general  laws  from  1834  to  i860, 
inclusive.  Since  the  death  of  Mr.  Curwen,  the  work  has  been  continued  by  J. 
R.  Sayler,  who  has  republished,  in  four  volumes,  the  general  laws  from  1861  to 
1875,  inclusive. 

“ It  will  thus  be  seen  that  the  statutes  of  Chase,  Curwen  and  Sayler  — all 
admirably  edited  — are  a republication  of  all  the  general  laws  adopted  or  en 
acted  under  the  territorial  and  State  governments  from  1788  to  1875,  inclu- 
sive, in  the  order  of  the  original  publication.  While  only  a very  small  number 
of  the  statutes  which  these  volumes  contain  remains  in  force,  the  remarks  of 
Judge  Chase  with  respect  to  them,  in  his  first  volume  are  entirely  just.  ‘ Many 
questions  of  right  and  remedy,’  said  he,  ‘depend  upon  the  provisions  of  re- 
pealed statutes.  In’  reference  to  such  questions  the  examination  of  the  whole 
series  of  laws  affecting  them  is  a matter  of  absolute  necessity.  In  addition  to 
this,  a knowledge  of  the  acts  repealed  is  often  essential  to  a correct  understand- 
ing of  the  law  in  force.  No  lawyer,  nor  intelligent  legislator  ought  to  be  sat 
isfied  with  knowing  what  the  law  is,  uni  iss  he  also  knows  what  the  law  has 
been.” 

“ Recurring  to  the  subject  of  codification,  it  is  evident  that  it  had  engaged 
the  attention  of  the  people  to  some  extent,  previous  to  the  adoption  of  the 
present  constitution.  Provision  was  made  in  that  instrument  for  a commission, 
and  it  was  ordained  that  ‘said  commissioners  shall  revise,  reform,  simplify,  and 
abridge  the  practice,  pleadings,  forms,  and  proceedings  of  the  courts  of  record 
•of  this  State  ; and  as  far  as  practicable  and  expedient  shall  provide  for  tlw 
.abolition  of  the  distinct  forms  of  actions  at  law  now  in  use,  and  for  the  admin 
istration  of  justice  by  a uniform  mode  of  proceeding,  without  reference  to  any 
distinction  between  law  and  equity.’ 

“ In  obedience  to  that  provision  an  act  was  passed  and  William  Kennon. 
William  S.  Groesbeck,  and  Daniel  O.  Morton  were  appointed  commissioner* 
They  confined  their  labors  to  the  subject  of  practice  in  civil  cases,  and  reported 
what  was  known  as  the  code  of  civil  procedure,  to  the  fiftieth  General  Assem 

bly,  and  that  body  on  March  11,  1853,  adopted  it Though 

somewhat  changed  in  language  and  arrangement,  the  principal  part  of  it  re- 
mains substantially  as  it  was  reported  by  those  commissioners. 


■ 


The  Bench  and  Bar. 


9 


“ With  the  growth  of  the  State  in  population  and  wealth,  the  annual  vol- 
umes of  the  general  laws  increased  in  size  until  the  statutes  of  a general  nature, 
in  force,  exceed  two  thousand  in  number.  The  subject  of  codification  then 
be,Tan  to  attract  attention  here  as  in  other  places.  In  1869  a bill  prepared  by 
Senators  Charles  H.  Scribner,  Daniel  B.  Linn,  and  Homer  Everett,  codifying 
the  statutes  in  relation  to  municipal  corporations,  became  a law,  as  did  also  a 
bill  embodying  a code  of  criminal  procedure,  which  had  been  prepared  by  Sen- 
ator Frank  H.  Hurd.  The  subject  was  further  agitated  and  finally,  in  1874, 
Representative  George  W.  Boyce,  of  Hamilton  county,  introduced  a bill  pro- 
viding for  such  codification.  Subsequently,  Senator  Lucian  C.  Jones,  of  Trum- 
bull, Trumbull  county,  introduced  a bill  on  the  same  subject,  which,  on  March 
-7*  1875,  became  a law.  [72  v.  87].  The  following  are  its  leading  features: 

“The  governor  was  required,  by  and  with  the  advice  and  consent  of  the 
Senate,  to  appoint  three  competent  commissioners  to  revise  and  consolidate  the 
general  statutes  of  the  State,  and  he  was  authorized  to  fill  any  vacancy  in  the 
commission. 

“ In  performing  the  duty  the  commissioners  were  required  to  bring  together 
all  the  statutes  and  parts  of  statutes  relating  to  the  same  matter,  omitting  re- 
dundant and  obsolete  enactments,  and  such  as  had  no  influence  on  existing 
rights  or  remedies,  and  making  alterations  to  reconcile  contradictions,  supply 
omissions,  and  amend  imperfections  in  the  original  acts,  so  as  to  reduce  the 
general  statutes  into  as  concise  and  comprehensive  a form  as  might  be  con- 
sistent with  clear  expression  of  the  will  of  the  General  Assembly,  rejecting  all 
equivocal  and  ambiguous  words  and  circuitous  and  tautological  phraseology. 

“ They  were  required  to  arrange  the  statutes  under  suitable  titles,  divisions, 
subdivisions,  chapters,  and  sections,  with  head  notes  briefly  expressive  of  the 
matter  contained  therein,  with  marginal  notes  of  the  contents  of  each  section, 
with  reference  to  the  original  act  from  which  it  was  compiled,  and  foot  notes  of 
the  decisions  of  the  Supreme  Court  upon  the  same  ; and  they  were  required 
t>  report  the  whole,  in  print,  to  the  general  assembly  for  its  adoption. 

“ On  the  day  of  the  passage  of  the  bill  Governor  Allen  appointed,  and  the 
Senate  unanimously  confirmed,  Michael  A.  Daugherty,  Luther  Day,  and  John 
W-  Okey  as  the  commissioners.  Commissions  were  issued  to  them  on  that 
Jay.  and  immediately  thereafter  they  entered  upon  their  duties.  Judge  Day 
continued  to  be  a member  of  the  commission  until  February  1,  1S76,  when  he 
^signed,  having  been  appointed  a member  of  the  Supreme  Court  commission, 
•*nd  John  S.  Brasee  was  appointed  by  Governor  Hayes  to  fill  the  vacancy, 
*nd  Judge  Okey  continued  to  be  a member  of  the  commission  until  November 
9.  1 877,  when  he  resigned,  having  been  elected  a judge  of  the  Supreme  Court, 
°ud  George  B.  Okey  was  appointed  by  Governor  Young  to  fill  the  vacancy. 

°ther  changes  were  made  in  the  commission.” 

The  codified  or  revised  statutes  consist  of  four  parts.  The  first  part  (Polit- 


* 


- p*1 

■ealiu 


92 


History  of  Erie  County. 


ical)  contains  the  enactments  which  are  organic,  being  the  frame-work  and 
machinery  of  our  government;  the  second  part  (Civil)  relates  to  person  and 
property ; the  third  part  (Remedial)  includes  everything  connected  with  civil 
procedure  in  all  the  courts;  and  the  fourth  part  (Penal)  embraces  the  pro- 
visions relating  to  crimes,  criminal  procedure,  and  jails  and  the  penitentiary 

Constitutio?i  of  1802. — Under  the  Constitution  of  1802  the  judicial  power 
of  the  State,  both  as  to  matters  of  law  and  equity,  was  vested  in  a Supreme 
Court,  in  Court  of  Common  Pleas  for  each  county,  in  justices  of  the  peace,  and 
in  such  other  courts  as  the  Legislature  might  establish.  Under  this  latter  pro- 
vision the  Circuit  Courts  were  established. 

The  Supreme  Court  consisted  of  three  judges — two  of  whom  formed  a 
quorum.  It  had  original  and  appellate  jurisdiction,  both  in  law  and  in  chan- 
cery, in  such  cases  as  the  Legislature  might  direct,  and  which  would  be  beyond 
the  province  of  this  chapter  to  enumerate.  The  Legislature  was  empowered 
to  add  another  judge  to  the  number  after  five  years,  and  in  that  event  the 
judges  were  authorized  to  divide  the  State  into  two  circuits  within  which  any 
two  could  hold  court. 

The  Courts  of  Common  Pleas  consisted  of  a president-* and  two  associate 
judges.  The  State  was  required  by  law  to  be  divided  into  three  circuits  with 
a president  judge  for  each  circuit,  and  not  “more  than  three  nor  less  than  two” 
associate  judges  for  each  county.  Any  three  of  these  judges  constituted  a 
quorum  and  composed  the  Court  of  Common  Pleas,  and  had  common  law  and 
chancery  jurisdiction,  and  also  jurisdiction  of  all  probate  and  testamentary  mat 
ters  and  of  guardians  and  minors,  and  of  criminal  cases.  Clerks  were  appointed 
by  the  court  for  a term  of  seven  years.  Power  was  conferred  on  the  Legisla- 
ture to  increase  the  number  of  circuits  and  of  the  president  judges  after  the 
expiration  of  five  years.  The  Supreme  Court  was  required  to  be  held  once  a 
year  in  each  county. 

All  judges  were  appointed  by  a joint  ballot  of  both  houses  of  the  Genera! 
Assembly,  and  held  office  for  the  term  of  seven  years,  “if  so  long  they  behaved 
well.” 

Justices  of  the  peace  were  elected  in  each  township  and  held  office  for  three 
years.  Their  “powers  and  duties"  were  “regulated  and  defined  by  law.” 

THE  BENCH  OF  THE  COUNTY. 

By  the  act  that  completed  the  civil  organization  of  Erie  county  it  was  pro- 
vided that  the  first  Court  of  Common  Pleas  should  be  held  on  the  second  Mon- 
day in  December,  1838,  yet  there  is  a record  of  the  holding  of  a court  in  April 
prior  to  that  time.  There  appears  not  to  have  been  present  any  president 
judge,  and  the  proceedings  were  conducted  by  Moses  Farwell,  Nathan  Strong, 
and  Harvey  Fowler,  the  associate  justices.  These  proceedings,  however,  were 
brief,  no  cases  beincr  tried. 


The  Bench  and  Bar. 


93 


During  the  time  that  Erie  county  was  attached  to  Huron  it  appears  that 
Judge  David  Higgins  was  upon  the  bench  of  the  Common  Pleas  Court.  He 
was  succeeded  by  Judge  Ozias  Bowen,  of  Marion  county,  who  presided  for  a 
number  of  years,  and  until  he  was  replaced  by  Judge  Myron  H.  Tilden,  of 
Toledo,  but  formerly  of  Norwalk. 

Next  in  the  succession  came  Judge  Ebenezer  B.  Sadler,  of  Sandusky  City, 
who  went  upon  the  bench  in  1847,  anc^  so  continued  until  the  adoption  of  the 
new  constitution  by  which  he  was  legislated  out  of  office. 

The  above  named  comprise  all  the  common  pleas  judges  that  presided  over 
that  court  in  this  county  prior  to  the  constitution  of  1852.  Judge  Sadler  was 
the  first  president  upon  the  bench  that  was  a resident  of  Erie  county,  and  the 
only  such  prior  to  the  new  constitution,  but  in  after  years  this  county  was  as 
well  represented  upon  the  bench  of  the  courts  as  any  in  the  district,  excepting, 
perhaps,  Lucas  county. 

After  the  adoption  of  the  new  constitution  Erie  county  was  placed  in  the 
first  subdivision  of  the  fourth  common  pleas  district,  the  other  counties  being 
Huron,  Sandusky,  Ottawa,  and  Lucas.  The  first  president  judge  in  this  sub- 
division was  Lucius  Otis,  then  of  Fremont  but  now  of  the  city  of  Chicago. 
Judge  Otis  served  one  term  of  five  years,  and  was  succeeded  by  Judge  Sebas- 
tian F.  Taylor,  a prominent  lawyer  of  Erie  county.  He  served  two  terms  of 
five  years  each,  and  was  himself  succeeded  by  Walter  F.  Stone,  of  Sandusky. 
The  constitution  provided  for  the  selection  of  an  additional  law  judge  to  be 
chosen  whenever  the  business  of  the  sub-division  should  warrant  it.  It  was 
during  Judge  Otis’s  term  of  office  that  this  provision  was  carried  into  effect  by 
the  selection  of  Judge  John  Fitch,  of  Toledo,  in  1854.  Other  additional  law 
judges  were  from  time  to  time  appointed,  among  them  Samuel  T.  Wooster,  of 
Norwalk,  and  John  L.  Green,  of  Fremont.  The  latter  is  still  judge  in  the  dis- 
trict. 

Judge  Stone  continued  on  the  bench  as  president  judge  for  some  years, 
when  he  was  advanced  to  the  Supreme  Court  bench.  He  was  succeeded  by 
William  G.  Lane,  of  Sandusky,  but,  on  account  of  failing  health  the  latter  was 
compelled  to  retire,  whereupon  Cooper  K.  Watson,  of  Sandusky,  followed  him. 
Judge  Watson  died  in  office,  and  John  Mackey  was  appointed  his  successor. 
By  appointment  and  two  subsequent  elections,  Judge  Mackey  held  this  office 
for  nearly  seven  years.  Next  in  the  line  of  succession  came  the  present  incum- 
bent, Judge  J.  L.  De  Witt,  of  Sandusky,  who  assumed  the  office  in  February, 
*887. 

The  first  sub-division  of  the  Fourth  District  remains  now  as  originally 
formed,  and  the  courts  therein  are  presided  over  by  five  common  pleas  judges, 
three  in  Toledo  and  two  in  the  other  counties  comprising  the  subdivision. 
These  judges  are  as  follows:  Louis  H.  Pike,  David  H.  Commager,  and  Reuben 
C-  Lemmon,  of  Toledo;  John  L.  Green,  of  Fremont,  and  J.  L.  De  Witt,  of 
Sandusky. 


It  , q„  |i  i-  lull  01  bsf!  >'  JJc  «r.w  v.Jfiuoo  ah 3 .'Kris  are 


. 


194 


History  of  Erie  County. 


THE  OLD  ERIE  COUNTY  BAR. 

Elsewhere  in  this  work  will  be  found  a detail  of  the  events  that  made  per- 
fect the  organization  of  this  county,  and  it  is  only  the  province  of  this  particu- 
lar portion  of  this  chapter  to  refer  to  and  mention,  in  some  manner,  those  per- 
sons who  were  identified  with  the  practice  at  the  bar  of  the  courts,  and  who  were 
residents  of  the  county.  To  be  sure  there  were  the  inevitable  “circuit  riders,’’ 
lawyers  who  lived  in  other  counties,  but  who  were  always  in  attendance  upon 
every  court,  and  who  controlled  a fair  share  of  the  business  thereof.  This  was 
not  through  any  weakness  of  the  resident  attorneys,  but  rather  in  verification  of 
the  old  proverb,  “a  prophet  is  not  without  honor  save  in  his  own  country.-’ 
These  circuit  riders  were  for  many  years  in  attendance  upon  every  court  and  in 
every  locality.  They  managed  to  get  a certain  amount  of  the  “catch  practice,” 
most  generally  in  the  criminal  branch,  and  were  sometimes  called  into  a case 
by  the  attorney  of  record,  and  served  in  the  capacity  of  associate  counsel.  In 
this  manner  they  could  pick  up  enough  business  to  pay  expenses,  and  some- 
times a little  more.  But  the  circuit  rider  was  almost  a necessity;  not,  how- 
ever, in  the  light  of  the  adage  that  “necessity  knows  no  law,”  as  they  numbered 
among  them  some  of  the  brighest  trial  lawyers  of  the  times. 

At  this  period  of  which  we  write,  the  early  days  of  the  county,  there  were 
but  few,  if  any,  resident  practicing  attorneys  of  much  prominence  except  the 
firms  of  Parish  & Sadler  (Francis  D.  Parish  and  Ebenezer  B.  Sadler),  and 
Beecher  & Campbell  (Lucas  S.  Beecher  and  John  F.  Campbell),  all  of  Sandusky 
City;  also  Ebenezer  Andrews  and  Philip  R.  Hopkins  of  Milan.  Elentheros 
Cooke  had  been  a prominent  attorney  of  Sandusky,  and  a pioneer  of  the  pro- 
fession; but  at  the  time  of  which  we  write  was  practically  retired  from  active 
practice  to  engage  in  other  pursuits.  He  was  an  able  man  and  lawyer,  and 
possessed  of  unusual  oratorical  power.  He  drifted  into  the  sea  of  politics,  and 
represented  the  Fourteenth  District  in  the  Twenty-second  Congress.  He  was, 
moreover,  one  of  the  most  prominent  men,  in  every  step  looking  to  the  ad- 
vancement and  welfare  of  the  county,  and  contributed  generously  of  his  means 
and  advice  to  every  worthy  enterprise.  Hence  his  popularity. 

William  H.  Hunter,  more  commonly  known  as  “Colonel”  Hunter,  was  nom- 
inally a lawyer,  but  more  of  a politician.  In  1835  he  was  collector  of  customs 
at  this  port,  and  in  1836  was  elected  to  Congress. 

John  Wheeler  is  also  remembered  as  a lawyer,  though  he  was  content  to 
rest  his  professional  career  on  the  office  of  justice  of  the  peace,  which  he  held 
for  a number  of  years. 

Of  these  old  pioneers  of  the  profession  but  two  are  now  living,  Hon.  E.  B* 
Sadler  and  John  Campbell,  the  latter,  however,  is  not  a resident  of  the  county. 
He  took  a somewhat  unusual  course  for  a lawyer,  in  that  he  afterward  became 
a minister  of  the  gospel,  and  is  now  understood  to  fill  the  most  honorable  office 
of  bishop  of  the  Lutheran  Church  in  Virginia. 


mmr* 


The  Bench  and  Bar. 


195 


Francis  Drake  Parish  was  a man  of  Puritanical  stripe.  He  was  honest,  con- 
scientious, faithful,  and  zealous  in  his  profession  and  in  every  good  work.  He 
possessed  a moral  firmness  that  could  not  be  excelled  ; a man  of  good  acquire- 
ments and  legal  abilities;  a man  who  hated  iniquity  and  despised  meanness;  a 
strong  religionist,  a temperance  tetotaler,  and  a strong  abolitionist  when  that 
outspoken  sentiment  meant  personal  and  professional  unpopularity.  Mr.  Par- 
ish had  the  courage  to  avow  his  sentiments  in  this  regard  even  in  the  face  of  an 
excited  and  howling  mob. 

This  man  was  a native  of  New  York  State,  born  in  the  year  1796.  When 
twenty- four  years  old  he  came  to  Columbus,  O.,  where  he  read  law,  and  where, 
in  1822,  he  was  admitted  to  the  bar.  In  the  same  year  he  came  to  Sandusky 
City  and  commenced  practice,  which  he  continued  until  the  year  1852  when  he 
retired  from  the  hard  work  of  the  profession  on  account  of  a bronchial  affec- 
tion. In  1875  he  left  Erie  county  and  removed  to  Lorain  county,  where  he 
died  a short  time  ago. 

Lucas  Selkirk  Beecher  was  born  in  New  Haven  county,  Conn.,  on  the  3 1st  of 
March,  1798.  At  the  age  of  about  thirteen  years  he  was  maimed  by  the  loss  of 
a leg.  When  about  eighteen  years  old,  with  his  parents  he  became  a resident  of 
Genesee  county,  N.  Y.  The  early  education  of  Mr.  Beecher  was  received  at 
the  common  schools  and  at  the  village  academy.  After  coming  to  reside  in 
Genesee  county  he  taught  the  village  school.  Later  he  entered  the  office  of 
Hopkins  and  Beecher  at  Canaseraga,  where  he  studied  the  law  until  the  year 
1824,  when  he  was. admitted  to  the  bar,  after  which  he  began  the  practice  at 
Williamsport,  Pa.  Two  years  later  in  the  year  1828,  Mr.  Beecher  came  to  San- 
dusky, where  he  formed  a law  partnership  with  Hon.  Elentheros  Cooke. 

No  sooner  had  our  subject  become  fairly  established  in  professional  busi- 
ness at  this  place  than  a terrible  misfortune  befel  him  ; he  became  totally 
blind.  After  a time  under  the  invitation  of  kind  friends  he  went  to  the  City  of 
New  York  for  treatment,  hoping  that  his  eyesight  might  be  restored,  which,  in 
a measure,  was  accomplished — sufficiently  to  allow  him  to  resume  his  practice 
and  read  and  write  a little. 

Returning  after  some  months  to  Sandusky  Mr.  Beecher  formed  a copart- 
nership with  John  F.  Campbell,  who  also  subsequently  became  totally  blind, 
and  was  obliged  to  retire  from  the  profession.  Mr.  Beecher  then  associated 
himself  with  Pitt  Cooke,  and  subsequently  Cuyler  Leonard,  and  finally  in  1853 
with  his  son,  John  T.  Beecher,  which  latter  firm  continued  until  the  death  of 
its  senior  member  in  the  year  1882. 

Disabled  as  he  was,  when  just  entering  upon  the  threshold  of  successful 
practice,  nevertheless,  he  rose  to  a height  which  enabled  him  to  easily  maintain 
his  position  as  a leader  in  this  most  difficult  of  all  professions.  We  take  pride 
in  rendering  this  tribute  of  regard  to  the  memory  of  a man  so  deservedly  hon- 
ored by  the  profession  as  an  example  of  the  success  which  can  be  achieved  by 


■ ■■ ' 

) IB 3V/  9 


96 


History  of  Erie  County. 


an  earnest  man,  full  of  a great  purpose,  striving  against  a fate  which  usually  be- 
numbs the  faculties  and  palsies  the  energies  of  its  victims. 

John  F.  Campbell  the  law  partner  of  Lucas  S.  Beecher,  is  remembered  as 
being  a man  of  light  complexion,  young,  smart,  active,  facetious,  witty  and  pos- 
sessed of  a keen  sense  of  the  ludicrous.  About  the  year  1840  he  had  an  at- 
tack of  sore  eyes  that  unfitted  him  for  professional  work,  and  in  fact  rendered 
him  partially  blind  for  a time  at  least.  He  quit  the  practice  of  law  and  went 
to  Pennsylvania.  After  a time  his  eyesight  was  restored,  and  he  studied  for 
and  entered  the  ministry  of  the  Lutheran  Church,  and  subsequently  became  a 
resident  of  the  State  of  Virginia.  Still  later  he  became  a bishop  of  the  church. 

He  seems  to  have  met  with  decided  success  in  his  new  calling;  but  those 
that  knew  him  well  as  a lawyer  say  that  he  was  the  last  man  they  ever  dreamed 
would  finally  become  a clergyman.  He  evidently  followed  the  command  to 
“multiply  and  replenish  the  earth,”  for  when  last  heard  from  his  family  con- 
prised  a wife  and  nine  children. 

Ebenezer  Andrews  of  Milan,  was  a plain,  sensible,  unassuming  man,  and  a 
fair  and  honest  lawyer.  He  was  probate  judge  of  the  county  from  1852  to  1855. 
He  died  many  years  ago. 

John  N.  Sloane  entered  upon  the  practice  of  law  in  1840.  His  regular  oc- 
cupation, however,  was  that  of  merchant.  He  died  September  24,  1881. 

Hon.  Ebenezer  Lane,  unquestionably  the  most  distinguished  and  most  hon- 
ored of  the  many  gentlemen  of  the  legal  profession  that  have  practiced  at  the 
bar  of  the  courts  of  this  county,  became  a resident  of  Sandusky  in  the  year 
1842,  two  years  after  the  civil  organization  of  the  county  was  made  complete. 

Judge  Lane  was  born  in  Connecticut,  in  the  year  1793.  He  was  educated 
at  the  University  of  Cambridge,  and  afterward  read  law  with  his  uncle  Judge 
Matthew  Griswold,  of  Lyme,  Conn.  He  commenced  the  practice  of  law  in  the 
year  1814,  at  Norwich,  Conn.,  but  in  1S17  came  to  the  Western  Reserve  dur- 
ihg  the  same  year.  In  1819  he  moved  to  Norwalk,  the  county  seat  of  Huron 
county,  having  previously  been  appointed  prosecuting  attorney  for  that  county. 
At  Columbia  in  1822  he  was  admitted  to  practice  in  the  United  States  Circuit 
Court.  Soon  after  he  was  appointed  Common  Pleas  Judge  of  the  Second  Cir- 
cuit, and  continued  in  office  six  years,  when  he  was  appointed  judge  of  the  Su- 
preme Court  of  the  State,  sitting  first  in  that  capacity  in  1830.  He  was  reap- 
pointed in  1837,  but  resigned  his  commission  eight  years  later. 

It  was  during  his  life  upon  the  bench  that  Judge  Lane  became  a resident  of 
Sandusky  City.  After  thirteen  years  of  residence  here  he  moved  to  Chicago, 
having  accepted  the  appointment  as  counsel  and  resident  director  of  the  Cen- 
tral Railroad  of  Illinois,  an  office  that  was  ably  filled  by  him  for  nearly  fourteen 
years.  After  having  severed  his  connection  with  the  railroad  company  Judge 
Lane  made  an  extended  tour  of  Europe,  returning  to  this  country  in  April, 
i860.  He  lived  but  six  years  longer,  and  died  on  the  12th  of  June,  1S66. 


The  Bench  and  Bar. 


197 


In  1850  Judge  Lane  received  the  degree  of  Doctor  of  Laws  from  Harvard 
University.  In  1856  he  was  elected  a member  of  the  New  England  His- 
torical and  Genealogical  Society,  also  he  was  a member  of  the  New  York 
Historical  Society,  the  Ohio  Historical  Society  and  the  Chicago  Historical 
Society. 

Another  of  the  pioneers  of  the  legal  profession  in  Erie  county  was  Philip  B. 
Hopkins,  of  Milan.  He  was,  at  the  time  of  the  county’s  organization,  fully 
up  to,  if  not  past  the  middle  age  of  life.  His  practice  was  by  no  means 
confined  to  Milan,  as  he  was  frequently  at  Huron,  and  also  in  the  counties 
adjoining. 

Counselor  Hopkins  was  a clear- minded,  shrewd  and  practical  lawyer,  and 
possessed,  moreover,  an  almost  inexhaustible  fund  of  natural  humor.  His  witti- 
cisms were  never  forced,  but  seemed  to  spring  from  his  lips  involuntarily,  and 
none  seemed  more  surprised  at  their  sound  and  effect  than  he.  An  amusing 
anecdote  will  clearly  show  what  manner  of  man  he  was. 

One  day  at  the  dinner-table  in  the  Mansion  House  at  Sandusky,  were  gath- 
ered a number  of  legal  lights,  and  among  them  the  irrepressible  Hopkins.  Some 
allusion  was  made  to  a certain  lawyer  from  a distant  county  not  at  all  remark- 
able for  his  legal  learning,  and  Joseph  M.  Root,  another  prominent  lawyer  of 
this  county,  asked  Major  Hopkins  if  he  knew  how  this  man  came  to  be  a law- 
yer ? “No,”  said  Hopkins,  “I  don’t.”  “Well,”  says  Root,  “he  was  a sort  of 
peddler  in  a one-horse  wagon,  and  carried  around  with  him  Swan’s  Treatise, 
and  so  caught  the  law  just  as  a person  would  catch  the  itch  or  measles.” 
“Well,”  answered  the  Major,  “it  never  broke  out  on  him  much,  and  they  say 
it  is  worse  when  it  strikes  in.” 

One  day  Hopkins  and  Mr.  Andrews  were  trying  a case  before  Judge  Sad- 
ler, Hopkins  for  the  plaintiff,  and  Andrews  on  the  defense.  In  presenting  the 
testimony  Hopkins  constantly  asked  leading  questions,  which  Andrews  object- 
ed to ; but  as  the  former  did  not  seem  to  get  along  very  well  without,  he  was 
allowed  to  proceed  ; but  when  Andrews  called  his  first  witness  he  very  properly 
^ked  him  a leading  question,  directing  his  attention  to  the  subject  matter  in 
controversy,  to  which  Hopkins  objected.  What  is  your  objection  ? It  is  lead- 
,ng.  The  court  remarked  to  him  pleasantly,  that  he  thought  he  was  the  last 
roan  to  object  to  leading  questions.  He  replied,  “I  am  the  last  man,  I just 
did  it.” 

Joseph  M.  Root  is  also  remembered  as  one  of  the  early  lawyers  of  Erie 
county.  He  came  from  New  York  State  and  read  with  William  H.  Hunter,. 
and  then  opened  an  office  for  practice.  Afterward  he  located  at  Norwalk,  and 
ff°m  there  was  elected  to  Congress,  first  in  1845,  and  was  twice  thereafter  re- 
jected, the  last  time  while  residing  in  this  county,  to  which  he  had  returned. 
This  was  in  1849.  He  practiced  here  a number  of  years  after  his  term  of  office 
expired  but  is  now  dead. 


26 


' 


198 


History  of  Erie  County. 


William  H.  Hunter  was  a somewhat  prominent  figure  in  the  profes- 
sion and  he  too  represented  the  district  in  Congress  during  the  year  1837- 
1839- 

Justin  H.  Tyler  will  also  be  remembered  by  the  old  residents  of  Huron 
township  especially.  He  was  a Massachusetts  Yankee,  but  came  to  this  Stat 
from  New  York.  He  was  located  at  Huron  early  in  the  forties  but  left  in  a feu 
years  and  became  a resident  of  Henry  county  where  he  now  lives. 

Rush  R.  Sloane  was  born  in  Sandusky.  He  read  law  with  F.  D.  Parish, 
and  was  admitted  at  Mansfield,  Ohio,  in  1849.  He  retired  from  practice  to 
assume  the  duties  of  the  office  of  probate  judge,  to  which  he  was  elected  in 
1857.  He  was  re-elected  in  1S60,  but  resigned  in  April,  1861,  to  accept  the 
appointment  from  President  Lincoln,  as  general  agent  of  the  post-office  de- 
partment and  located  with  headquarters  at  Chicago. 

Beside  these  who  have  been  mentioned  in  the  above  sketches,  there  are  a 
few  others  who  were  members  of  the  old  bar  and  who  are  members  of  the  pres- 
ent bar  of  the  county,  in  which  latter  connection  notice  of  them  will  be  found. 
And  it  is  possible  that  in  the  recollection  of  these  pioneers  of  the  profession, 
the  names  of  some  may,  through  inadvertence,  have  been  omitted,  and  it  may 
be  true  too,  that  some  of  the  itinerant  characters  may  have  been  entirely  over- 
looked. There  is,  in  every  profession,  and  the  legal  is  not  exempt  from  it. 
some  evanescent  characters,  some  who  have  branched  off  into  other  pursuits, 
some  who  perhaps  may  have  fallen  by  the  wayside,  and  to  the  profession  have 
become  lost.  But  as  the  years  came  and  went,  the  county  grew  more  popu- 
lous and  of  course  the  ranks  became  swelled  in  numbers,  and  among  them  may 
be  found  the  names  of  men  well  known  throughout  the  entire  county.  In  the 
year  1855,  seventeen  years  after  the  organization  of  the  county,  it  is  found  that 
the  profession,  in  the  city  of  Sandusky,  was  represented  in  the  legal  profession 
about  as  follows : Samuel  Minor,  who  afterward  went  to  Los  Angeles,  Cal.  . 

O.  C.  McLouth,  who  was  clerk  of  the  courts  from  1870  to  1875,  an<^  prior  to 
that  was  prosecuting  attorney  from  1856  to  i860;  John  Mackey,  a mention  01 
whom  will  be  found  among  the  members  of  the  present  bar  ; Counselors  Mc- 
Louth and  Mackey  were  law  partners  in  18855.  Lane,  Stone  and  Lane  were 
partners,  the  firm  being  composed  of  Hon.  Ebenezer  Lane,  Walter  F.  Stone 
and  William  G.  Lane.  Concerning  Judge  Ebenezer  Lane  mention  has  already 
been  made.  Walter  F.  Stone,  like  the  senior  partner  of  the  firm,  became  judge 
of  the  Common  Pleas  and  also  judge  of  the  Supreme  Court.  He  died  in  Cali- 
fornia. William  G.  Lane  was  the  son  of  Ebenezer  Lane.  In  1843  he  'va" 
graduated  from  Yale  College,  after  which  he  attended  the  Harvard  Law  School 
He  further  prosecuted  his  legal  study  under  the  instruction  of  the  best  Ger- 
man professors,  at  Berlin,  after  which  he  returned  to  this  country  and  became 
professionally  associated  with  his  father,  who,  during  the  son’s  absence,  had 
been  a resident  of  Sandusky.  In  1873  Mr.  Lane  became  judge  of  the  Coni- 


■ 


The  Bench  and  Bar. 


199 


non  Pleas  for  the  fourth  judicial  district.  Judge  Lane  died  at  Sandusky  on 

28th  day  of  October,  1878. 

Alonzo  W.  Hendry,  better  known  as  Judge  Hendry,  from  the  fact  of  his 
' iving  been,  from  1863  to  1870,  the  probate  judge  of  the  county,  was  born  in 
Krie  county,  N.  Y.,  and  came  to  Lorain  county  in  1834.  He  was  admitted  to 
the  bar  in  1842  and  came  to  Sandusky  in  1843.  He  is  now  virtually  retired 
»>om  practice.  At  a period  earlier  than  that  mentioned  Mr.  Hendry  was  prom- 
inently before  the  people  of  the  county,  as  he  was  from  1848  until  1852,  the 
prosecuting  attorney  of  the  county.  Besides  his  political  holdings  Judge 
Hendry  has  been  for  many  years  a prominent  figure  in  the  affairs  of  the 
city. 

George  Reber  is  remembered  as  a good  trial  lawyer,  and  although  he  seems 
not  to  have  been  conspicuous  as  an  office  holder,  he  nevertheless  enjoyed  a 
fair  share  of  the  legal  practice  and  was  connected  with  many  of  the  leading 
cases.  He  is  now  dead. 

John  J.  Finch  has  been  a member  of  the  legal  profession  for  many  years 
but  the  greater  part  of  his  time  has  been  devoted  to  other  pursuits.  At  the 
present  time  he  holds  the  responsible  position  of  collector  of  customs  for  the 
port  of  Sandusky. 

William  Tilden  had,  at  the  time  of  which  we  speak,  an  office  at  the  corner 
of  Market  street  and  Columbus  avenue,  where  he  practiced  for  some  time.  He 
afterward  moved  to  Cincinnati  and  is  now  deceased. 

Lawrence  Wier  was  another  of  the  old  bar,  and  had  an  office  at  No.  66 
Railroad  street. 

Another  of  the  old  firms  of  the  city  was  that  of  Converse,  Giddings  & Bige- 
•°w.  Only  one  of  these  partners,  J.  G Bigelow,  is  now  known  to  the  profes- 
sion in  the  county,  and  he  is  retired  from  its  active,  arduous  work. 

John  G.  Miller  had  an  office  on  the  same  floor  as  is  now  occupied  by  the 
city  fathers.  He  is  not  now  living. 

The  firm  of  Camp  & Leonard  was  composed  of  John  G.  Camp,  jr.,  a son  of 
Major  Camp,  one  of  the  proprietors  of  the  town,  and  Cuyler  Leonard.  Their 
o??:ce  was  located  at  No.  128  Water  street.  Neither  partner  of  this  firm  is  now 
•iving  in  the  county. 

There  were  others,  of  course,  who  were  in  active  practice  at  the  time, 
IJ*55>  and  all  are  mentioned  in  some  manner  in  this  chapter.  A majority 
*re  joined  with  “the  great  majority”  while  a few  are  yet  in  practice.  These 
•alter  will  be  found  mentioned  in  the  sketches  of  the  members  of  the  present 
bar. 


SKETCHES  OF  MEMBERS  OF  THE  PRESENT  BAR. 

Hon.  E.  B.  Sadler.1  Judge  Sadler  certainly  stands  to  day,  the  senior  mem 


1 Since  deceased. 


' 


200 


History  of  Erie  County. 


ber  of  the  Erie  county  bar,  his  connection  therewith  having  covered  a period 
of  more  than  a half  century. 

Ebenezer  Brown  Sadler  was  born  in  the  town  of  Grafton,  State  of  Massa- 
chusetts,on  the  16th  of  November,  1808.  When  he  was  five  years  old  his  pa- 
rents moved  to  New  Hampshire,  where  they  remained  only  two  years,  and 
then  went  to  Geneva,  N.  Y.,  traveling  the  entire  distance  in  sleighs.  After  a 
year’s  residence  at  Geneva  the  family  again  moved,  this  time  to  a town  in  Erie 
county,  N.  Y.,  fifteen  miles  east  of  Buffalo.  Three  years  later  they  moved  to 
Lima,  Livingston  county. 

At  the  age  of  eighteen  years  young  Sadler  bought  his  “ time  ” of  his  father 
and  started  out  to  make  his  own  way  in  life.  During  'the  summer  months  he 
worked  as  he  could  find  employment  and  the  winter  found  him  at  school.  This 
continued  until  he  was  qualified  for  teaching,  which  occupation  he  then  followed, 
devoting  his  leisure  time,  however,  to  the  study  of  the  law  with  Hon.  John 
Dickson,  of  West  Bloomfield,  N.  Y.,  then  member  of  Congress  from  Ontario 
county.  In  this  way  he  was  engaged  some  three  or  four  years,  when,  in  May, 
1835,  he  started  west. 

For  some  time  Mr.  Sadler  traveled  about,  visiting  various  localities,  but 
finally  settled  down  at  Sandusky  city.  He  entered  the  law  office  of  Francis  D. 
Parish,  where  he  further  prosecuted  his  legal  study  until  the  month  of  July,  1836, 
at  which  time  he  was  admitted  to  practice.  A partnership  was  then  formed 
with  Mr.  Parish,  which  relation  was  maintained  until  the  year  1847,  when  our 
subject  was  appointed  judge  of  the  Common  Pleas  Court  for  the  circuit  com- 
prising the  counties  of  Huron,  Erie,  Sandusky,  Ottawa,  Lucas,  Seneca,  Wood 
and  Henry.  By  the  adoption  of  the  new  constitution  of  1852,  Judge  Sadler 
was  legislated  out  of  office.  He  then  returned  to  his  profession  and  so  con- 
tinued until  his  appointment  as  postmaster  at  Sandusky  city,  in  which  capac- 
ity he  served  about  two  years,  but  was  then  removed  on  account  of  the  fact 
that  he  would  not  lend  himself  and  his  official  position  to  certain  political 
schemes,  and  A.  C.  Van  Tine  was  nominated  as  his  successor. 

In  1867  Judge  Sadler  was  nominated  and  elected  State  Senator,  serving 
in  the  Upper  House  of  the  Legislature  two  years.  After  his  term  expired  he 
returned  to  professional  work.  In  1875  he  formed  a law  partnership  with 
his  son,  Charles  W.  Sadler,  which  firm  relation  has  ever  since  been  main- 
tained. 

Homer  Goodwin.  This  well  known  member  of  the  Erie  county  bar  is  a 
native  of  Ohio,  born  on  the  15th  day  of  October,  1819.  His  father  was  a phy- 
sician of  Burton,  Geauga  county,  but  resided  during  the  youth  of  our  subject, 
on  a farm,  and  here  Homer  passed  the  days  of  boyhood  and  youth.  He  re- 
ceived an  academic  education,  and  in  1840  entered  the  Western  Reserve  Col- 
lege, then  in  Summit  county,  where  he  pursued  a regular  classical  course  ot 
study  and  was  graduated  in  July,  1S44,  receiving  the  the  degrees  of  A.  B 


: 


. 


The  Bench  and  Bar. 


201 


and  A.  M.  He  then  read  the  law  under  the  instruction  of  Judge  Peter  Hitch- 
cock, a well  known  and  able  lawyer  of  Geauga  county,  but  during  his  legal 
studies  Mr.  Goodwin  was,  for  a time,  engaged  in  teaching  school.  After  two 
years  at  Columbus,  O.,  he  was  admitted  to  the  bar.  This  was  in  1846.  He 
at  once  commenced  practice  at  Burton,  but  in  June  of  the  following  year, 
1847,  came  to  Sandusky  and  became  a member  of  the  Erie  county  bar.  Dur- 
ing his  forty-two  years  of  practice  in  this  county  Mr.  Goodwin  has  been 
connected  with  many  of  the  most  important  cases  tried  therein. 

Hon.  John  Mackey.  Judge  Mackey  was  born  in  Warren  county,  New 
Jersey,  on  the  7th  of  January,  1818,  and  became  a resident  of  Milan  township, 
to  which  place  his  parents  and  family  moved  in  the  year  1837.  Our  subject 
was  educated  in  the  common  schools  and  the  academy  at  Milan,  and  com- 
menced, in  1843,  tfle  study  of  law  with  Lucas  S.  Beecher,  of  Sandusky,  still 
devoting,  however,  a portion  of  his  time  to  the  school-room  and  to  farm  work. 
At  Fremont,  in  the  year  1846,  he  was  admitted  to  practice  law  by  the  Su- 
preme Court  on  circuit.  After  his  admission  to  the  bar  and  before  he  com- 
menced practice,  Mr.  Mackey  engaged  in  an  enterprise  wholly  outside  the 
profession.  He,  with  others,  established  a daily  and  weekly  newspaper,  known 
as  the  Sandusky  Mirror . This  was  the  first  daily  paper  published  in  Erie 
county.  Mr.  Mackey’s  connection  with  the  Mirror  was  continued  up  to  the 
latter  part  of  the  year  1849,  at  which  time  he  opened  an  office  for  the  general 
practice  of  the  law.  His  first  partner  was  O.  C.  McLouth,  but  later  years 
found  him  professionally  associated  with  Hon.  Joseph  M.  Root,  and  afterwards 
with  Homer  Goodwin,  esq. 

From  the  year  1852  to  1856  Mr.  Mackey  held  the  office  of  prosecuting 
attorney  of  the  county.  In  the  spring  of  1880  he  was  appointed  judge  of  the 
Common  Pleas  Court  to  fill  the  vacancy  caused  by  the  death  of  Cooper  K. 
Watson,  and  at  the  next  general  election  he  was  elected  to  fill  Judge  Watson’s 
unexpired  term.  He  was,  upon  the  expiration  of  that  term,  re-elected 
for  a full  term  of  five  years.  After  his  last  term  upon  the  bench  had  expired 
Judge  Mackey  resumed  his  practice,  to  which  his  time  has  since  been  de- 
voted. 

Horatio  Wildman  was  a grandson  of  Zalmon  Wildman,  who  is  well  remem- 
bered as  having  been  one  of  the  proprietors  of  the  town  of  Portland,  afterward 
Sandusky,  and  of  those  proprietors  he  was  the  largest  owner.  Horatio  Wild- 
man was  a native  of  Connecticut,  and  was  born  at  Danbury  on  the  10th  of 
April,  1828.  His  parents  were  Frederick  S.  and  Julia  Wildman,  and  of  their 
five  children,  Horatio  was  the  oldest.  At  the  age  of  twenty  years  young 
M ildman  came  to  Sandusky,  at  which  place  his  father  had  an  extensive  land 
interest,  and  here  the  young  man  believed  was  a good  opening  for  business 
and  professional  engagements.  Prior  to  his  coming  here  he  had  graduated 
from  Yale  College,  and  had  also  read  law  with  Charles  Hawley,  of  Stamford, 


' 


202 


History  of  Erie  County. 


Conn.  On  locating  at  the  county  seat  of  Erie  county  Mr.  Wildman  read  law 
with  Francis  D.  Parish  for  about  one  year,  and  was  admitted  to  the  bar  at 
Mansfield  September  17,  1849. 

During  the  thirty-nine  years  of  Mr.  Wildman’s  professional  life  in  San- 
dusky city  he  has  not  been  without  some  political  ambition.  In  1851  he  was 
elected  mayor  of  the  city;  from  1856  to  1859  he  was  a member  of  the  board 
of  education,  and  from  1870  to  1879  he  filled  the  position  of  city  solicitor.  It 
was  during  the  latter  period  that  the  most  important  local  improvements  were 
made,  and  the  duties  of  his  office  were  indeed  onerous. 

Jacob  A.  Camp.  Mr.  Camp  was  born  at  Buffalo,  Erie  county,  N.  Y.,  on 
the  20th  of  July,  1823,  and  came  to  Sandusky  at  the  age  of  eleven  years. 
His  father  was  Major  John  G.  Camp,  than  whom,  in  connection  with  the  early 
land  transactions  of  the  vicinity,  no  man  bore  a more  active  part.  Jacob  A. 
Camp  was  graduated  from  Kenyon  College,  at  Gambier,  after  a regular  classi- 
cal course,  in  the  year  1847.  In  1848  he  entered  Harvard  Law  School  and 
remained  there  two  terms,  after  which  he  read  law  in  the  office  of  Reber  & 
Camp,  at  Sandusky,  and  w’as  admitted  to  the  bar  in  1850  or  1851.  He  prac- 
ticed until  the  breaking  out  of  the  war  of  1861— 65,  when  he  was  made  pay- 
master and  so  continued  in  the  service  of  the  government  until  November, 
1865,  when  he  returned  to  his  professional  work  at  Sandusky.  About  four 
years  ago  Mr.  Camp  retired  from  active  practice,  still  retaining,  however,  an 
office  in  the  city. 

Jabez  G.  Bigelow  has  been  a member  of  the  Erie  county  bar  since  the  year 
1852.  He  was  a student  in  the  office  of  L.  S.  Beecher- for  two  years  prior  to 
his  admission  to  practice. 

Mr.  Bigelow  was  born  in  New  Lebanon,  N.  Y.,  on  the  7th  of  March,  1822. 
His  father  was  a farmer  by  occupation,  and  the  family,  during  the  childhood 
of  our  subject,  emigrated  from  the  Empire  State  to  Michigan,  but  died  after  a 
residence  in  the  latter  State  of  a few  years.  Young  Bigelow  then  started  out 
to  make  his  own  way  in  life.  He  worked  on  a farm  and  attended  school 
when  an  opportunity  offered.  In  1844  he  entered  Oberlin  College  and  re- 
mained through  his  junior  year,  after  which  he  came  to  Sandusky  city  and 
commenced  a course  of  law  study  in  the  office  of  L.  S.  Beecher.  In  1852  he 
was  admitted  to  practice  and  at  once  opened  an  office  in  the  city,  where  he 
has  since  made  a residence.  Mr.  Bigelow  was  appointed  the  first  revenue 
assessor  of  this  district,  about,  or  soon  after  the  breaking  out  of  the  war,  and 
served  in  that  capacity  until  the  war  closed.  He  has  been  no  aspirant  for 
political  preferment  although  at  one  time  he  was  a member  of  the  city  council. 
Of  late  years  he  has  retired  from  the  active  work  of  the  profession. 

Arthur  Phinney  was  born  in  the  Pine  Tree  State,  Maine,  at  Gorham,  on  the 
28th  of  March,  1837.  At  the  age  of  twenty-one  he  took  a preparatory  course 
at  Andover,  Mass.,  for  one  year,  after  which  he  entered  Dartmouth  College 


The  Bench  and  Bar. 


203 


and  remained  there  one  year.  He  then  left  and  entered  Yale  College  for  a 
regular  collegiate  course,  being  received,  on  account  of  his  advanced  standing, 
into  the  sophomore  class.  From  Yale  Mr.  Phinney  was  graduated  with  the 
class  of  ’64,  after  which  he  entered  the  scientific  department  of  the  sanitary 
commission,  under  Prof.  B.  A.  Gould,  and  was  engaged  in  the  recruiting  de- 
partment for  the  navy  in  New  York  city,  but  one  year  later  was  transferred  to 
Washington  and  Alexandria,  where  he  remained  until  late  in  the  summer  of 
1865.  In  August  of  the  last  named  year  he  assumed  charge  of  the  Chester 
Academy,  Orange  county,  N.  Y.,  succeeding  Prof.  Edward  Orton,  the  geolo- 
gist, now  of  Ohio,  but  who  was  former  principal  of  the  academy.  In  the  fall 
of  1867  Mr.  Phinney  came  to  Sandusky  to  take  charge  as  principal  of  the 
High  School,  which  position  he  held  until  the  spring  of  1870,  when  he  re- 
signed. He  then  became  a student  at  law  in  the  office  of  Homer  Goodwin, 
esq.,  where  he  remained  one  year,  after  which  he  entered  the  law  department 
of  the  University  of  Michigan,  at  Ann  Arbor,  but  was  not  graduated  from  that 
institution.  At  Columbus,  on  the  3d  of  December,  1872,  he  was  admitted  to 
practice. 

The  next  year  he  formed  a law  partnership  with  Judge  S.  F.  Taylor,  of 
Sandusky,  and  so  remained  associated  until  the  death  of  Mr.  Taylor  in  1SS2. 
In  1884  the  present  law  firm  of  Phinney  & Curran  was  formed. 

Samuel  C.  Wheeler  was  born  in  Fairfield  county,  this  State,  on  the  16th  of 
September,  1828.  At  the  age  of  fifteen  he  commenced  alone  to  fight  the  bat- 
tle of  life,  and  being  dependent  for  a livelihood  upon  what  he  could  earn,  his 
early  education  was  necessarily  limited.  He  learned  the  trade  of  a saddler 
and  worked  at  it  for  some  years.  In  1853  he  came  to  Sandusky  and,  follow- 
ing the  advice  of  A.  W.  Hendry,  became  a law  student  in  the  office  of  that 
gentleman.  After  a course  of  study  of  three  years  duration  he  was,  in  the 
year  i860,  admitted  to  practice. 

On  the  3d  of  June,  1861,  Mr.  Wheeler  enlisted  in  Company  E,  of  the 
Seventh  Ohio  Infantry,  and  served  with  that  regiment  until  at  the  battle  at 
Port  Republic,  Va.,  on  the  9th  of  June,  1862,  he  was  wounded.  He  then  re- 
turned to  Sandusky,  but  was  not  discharged  from  the  service  until  March  26, 
*863.  Some  years  later  he  again  resumed  practice  and  has  so  continued  to 
the  present  time. 

Lewis  H.  Goodwin.  Major  Goodwin  was  born  in  Burton,  Geauga  county, 
O.,  on  the  29th  of  December,  1833.  He  was  educated  in  the  schools  of  the 
county,  and  at  the  age  of  sixteen  entered  the  Western  Reserve  College  at 
Hudson,  but  at  the  end  of  his  sophomore  year  the  college  was  broken  up  on 
Account  of  a difficulty  between  the  president  and  faculty.  He  then  taught 
school  in  Geauga  county  for  some  months,  after  which  he  entered  the  junior 
class  of  Marietta  College,  from  which  institution  he  was  graduated  in  1854, 
receiving  the  degree  of  Bachelor  of  Arts. 


204 


History  of  Erie  County. 


After  graduation  Mr.  Goodwin  came  to  Sandusky  and  became  a law  stu- 
dent in  the  office  of  his  brother,  Homer  Goodwin,  esq.,  where  he  remained 
until  April,  1856,  when  he  was  admitted  to  practice.  He  then  went  to  Wabash, 
Ind.,  where  he  practiced  law  for  something  like  sixteen  years,  and  until  the 
outbreak  of  the  war. 

In  September,  1861,  Mr.  Goodwin  enlisted  as  a private  in  Company  B of 
the  Forty-seventh  Indiana  Infantry,  but  while  in  camp  and  before  going  to 
the  front  he  was  elected  to  the  captaincy  of  the  company.  He  served  in  this 
capacity  until  October  following,  when  he  was  advanced  to  the  rank  of  major. 
At  the  battle  of  Champion’s  Hill,  May  16,  1863,  Major  Goodwin  was  wounded, 
but  did  not  retire  from  the  service. 

In  the  winter  of  1863,  his  ranking  officers  being  temporarily  absent,  Major 
Goodwin  veteranized  the  regiment,  and  this  was  among  the  very  first  of  the 
regiments  engaged  in  the  service  that  were  made  veterans.  In  the  month  of 
December,  1864,  our  subject  was  mustered  out  of  sendee,  after  which  he  re- 
turned to  Wabash  and  resumed  the  practice  of  law,  which  he  continued  until 
1874,  at  which  time,  on  account  of  the  fact  that  the  climate  disagreed  with  his 
family’s  health,  he  removed  to  Sandusky  and  formed  a law  partnership  with 
his  brother,  Homer  Goodwin,  esq.,  of  that  city.  In  1886  Linn  W.  Hull  came 
into  the  firm,  which  is  now  styled  Goodwin,  Goodwin  & Hull. 

Frederick  W.  Cogswell.  The  subject  of  this  brief  sketch  was  a native  of 
the  “Nutmeg”  State  of  Connecticut,  and  was  born  at  Woodbury,  Litchfield 
county.  His  early  education  was  received  in  the  common  schools  and  the 
academy,  after  which,  in  1843,  he  entered  Yale  College  for  the  full  course,  and 
was  graduated  therefrom  with  the  class  of  1847,  an<d  this  notwithstanding  the 
fact  that  during  this  term  he  was  prevented  by  sickness  from  prosecuting  his 
studies  one  full  year. 

In  1848  Mr.  Cogswell  became  a law  student  in  the  office  of  Hon.  Gideon 
Hall,  of  Winsted,  Conn.,  and  so  remained  about  one  year,  when  he  was  com- 
pelled by  ill-health  to  retire.  He  then  came  to  Cleveland,  O.,  for  medical 
treatment  at  the  water-cure  in  that  city.  After  about  two  years,  his  health 
being  restored,  Mr.  Cogswell  came  to  Sandusky  and  became  a student  in  the 
office  of  Beecher  & Leonard,  and  afterward  with  Homer  Goodwin,  esq.  At 
Norwalk,  in  the  fall  of  1852,  he  was  admitted  to  the  bar.  He  soon  opened  an 
office  in  Sandusky  and  practiced  continuously  until  the  year  1864,  when  he  en- 
listed in  Company  B of  the  One  Hundred  and  Forty-fifth  Ohio  Infantry.  This 
was  a hundred-day  regiment,  and  with  it  our  subject  served  until  the  term  ot 
enlistment  expired,  holding  during  the  term  a commission  as  second  lieu- 
tenant. 

During  his  years  of  practice  in  Erie  county  Mr.  Cogswell  has  not  been 
without  some  political  holdings.  For  several  years  he  held  the  office  of  city 
clerk;  in  i860  he  was  elected  prosecuting  attorney  for  the  county  and  held 


* - ° 'r“„r 


The  Bench  and  Bar. 


205 


that  office  until  1873,  and  it  was  during  his  incumbency  of  this  office  that  he 
entered  the  United  States  army  service,  leaving  the  work  of  his  office  to  be 
performed  by  a pro  tem.  appointee.  For  a number  of  years  Mr.  Cogswell  has 
held  tne  position  of  United  States  commissioner;  also,  for  many  years  he  was 
one  of  the  cemetery  trustees. 

Aside  from  his  professional  work  he  has  dealt  somewhat  in  real  estate,  and 
is  otherwise  interested  in  the  Kelley’s  Island  Wine  Company,  and  in  the  ice 
business  at  Sandusky. 

Hon.  E.  M.  Colver.  Judge  Colver  was  born  in  the  Empire  State,  but 
while  yet  young  his  parents  moved  to  Ohio  and  took  up  their  residence  at 
Norwalk,  the  county  seat  of  Huron  county.  Here  our  subject  received  his 
early  education — at  the  common  schools  and  academy.  In  the  year  1858 
he  entered  the  law  department  of  the  Cincinnati  College  and  was  graduated  in 
1859.  He  had  read  law  under  the  instruction  of  Hon.  Caleb  B.  Smith,  a 
member  of  Mr.  Lincoln’s  cabinet  during  his  first  administration.  In  April, 
1859,  Mr.  Colver  became  a member  of  the  legal  fraternity,  and  soon  thereafter 
located  for  practice  at  Perrysburg,  Wood  county. 

On  the  2d  of  September,  186-1,  he  was  mustered  into  the  service  as  first 
lieutenant  of  Company  B of  the  Third  Ohio  Cavalry.  From  the  rank  of  lieu- 
tenant he  was,  in  October,  1862,  promoted  to  captain  of  Company  K,  and  as 
such  was  in  command  of  the  Third  Battalion.  In  December,  1863,  he  vet- 
eranized with  the  regiment  while  at  Pulaski,  Tenn.  He  resigned  in  November, 
1864,  and  came  to  Sandusky  city  for  the  purpose  of  recruiting  a cavalry  regi- 
ment under  orders  from  the  war  department.  Others  were  engaged  with 
Captain  Colver  in  this  work,  and  it  was  but  a short  time  before  they  had  en- 
listed a regiment  of  cavalry  thirteen  hundred  strong.  Captain  Colver  did  not 
again  enter  the  service,  but  opened  a law  office  in  Sandusky  city,  where  he 
has  ever  since  resided. 

In  1868  he  was  elected  city  solicitor  and  held  that  position  two  years.  In 
*869  he  was  elected  to  the  office  of  probate  judge  of  the  county,  taking  his 
*eat  in  February,  1870.  He  was  twice  re-elected  and  served  in  all  three  terms 
of  three  years  each.  Upon  the  expiration  of  his  last  term  Judge  Colver  formed 
a law  partnership  with  J.  L.  De  Witt,  which  was  continued  until  the  last  named 
person  was  elected  mayor  of  the  city.  A new  partnership  was  then  formed 
"ith  Philip  C.  Schenkel,  under  the  name  of  Colver  & Schenkel,  but  subse- 
quently Edmund  B.  King  became  one  of  the  firm  and  the  style  was  then 
changed  to  Colver,  Schenkel  & King.  Mr.  Schenkel  died  in  1886,  since  which 
time  the  remaining  partners  have  been  associated  professionally,  and  are  now 
^cognized  as  one  of  the  leading  law  firms  of  the  city  and  county. 

Omar  Bailey  was  born  in  Vermont,  the  Green  Mountain  State,  on  the  iSth 
day  of  December,  1834.  When  less  than  a year  old  his  parents  moved  to 
1 duo,  and  became  residents  of  Lorain  county.  Omar  attended  the  common 


' 


20  6 


History  of  Erie  County. 


schools  of  the  locality  in  which  his  parents  lived,  and  when  of  sufficient  age  he 
entered  Oberlin  College,  where  he  remained  two  years,  but  did  not  gradual 
from  that  institution.  His  early  law  studies  were  prosecuted  in  the  office  of 
Messrs.  Plum  & Plum,  where,  he  read  for  more  than  two  years.  He  was  ad- 
mitted to  the  bar  at  Columbus  on  the  14th  of  December,  1863. 

Mr.  Bailey  practiced  law  for  a few  years  in  Lorain  county,  and  in  the  fall 
of  1868  went  to  Iowa,  where  he  remained  three  years.  On  returning  to  Ohio 
he  opened  an  office  at  Norwalk,  Huron  county,  and  lived  and  practiced  at  that 
place  until  the  month  of  September,  1863,  at  which  time  he  came  to  Sandusky. 
His  practice  is  general,  but  if  there  is  any  class  of  cases  for  which  he  has  a 
preference,  it  is  in  that  branch  of  the  profession  usually  called  criminal  practice. 

John  T.  Beecher,  son  of  Lucas  S.  Beecher,  was  born  in  Sandusky  on  the 
23d  of  July,  1831.  His  early  education  was  obtained  in  the  schools  of  his  na- 
tive town,  after  which  he  attended  the  academy  at  Mt.  Vernon,  O.,  and  still 
later,  for  a time,  Kenyon  College,  at  Gambier,  Knox  county.  His  study  of 
the  law  commenced  almost  at  the  same  time  with  his  education,  but  it  was  not 
until  he  left  Kenyon  College  that  he  became  a regular  law  student  in  the  office 
of  his  father.  He  was  admitted  to  the  bar  on  the  11th  of  October,  1853,  and 
immediately  became  interested  in  his  father’s  practice,  an  association  that  con- 
tinued until  the  death  of  the  latter,  some  few  years  ago. 

In  1883  Mr.  Beecher  formed  a law'  partnership  with  Hon.  Thomas  P.  Finne- 
frock,  of  Fremont,  O.,  which  relation  has  ever  since  been  maintained.  During 
the  years  1879  and  1880  Mr.  Beecher  filled  the  office  of  city  solicitor  of  San- 
dusky. 

Ulysses  T.  Curran.  By  far  the  greater  of  the  years  of  this  man,  since  the 
days  of  youth,  have  been  devoted  to  the  school-room,  either  in  the  capacity 
of  student  or  teacher,  and  it  w'as  not  until  the  year  1884  that  he  beceme  an 
active  member  of  the  legal  profession,  although  he  was  admitted  to  practice  in 
1872. 

Mr.  Curran  was  born  at  Harrisburg,  the  capital  of  the  Keystone  State,  on 
the  7th  day  March,  1834.  His  education  was  obtained  at  the  Miami  Univer- 
sity, at  Oxford  in  this  State,  his  parents  and  family  having  become  residents 
of  Brown  county  in  1840.  He  was  graduated  from  this  institution  in  1856, 
and  then  received  the  degree  of  Bachelor  of  Arts. 

For  the  three  years  next  succeeding  his  graduation  Mr.  Curran  was  en- 
gaged as  assistant  superintendent  of  public  schools  at  Ripley,  in  Brown  county, 
and  at  the  same  time  engaged  in  teaching.  He  then  became  principal  of  the 
academy  at  Harford,  Ohio  county,  Ky.,  and  remained  there  until  the  outbreak 
of  the  war,  when,  from  the  fact  that  he  was  not  in  sympathy  with  the  great  mass 
of  the  people  of  that  State,  he  was  compelled  to  leave,  and  leave  quickly  too. 
From  there  he  moved  to  La  Fayette,  Ind.,  where  he  opened  a select  school, 
but  this  was  not  a successful  enterprise.  During  his  residence  there  Mr.  Cur- 


' 


The  Bench  and  Bar. 


207 


ran  was  constantly  watched,  as  he  was  known  to  have  come  from  Kentucky. 
False  reports  were  circulated  concerning  him,  and  he  was,  for  a long  time,  be- 
lieved to  be  an  emissary  of  the  secessionists,  but  before  leaving  the  place  peo- 
ple became  fully  satisfied  of  his  loyalty  and  integrity.  After  residing  at  La 
Favette  for  about  a year  Mr.  Curran  returned  to  Ohio  and  became  superintend- 
ent of  the  public  schools  of  Middletown,  where  he  remained  for  three  years, 
but  then  went  to  Glendale  and  became  principal  of  the  academy  at  that  place. 
Again  after  another  three  years  had  elapsed  he  established  what  proved  to  be 
a very  successful  school  at  Cincinnati,  for  the  preparation  of  young  men  for 
Harvard  and  Yale  Colleges. 

It  was  during  his  residence  at  Cincinnati  that  Mr.  Curran  read  law  under 
the  direction  of  Major  L.  M.  Hosea,  a leading  attorney  of  that  city.  This  study 
was  supplemented  by  a course  in  the  law  department  of  the  Cincinnati  Univer- 
sity, after  which,  in  1 872,  he  was  admitted  to  practice  in  the  courts  of  the  State. 
Soon  after  this  he  came  to  Sandusky  and  accepted  the  position  of  superintend- 
ent of  the  public  schools,  which  he  held  for  eight  years,  but  on  account  of  the 
adoption  of  certain  books  to  be  used  in  the  schools,  a heated  and  bitter  con- 
troversy was  created,  during  which  our  subject  resigned  his  position.  In  1844 
the  law  partnership  of  Plinney  & Curran  was  formed. 

Horatio  N.  Shipman  was  born  in  the  town  of  Essex,  Chittenden  county, 
Vt.,  on  the  3d  of  June,  1829.  When  he  was  less  than  four  years  of  age  his 
parents  left  Vermont  and  came  to  Trumbull  county,  O. 

The  early  education  of  young  Shipman  was  obtained  at  the  district  schools 
of  the  vicinity  in  which  his  parents  lived,  and  on  account  of  the  need  of  his  ser- 
vice on  the  farm,  his  study  was  limited  to  a small  part  of  the  year.  At  the 
age  of  twenty- five  he  commenced  reading  law  with  Charles  A.  Harring,  of 
Irumbull  county,  but  he  was  soon  obliged  to  withdraw  from  the  office  as  he 
had  not  sufficient  means  to  maintain  himself.  He  then  returned  to  farm  work 
and  devoted  his  leisure  time  to  the  study  of  Blackstone,  Kent  and  Greenley, 
Having  purchased  the  books  for  the  purpose  of  qualifying  himself  for  the  legal 
profession.  In  August,  1854,  he  came  to  Berlinville,  Erie  county,  and  en- 
gaged in  teaching  school  for  a number  of  terms,  but  in  the  fall  of  1S57  he  went 
to  Yorwalk,  where  he  became  a student  in  the  office  of  T.  R.  Strong.  In  June, 
I,'557»he  was  admitted  to  the  bar  and  located  for  practice  at  Milan,  in  this  county. 

In  the  fall  of  1861  Mr.  Shipman  recruited  Company  C,  of  the  Fifty-fifth 
( hiio  Infantry,  and  was  made  its  captain.  He  served  for  about  two  years, 
^ith  the  exception  of  this  time  he  has  been  in  constant  practice  at  Milan. 

Hon.  James  L.  De  Witt,  one  of  the  present  judges  of  the  Common  Pleas 
Court  of  this  subdivision,  was  born  in  Perkins  township,  in  this  county,  on  the 
’°th  of  September,  1848.  He  was  educated  at  the  district  schools  of  Perkins, 
and  at  the  age  of  nineteen  became  a student  at  the  Buckeye  Commercial  Col- 
lc>Se»  at  Sandusky,  where  he  remained  one  winter.  At  twenty  he  attended 


208 


History  of  Erie  County. 


“ Job  Fish’s  School”  at  Berlin  Heights,  in  this  county,  where  he  remained  some 
time.  He  then  taught  school  in  the  county  for  five  or  six  years,  but  between 
terms  attended  Oberlin  College.  While  teaching  he  devoted  his  leisure  to 
reading  elementary  law  works.  He  read  law  regularly  with  Hon.  John  Mackey 
and  with  Homer  Goodwin,  esq.,  and  was  admitted  to  the  bar  at  Sandusky,  in 
March,  1873,  but  devoted  more  time  to  teaching  school  than  to  the  practice 
until  the  year  1875.  The  next  year  Mr.  De  Witt  moved  to  Sandusky,  and 
thenceforth  continued  his  practice  until  the  spring  of  1883,  at  which  time  he 
was  elected  mayor  of  the  city.  In  this  office  he  served  two  terms.  During 
his  second  candidacy  no  nomination  was  made  against  him.  In  the  fall  of 
1886  our  subject  became  the  candidate  of  his  party  ( Democratic)  for  the  of- 
fice of  judge  of  the  Common  Pleas.  He  was  elected  and  assumed  his  duties 
as  such  in  February,  1887. 

Charles  Webb  Sadler  was  born  in  Sandusky,  August  27,  1848.  After  an 
early  education  at  the  Sandusky  High  School,  he,  in  1865,  entered  Kenyon 
College,  and  after  a four  years’  course  was  graduated  thereform  in  1869.  He 
then  read  law  in  the  office  of  his  father,  Hon.  E.  B.  Sadler,  of  Sandusky,  but 
supplemented  his  legal  study  with  a year’s  attendance  at  the  Columbia  Law 
School  of  New  York  city.  In  1875  he  was  admitted  to  the  bar  and  immedi- 
ately commenced  practice  at  Sandusky  city,  in  partnership  with  his  father. 

Cyrus  B.  Winters,  the  present  prosecuting  attorney  for  Erie  county,  became 
a resident  lawyer  of  Sandusky  in  1881,  and  in  the  fall  of  that  same  year  was 
elected  to  the  office  he  now  holds.  His  first  vote  in  the  county  was  cast  at  the 
polls  of  the  election  by  which  he  was  chosen  to  that  office.  His  successor  will 
be  elected  in  November,  1888. 

Mr.  Winters  was  born  in  Sandusky  county  on  the  5th  of  July,  1849.  Aside 
from  a common  school  education  he  was  for  some  time  at  the  Western  Reserve 
Normal  School,  at  Milan,  but  was  not  graduated.  He  then  read  law  with  A. 
B.  Putman,  commencing  in  1873,  and  was  admitted  to  the  bar  in  1876.  From 
this  time  until  about  18S0,  he  was  deputy  clerk  of  the  courts  and  deputy  sher- 
iff of  Sandusky  county,  but  at  the  time  named  he  went  to  Eaton  Rapids,  Mich., 
where  he  practiced  about  one  year.  In  1881  Air.  Winters  came  to  Sandusky 
city,  and  in  the  fall  of  the  same  year  was  elected  public  prosecutor. 

Edmund  B.  King  became  a resident  lawyer  of  Sandusky  in  the  year  1 875 » 
but  his  admission  to  practice  dates  two  years  earlier.  He  is  now  prominently 
connected  with  the  local  military  organization  of  the  city,  being  the  command- 
ant of  the  Sandusky  Guards. 

Mr.  King  was  born  at  Montzelle,  Medina  county,  O.,  on  the  4th  of  July, 
1850.  He  was  brought  up  on  a farm,  at  work  and  attending  school  in  season, 
until  he  reached  the  age  of  twenty.  He  attended  Oberlin  College  one  year 
and  also  Baldwin  University,  at  Berea,  for  two  years. 

From  1871  to  1873  Mr.  King  read  law  with  George  Knapp,  also  Messrs. 


. 


. 


The  Bench  and  Bar. 


209 


Wickham  & Wildman,  of  Norwalk,  but  during  these  years  his  time  was  in  part 
ccupied  in  teaching  school.  In  August,  1873,  at  Elyria,  Lorain  county,  he 
•.  is  admitted  to  the  bar,  and  in  the  fall  of  the  same  year  was  elected  prosecut- 
ing attorney  of  the  county  of  Medina,  but  before  the  expiration  of  his  term  of 
nice  he  resigned  and  came  to  Sandusky  City.  Here  he  formed  a law  part- 
nership with  W.  W.  Bowen,  esq.,  with  whom  he  was  associated  about  two 
years,  after  which  he  became  the  junior  partner  of  the  firm  of  Taylor,  Phinney 
& King.  Three  years  later  the  firm  of  King  & Sloane  was  formed,  and  con- 
tinued five  years.  After  practicing  alone  for  one  year,  Mr.  King  became  one 
of  the  firm  of  Colver,  Schenkel  & King.  Mr.  Schenkel  died  in  1886,  and  the 
firm  then  became  Colver  & King. 

Charles  H.  Cramer  was  born  in  Seneca  county,  O.  He  attended  school 
at  Whitehall,  in  that  county,  and  afterwards  entered  the  college  at  Tiffin  for 
one  year,  but  did  not  graduate.  He  was  admitted  to  practice  at  Mansfield,  O., 
and  became  a resident  of  Sandusky  in  1881,  in  which  city  he  has  since  resided 
and  practiced  the  law. 

Walter  W.  Bowen  was  born  at  Akron,  in  this  State,  in  September,  1849. 
He  was  educated  at  Oberlin  College  and  the  Baldwin  University  ; read  law  in 
the  office  of  Messrs  Walker  & Bailey,  of  Norwalk,  and  was  admitted  to  the  bar 
at  Elyria,  Lorain  county,  in  1873.  The  next  year,  1874,  he  came  to  practice 
in  Sandusky. 

In  1876  Mr.  Bowen  was  elected  as  prosecuting  attorney  of  Erie  county, 
and  filled  that  office  two  years  ; and  again,  from  July,  1880,  to  January,  1881, 
he  held  the  same  position.  In  the  last  named  year  he  was  elected  to  the  office 
ot  city  solicitor,  and  re-elected  at  the  expiration  of  his  first  term. 

Grayson  Mills  was  born  in  the  city  of  Sandusky.  He  was  educated  at 
Kenyon  College,  at  Gambier,  and  graduated  from  the  Columbia  Law  College, 
°f  Kew  York  City,  in  the  year  1876.  For  about  two  years  he  practiced  at 
Cincinnati,  but  came  to  Sandusky  in  1878. 

From  1881  to  1883  Mr.  Mills  filled  the  office  of  prosecuting  attorney  of 
this  county,  and  since  that  time  has  been  engaged  in  the  general  practice. 

John  P.  Stein.  Mr.  Stein  was  born  in  Milan  township  of  this  county,  in 
the  year  1858.  He  was  educated  at  the  Milan  Normal  School,  and  came  to 
Sandusky  and  entered  the  office  of  J.  W.  Tilly,  as  a student  at  law.  This 
course  was  supplemented  by  further  study  in  the  law  department  of  the  Uni- 
versity of  Michigan,  at  Ann  Arbor,  after  which,  in  1881,  he  was  admitted  to 
the  bar.  Two  years  later  he  was  elected  justice  of  the  peace,  the  duties  of 
vhich  office  were  performed  in  connection  with  his  professional  work. 

George  C.  Beis,  the  present  city  solicitor,  of  Sandusky,  was  born  in  Lucas 
-ounty  on  the  12th  of  September,  1861.  His  early  education  was  received  in 
the  common  and  high  schools  of  his  native  county,  after  which  he  became  a 
*,iw  student  in  the  office  of  Scribner,  Hurd  & Scribner,  of  Toledo.  He  after- 


' 


210 


History  of  Erie  County. 


ward  attended  the  University  of  Michigan,  and  was  graduated  with  the  class 
of  1883.  1°  the  same  year  he  came  to  Sandusky  and  opened  an  office  for 
practice.  In  the  spring  of  1885  Mr.  Beis  was  elected  city  solicitor,  and  re- 
elected in  1887. 

Linn  W.  Hull,  the  junior  partner  of  the  law  firm  of  Goodwin,  Goodwin  & 
Hull,  is  a native  of  this  county,  born  in  Perkins  township  April  9,  1856.  He 
was  educated  at  Oberlin  and  Union  Colleges  and  at  Cornell  University,  but 
was  not  graduated  from  either  of  these  institutions.  He  took  a course  at  the 
law  school  at  Cincinnati,  and  was  graduated  in  1883  and  admitted  to  practice 
Prior  to  that  time  he  had  read  law  with  Taylor  & Finney,  also  Homer  and 
Lewis  H.  Goodwin,  of  Sandusky  City.  In  1886  Mr.  Hull  became  a partner  in 
the  present  firm. 

Fred  Reinheimer  was  born  in  Sandusky  in  1843.  During  the  war  he  en- 
listed in  the  Eighth  Infantry  and  still  later  in  the  Third  Cavalry.  He  read  law 
in  the  office  of  J.  G.  Bigelow,  and  was  admitted  to  practice  in  1873,  since  which 
time  he  has  practiced  in  Sandusky. 

Hewson  L.  Peeke  was  born  at  South  Bend,  Ind.,  April  20,  1861.  He 
graduated  from  the  Chicago  High  School  in  1878,  after  which  he  entered  Wil- 
liams College,  and  was  graduated  therefrom  in  1882.  He  then  read  law  with 
Tagert  & Cutting,  of  Chicago,  for  one  year,  after  which  he  went  to  Dakota 
and  practiced  law  for  a time.  In  1883  he  returned  east  and  read  law  with 
Homer  Goodwin,  esq.,  of  Sandusky,  and  was  admitted  to  practice  in  January, 
1885.  He  located  at  Sandusky. 

Mr.  Peeke  is  a strong  Prohibitionist.  He  was  the  candidate  of  the  Prohi- 
bitionists for  common  pleas  judge  in  1886,  and  again  the  candidate  of  the  same 
party  for  circuit  judge  in  the  fall  of  1887. 

William  A.  Childs  was  born  in  this  State  November  2,  1857  ; read  law  in 
the  office  of  Hon.  Allen  M.  Knox,  of  Conneaut,  after  which  he  entered  the 
Albany  Law  School,  at  Albany,  N.  Y.,  and  was  graduated  in  February,  1S80. 
During  the  same  month  he  was  admitted  to  practice  in  Ohio.  For  a time  he 
practiced  at  Conneaut  and  came  to  Erie  county,  locating  at  Vermillion,  in  iSSr. 
He  has  twice  been  elected  justice  of  the  peace,  and  also  served  two  years 
mayor  of  Vermillion. 

W.  B.  Starbird,  the  present  associate  editor  of  the  Milan  Advertiser , was 
born  in  New  York  State.  He  commenced  the  study  of  the  law  at  the  age  of 
nineteen  years,  and  was  admitted  to  the  bar  at  the  age  of  twenty-four.  He 
commenced  practice  in  1882,  but  in  connection  with  it,  has  for  the  last  three 
years  held  the  position  of  associate  editor  of  the  Advertiser. 

Among  tlie  members  of  the  Erie  county  bar,  there  may  be  mentioned  the 
names  of  others  who  have  been  in  active  practice  during  the  few  years  last 
past,  but  whose  efforts  are  now  directed  in  other  channels  of  trade  or  profes 
sion : Thomas  M.  Sloane,  Gottlieb  Stroebel,  Benjamin  F.  Lee,  Charles  L.  Hub- 


' 

^ U lo  lira  •HJ  n; 


The  Medical  Profession. 


21  i 

bard,  Rush  R.  Sloane,  Lester  Hubbard,  C.  C.  Bittner,  H.  S.  Kellogg,  Herman 
Ohlv,  now  in  an  insane  asylum  ; and  possibly  a few  others  whose  names  can- 
not now  be  recalled. 


CHAPTER  XVI. 

THE  MEDICAL  PROFESSION. 

INTRODUCTORY  observations.1  “ When  we  consider  the  importance  and 
elevated  character  of  the  science  of  medicine  — its  object,  the  preservation 
of  the  health  and  lives,  and  the  healing  of  diseases,  and  the  amelioration  of  the 
physical  and  mental  sufferings  of  our  fellow  human  beings — its  extent  embrac- 
ing a knowledge  of  all  science  — it  is  evident  that  medical  education  should 
engage  the  earnest  attention  of  the  entire  medical  profession.  The  advances 
made  in  all  the  branches  of  knowledge,  and  especially  in  the  science  of  medi- 
cine during  the  past  century,  have  exceeded  in  extent  and  value  those  of  all 
past  ages  ; and  it  is  no  longer  possible  to  compress  its  vast  domain  within  the 
narrow  limits  of  ‘ seven  Professorships'  The  present  age  owes  its  wonderful 
progress  to  experimental  and  scientific  research. 

“ Evolution  and  development  are  the  talismanic  watchwords  of  the  nine- 
teenth century,  and  the  doctrine  is  being  accepted  that  things  in  the  world  do 
srow%  and  are  not  made ; it  is  no  longer  generally  accepted  as  a matter  of 
religious  faith  that  the  universe  was  created  by  supernatural  power,  for  many 
of  our  deepest  thinkers,  men  of  the  most  profound  understanding,  believe  that 
it  has  been  gradually  unfolded  by  the  action  of  natural  causes.  But,  not  wish- 
ing to  be  accused  of  heresy,  it  may  be  stated  that,  whether  the  theory  be 
according  to  Darwin  or  Hackel  or  Spencer,  or  some  other  philosopher,  the 
•uv  will  be  the  same  in  any  case,  and  away  back,  behind  ‘protoplasm,’  ‘ger- 
minal matter,’  and  ‘cellular  germ'  there  exists  abundant  proof  of  a ‘ First 
Lreat  Cause,’  of  an  ‘ Infinite  wisdom,’  for  the  depth  of  which,  language  has  no 
-xpression.  A great  flood  of  light  on  this  subject  is  now  pouring  forth  on 
the  world,  but  its  acceptation  as  a convincing  truth  rests  in  a great  measure 
"'holly  with  the  individual.” 

“The  world,”  says  Goethe,  “ is  not  so  framed  that  it  can  keep  quiet.”  All 
the  natural  energies  are  brought  into  full  force  by  the  spirit  of  enterprise,  by 
the  spirit  of  progress.  The  telegraph  wires  wipe  out  all  territorial  boundaries, 
and  railways  penetrate  the  utmost  confines  of  the  earth,  and  by  them  States 
•*nd  territories  are  bound  fast  together  in  one  web. 


From  selected  sketches.  “ Qui  facit  per  alium,  facit  per  se." 


. 


b/-on 

■ '«  V 


212 


History  of  Erie  County. 


“ The  Bible,”  says  Gail  Hamilton,  “is  full  of  excellent  precepts,  and  ti. 
world  is  full  of  bad  examples.  If  a man  smite  us  on  the  right  cheek,  we  — 
lcnock  him  down.  If  a man  sues  us  at  law,  we  stand  suit,  and  if  he  would  bor- 
row  of  us  we  promptly  turn  away,  unless  he  can  give  ample  security.” 

Science  and  enterprise  have  spanned  the  continent  with  electric  wires, 
cabled  the  Atlantic  Ocean,  given  us  the  measurements  of  revolving  planer 
spread  forth  the  canvas  to  the  gale,  and  made  the  trackless  ocean  a high  wav 
through  the  world.  By  the  use  of  scientific  and  cunningly  devised  instru- 
ments bleak  skies  and  rude  winds  are  foreseen,  and  the  navigator  places  him 
in  safety.  The  electric  light  has  displaced  gas  as  effectually  as  the  latter  did 
the  “ tallow  dip,”  and  is  established  upon  a secure  commercial  basis.  School- 
houses,  churches,  newspapers,  and  books  open  up  to  the  poorest  the  lights 
and  opportunities  of  knowledge. 

The  wealth  of  nations  increases  and  we  see  all  the  arts  of  life  approachin 
nearer  and  nearer  perfection.  In  science,  art  and  literature  each  succeedin 
generation  is  wiser  than  its  predecessor.  The  mistakes  of  past  experience 
serve  as  beacon-lights  to  warn  us  off  the  rocks  of  error  and  lead  us  to  the  port 
of  truth. 

The  great  and  wide  advancement  in  the  different  branches  of  medical 
science  within  the  last  generation  is  as  much  a marvel  as  the  progress  made  in 
any  other  of  the  arts  and  sciences.  The  poorest  laborer  can  now  obtain  ad- 
vice and  medicine  far  superior  to  that  which  royalty  could  command  one  or 
two  centuries  ago. 

“ The  advance  in  medical  knowledge  within  one's  memory,”  says  Sir  James 
Paget,  “ is  amazing,  whether  reckoned  in  the  wonders  of  science  not  yet  ap- 
plied, or  in  practical  results,  in  the  general  lengthening  of  life,  or,  which  is 
still  better,  in  the  prevention  and  decrease  of  pain  and  misery,  and  in  the  in- 
crease of  working  power. 

“ The  dawning  of  medical  science,  which  now  sheds  its  light  through  the 
world,  began  with  Hippocrates  nearly  twenty-three  hundred  years  ago,  and 
he  first  treated  of  medicine  with  anything  like  sound  or  rational  principle-. 
He  wrote  extensively,  much  of  which  has  been  translated,  and  serves  as  a 
foundation  for  the  succeeding  literature  of  the  profession.  He  relied  chiefly 
upon  the  healing  powers  of  nature,  his  remedies  being  exceedingly  simple 
He  taught  that  * the  people  ’ ought  not  to  load  themselves  with  excrements, 
or  keep  them  in  too  long;  and  for  this  reason  he  prescribed  ‘ meats  proper  for 
loosening  the  belly,’  and  if  these  failed  he  directed  the  use  of  the  clysters. 

“Three  hundred  years  before  Christ,  Erasistratus  invented  and  used  the 
catheter,  introduced  the  tourniquet,  and  produced  an  instrument  for  lithotrip tic 
operations.  Celsus  flourished  A.  D.  50  to  120  as  the  greatest  of  Roman  sur- 
geons. 

“Through  the  centuries  from  the  beginning  of  the  Christian  era  down  to 


t/j  L 0 


The  Medical  Profession. 


213 


♦ ;c  time  of  the  discovery  of  the  circulation  of  the  blood  by  Harvey,  1619, 
-.rdicine  shed  but  a glimmering  light  in  the  midst  of  the  darkness  then  en- 
shrouding the  world,  and  the  greatest  strides  in  the  advancement  of  the  vari- 
ous branches  of  medical  science  have  been  made  in  the  last  one  hundred 
vears,  and  most  of  them  may  be  placed  to  the  credit  of  the  last  half  century. 

44  Physiologists  no  longer  believe  with  Paracelsus  in  the  sixteenth  century, 
that  the  planets  have  a direct  controlling  action  upon  the  body,  the  sun  upon 
the  heart,  and  the  moon  upon  the  brain ; nor  do  they  now  believe  that  the 
\ital  spirits  are  prepared  in  the  brain  by  distillation  ; nor  do  they  admit  that 
the  chyle  effervesces  in  the  heart  under  the  influence  of  salt  and  sulphur,  which 
take  fire  together  and  produce  the  vital  flame.  On  the  contrary  modern  physi- 
ology teaches  that  the  phenomena  of  the  living  body  are  the  result  of  physical 
and  chemical  changes ; the  temperature  of  the  blood  is  ascertained  by  the 
thermometer,  and  the  different  fluids  and  gases  of  the  body  are  analyzed  by 
the  chemist,  giving  to  each  its  own  properties  and  function. 

“ While  the  eighteenth  century  witnessed  greater  advancement  in  the  de- 
partment of  medical  science  than  any  or  all  its  predecessors,  the  crowning 
achievements  seem  to  have  been  reserved  for  the  nineteenth  — the  present 
century.  Among  the  thousands  of  elements  that  comprise  this  century’s 
advance  in  medical  science  mention  will  be  made  of  but  one,  and  that  among 
the  first  discoveries,  i.  e.,  the  use  of  anesthetics,  which  benumb  the  nerves  of 
sensation,  and  produce  a profound,  but  transient  state  of  insensibility,  in 
which  the  most  formidable  operation  may  be  performed  while  the  patient  sleeps 
and  dreams  of  home  and  happy  hours,  and  the  physician  is  left  to  the  pleasing 
reflection  that  he  is  causing  no  pain  or  suffering.” 

But  it  appears  that  as  rapid  as  has  been  this  advance  during  the  last  hun- 
dred years,  so,  correspondingly,  have  there  developed  new  forms  and  phases 
of  disease  to  baffle  the  skill  of  the  most  eminent  physicians  and  scientists  in 
the  land ; and  while  diseases  malarious  in  their  character,  have  for  a time  de- 
fied the  attempts  to  overcome  them,  they  have,  nevertheless,  been  subdued 
^nd  conquered.  Medical  skill  has  proved  equal  to  every  emergency. 

There  is,  to-day,  known  to  botanists  over  one  hundred  and  forty  thousand 
p’ants,  a large  proportion  of  which  are  being  constantly  added  to  the  already 
appalling  list  of  new  remedies.  Many  of  these  new  drugs  possess  little,  if  any 
•irtue,  save  as  their  sale  adds  to  the  exchequer  of  some  enterprising  pharma- 
Cl*t  A drug  house  of  this  State  recently  issued  a circular,  in  which  they  ad- 
vertised 33  syrups,  42  elixirs,  93  solid  extracts,  150  sugar-coated  pills,  236 
tinctures,  245  roots,  barks,  herbs,  seeds  and  flowers,  322  fluid  extracts  and  34S 
k’cneral  drugs  and  chemicals. 

“ The  ancients  were  not  so  well  supplied  with  drugs.  It  was  the  custom 
am°ng  the  Babylonians  to  expose  the  sick  to  the  view  of  passengers,  in  order 
<o  learn  of  them  whether  they  had  been  afflicted  with  a like  distemper,  and 
28 





■ 


■ 


214 


History  of  Erie  County. 


by  what  remedies  they  had  been  cured.  It  was  also  the  custom  of  those  day- 
for  all  persons  who  had  been  sick,  and  were  cured,  to  put  up  a tablet  in  the 
temple  of  Esculapius,  wherein  they  gave  an  account  of  the  remedies  that  had 
restored  them  to  health.  Prior  to  the  time  of  Hippocrates  all  medicine  was  in 
the  hands  of  priests,  and  was  associated  with  numerous  superstitions,  such  as 
sympathetic  ointments  applied  to  the  weapon  with  which  a wound  was  made, 
incantations,  charms,  amulets,  the  royal  touch  for  the  cure  of  scrofula,  human 
or  horse  flesh  for  the  cure  of  epilepsy,  convulsions  treated  with  human  brainy 

“ While  all  this  credulous  superstition  of  early  ages,  born  of  ignorance,  ex- 
isted to  a vastly  large  extent,  it  has  not  been  fully  wiped  out  by  the  generally 
advanced  education  of  the  present  day.  The  latest  appeal  to  the  credulity  of 
the  masses  of  the  people  is  an  invention  to  relieve  the  unfortunate  sick,  and  is 
known  as  ‘ the  Faith  Cure.’  The  persons  seeking  to  popularize  this  means 
of  cure  are  either  deceived  themselves,  or  are  deceiving  others.  Upon  this 
point  says  a popular  writer:  If  the  disease  be  an  incurable  one,  all  the  prayers 
in  the  world  will  not  cure  it.  Filth  brings  fever  ; prayer  cannot  interpose. 

“There  is  probably  no  department  of  medicine  at  the  present  time  more 
promising  of  good  results  than  is  sanitary  science.  While  physiology  and 
pathology  are  making  known  to  us  the  functions  of  the  human  body,  and  the 
nature  and  cause  of  disease,  sanitary  science  is  steadily  teaching  how  the 
causes  of  disease  may  be  removed  or  avoided,  and  health  thereby  secured. 
This  knowledge  is  of  the  greatest  practical  importance  to  all,  and  especially  to 
the  people  of  this  county  where,  upon  not  less  than  four  occasions,  have  there 
been  visitations  of  the  dreaded  cholera,  and,  save  upon  the  first  of  these,  swept 
the  inhabitants  away  like  chaff  before  the  wind.  But  the  probabilities  of  a 
future  cholera  epidemic  are  very  materially  lessened  by  the  greatly  improved 
sanitary  condition  of  Sandusky  in  the  introduction  of  a complete  system  of 
trunk  and  lateral  sewers,  and  the  provision  of  an  excellent  water  supply,  by 
which  the  use  of  the  old  wells  was  discarded,  and  the  sewage  matter  carried 
by  force  of  the  water  to  points  beyond  the  possibility  of  injury. 

“ Progress  during  the  coming  one  hundred  years,  if  only  equal  to  that  of 
the  past,  will  more  than  have  accomplished  great  works  in  the  advancement  of 
sanitary  science ; but  the  accomplishment  of  this  work  calls,  not  only  for  the 
labor  of  the  physician,  but  for  the  intelligent  co-operation  of  the  people.  The 
physician  cannot  do  it  alone.  If  anything  really  great  is  to  be  done  in  the  way 
of  sanitary  improvement,  and  of  preventing  disease  and  death,  it  must  be  done 
largely  by  the  people  themselves.  This  implies  that  they  must  be  instructed 
in  sanitary  matters.  They  must  be  taught  what  unsanitary  conditions  favor 
the  origin  of  disease,  how  disease  is  spread,  and  the  means  of  its  prevention. 
If  it  is  true  that  that  knowledge  is  of  greatest  value  to  us  which  teaches  the 
means  of  * self  preservation,’  then  the  importance  of  a wide  spread  knowledge 
of  how  to  prevent  disease  and  premature  death  cannot  be  overestimated.” 


The  Medical  Profession. 


215 


The  older  residents  of  this  county  well  remember  the  cholera  scourge  of 
the  years  of  1849,  1852,  and  lastly  in  1859,  and  there  may  be  still  living  a few 
that  can  recall  the  first  visitation  in  1832.  But  then  the  county  had  not  ac- 
quired a sufficient  population  to  make  felt  the  ravages  of  this  disease  in  its 
greatest  severity ; nor  was  there  then  a sufficient  accumulation  of  filth  in 
which  the  germs  of  the  disease  could  breed  and  develop.  But  during  the  years 
1S49,  1852  and  1854  the  scourge  was  indeed  terrible,  and  hundreds  of  per- 
sons fell  victims  to  its  ravenous  greed.  The  medical  force  of  the  county  at 
that  time  was  small,  only  in  proportion  to  the  population,  and  those  here  had 
little  knowledge  of  the  disease  or  of  the  means  of  its  cure  and  prevention. 

Of  the  early  members  of  the  medical  profession  of  Erie  county  only  a tra- 
ditional record  exists.  It  is  one  of  those  classes  of  occupations  that  record  but 
little  of  their  own  history  except  as  shown  by  local  societies  formed  at  different 
times,  and  in  this  county  there  appears  to  have  been  none  organized  prior  to 
the  year  1850. 

The  great  body  of  medical  practitioners  in  Erie  county  may  be  divided  into 
two  classes,  and  known  commonly  as  Allopathic  and  Homeopathic.  The  name 
of  the  former,  however,  is  rarely  applied  by  its  representatives  to  themselves, 
they  claiming  to  be  “regular”  physicians,  and  considering  all  others  as  the  cre- 
ation of  a digression  from  the  true  and  correct  principles  of  medicine  and  prac- 
tice. The  name  Allopath  is  one  applied  by  Homeopathists  to  the  “ regulars  ” 
to  distinguish  them  from  their  own  body.  In  this  chapter  space  is  devoted  to 
each  of  these  branches  of  the  profession. 

Among  the  medical  practitioners  of  Erie  county  there  have,  perhaps,  been 
none  that  attained  a standing  of  special  eminence  in  the  profession,  but  there 
have  been,  and  are  now  to  be  found  in  the  ranks,  men  of  understanding,  men 
ot  science,  men  of  great  mental  and  moral  worth  and  integrity,  whose  influence 
has  been  so  salutary  and  all-pervading  that  the  whole  profession  seems  to  have 
caught  something  of  its  spirit,  and  maintained  a freedom  from  all  unworthy 
methods,  such  as  can  be  found  in  but  few  communities. 

SOME  PIONEER  PHYSICIANS. 

Reliable  information  concerning  the  names  of  the  pioneers  of  the  medical 
profession  in  all  parts  of  Erie,  or  what  afterward  became  Erie  county  is  indeed 
meagre,  and  in  the  following  mention  it  is  more  than  possible  that  some  names 
arc  lacking.  But  from  facts  gleaned  from  all  sources  we  are  enabled  to  furnish 
*he  names  of  several  who  were  identified  with  the  profession  at  a very  early  day. 

The  pioneer  in  the  town  of  Sandusky  was,  unquestionably,  Dr.  George  An- 
uerson,  who  came  to  this  place  from  New  York  State,  and  continued  in  prac- 
:cc  f°r  several  years.  Dr.  Anderson  died  during  the  first  cholera  epidemic. 
^r-  John  W.  Russell  came  to  the  town  in  the  spring  of  1828,  and  left  in  the 
kd  following.  Another  pioneer  in  the  profession  was  Dr.  Jeremiah  S.  Coch- 


' 


216 


History  of  Erie  County. 


ran,  who  came  to  Sandusky  in  1S32,  just  at  the  time  of  the  first  cholera  out- 
break, and  rendered  efficient  service  during  its  continuance.  He  died  in  July, 
1845.  Dr.  Elwood  Stanley  came  here  during  the  cholera  epidemic  of  1849, 
and  rendered  efficient  service  during  that  and  the  subsequent  cholera  periods. 

Waitsell  Hastings  commenced  the  practice  of  medicine  in  Oxford  town- 
ship as  early  as  18 1 1,  but  he  afterward  moved  to  Parkerstown,  a hamlet  of  Gro- 
ton township,  where  he  died.  Dr.  Strong  succeeded  Dr.  Hastings  in  Oxford, 
and  was,  in  turn,  himself  succeeded  by  Dr.  Carpenter.  The  latter  subsequently 
moved  west,  and  Dr.  George  Carpenter  took  his  place.  Dr.  Isaac  Rogers,  a 
Botanical  physician,  also  practiced  in  Oxford.  At  Huron  Dr.  Ansolem  Guth- 
rie located  in  1813,  but  after  four  years  removed  to  Canada.  Dr.  McCrea,  a 
former  resident  of  New  Jersey,  practiced  in  Huron  township  at  a very  early 
day.  Dr.  Charles  H.  Leggett  came  here  in  1830,  and  practiced  at  the  village 
about  two  years.  He  was  drowned  in  the  Huron  River  in  1832.  Dr.  George 
S.  Haskins  settled  at  Huron  in  1832,  and  Dr.  Joseph  Caldwell  in  1833. 

The  first  physician  of  Berlin  township  was  Dr.  George  S.  Baker,  who  locat- 
ed here  in  1822.  Dr.  Xenophon  Phillips,  Dr.  Guthrie,  Dr.  Harkness,  Dr.  Fay, 
Dr.  Daniel  Butler,  also  David  Butler, — the  latter  a “root  and  herb”  physician 
— practiced  here,  but  all  were  not  resident  practitioners.  Among  others  of 
later  years  were  Professor  L.  B.  Hill  and  Dr.  George  S.  Hill.  In  Margaretta, 
Dr.  Hartshorne  established  at  Venice  as  early  as  1817;  Dr.  Samuel  Carpenter 
at  Castalia  in  1824,  and  at  the  same  place  Dr.  M.  J.  Morseman  came  in  1836- 
Drs.  James  F.  Wilson,  R.  C.  Luce  and  J.  D.  McKim  were  also  quite  early  phy- 
sicians of  Margaretta.  Dr.  Strong  seems  to  have  been  the  pioneer  of  the  pro- 
fession in  Vermillion.  Dr.  A.  E.  Merrill,  formerly  probate  judge  of  the  county, 
and  F.  C.  McConnelly  were  settlers  of  a later  day. 

Dr.  George  Hastings  applied  the  healing  art  to  the  people  of  Groton  town- 
ship as  early  as  1810.  He  died  in  1864.  In  Perkins  Dr.  Richard  P.  Christo- 
pher performed  a like  service  commencing  in  1815,  and  in  Milan  were  Drs. 
Goodwin  and  Guthrie. 

THE  MEDICAL  SOCIETIES. 

The  first  steps  looking  to  the  organization  of  a medical  society  were  taken 
while  the  lands  embraced  by  Erie  county  were  included  within  the  territorial 
limits  of  Huron,  and  at  a time  when  the  idea  of  establishing  such  a county  a* 
Erie  was  unconceived.  On  the  10th  of  April,  1824,  an  order  was  promulgated 
by  the  press  (the  old  Clarion ),  which  being  copied  herein  will  fully  explain 
itself. 

“ MEDICAL  Notice. — Pursuant  to  an  act  to  incorporate  medical  societies 
for  the  purpose  of  regulating  the  practice  of  physic  and  surgery  in  this  State, 
I hereby  notify  the  medical  gentlemen,  resident  in  the  counties  of  Richland, 
Huron,  Lorain,  Sandusky  and  Seneca,  that  a meeting  will  be  holden  at  Nor- 
walk, the  last  Tuesday  of  May  next,  at  10  o’clock  A.  M.,  for  the  purpose  of  or- 


* 


The  Medical  Profession. 


217 


<ranizing  a medical  society  agreeable  to  said  act.  It  is  expected  that  there  will 
be  a general  attendance  of  physicians  of  this  district,  as  the  eleventh  section  of 
the  act  provides  that  no  person,  other  than  members  of  one  of  the  medical  so- 
cieties in  this  State,  shall  be  permitted  to  practice  physic  or  surgery  after  the 
1st  of  July  next.  Daniel  Tildex. 

“Norwalk,  April  10,  1824.” 

The  Clarion , in  its  issue  of  June  2d  following,  contains  the  following  report 
relative  to  the  proceedings  had  in  pursuance  of  the  above  notice: 

“Communication.  — Agreeable  to  the  act  on  the  25th  instant,  came  on 
at  Norwalk  the  first  meeting  of  the  Fourteenth  Medical  Society  in  this  State, 
The  meeting  was  full,  and  upon  the  whole  we  were  much  pleased  with  the  re- 
spectable display  of  parchment.  At  three  o’clock  the  gentlemen  proceeded  to 
organize  by  choosing  Dr.  Tilden,  of  Norwalk,  president;  Dr.  Anderson,  of  San- 
dusky, vice-president;  Dr.  Mantor,  of  Elyria,  secretary;  Dr.  Fay,  of  Milan, 
treasurer;  Dr.  Lucas,  of  Uniontown,  Dr.  C.  G.  Miller,  of  Mansfield,  Dr.  Baker, 
of  Florence,  Dr.  Sanders,  of  Peru,  Dr.  Strong,  of  Bloomingviile,  censors. 

Officers  for  1825. — Dr.  Nathan  H.  Mantor,  president;  Dr.  John  B.  Johnson, 
vice-president;  Dr.  Amos  B.  Harris,  secretary ; Dr.  Lyman  Fay,  treasurer;  Dr. 
George  G.  Baker,  Dr.  Moses  C.  Sanders,  Dr.  Daniel  Tilden,  Dr.  Eli  Dresback 
and  Dr.  Charles  E.  Ford,  censors. 

Officers  for  1826. — Dr.  Moses  C.  Sanders,  president;  Dr.  George  Ander- 
son, vice-president;  Dr.  Amos  B.  Harris,  secretary;  Dr.  Lyman  Fay,  treasu- 
rer; Drs.  George  G.  Baker,  Daniel  Tilden,  Nathan  H.  Mantor,  Daniel  Brain- 
ard,  junior,  and  Joel  Luther,  censors. 

Officers  for  1827. — Dr.  Allen  G.  Miller,  president;  Dr.  George  G.  Baker, 
vice-president;  Dr.  A.  B.  Harris,  secretary;  Dr.  Lyman  Fay,  treasurer  ; Drs. 
George  G.  Baker,  William  F.  Kittredge,  Moses  C.  Sanders,  Daniel  Tilden  and 
Eli  Dresback,  censors. 

Officers  for  1828. — Dr.  George  G.  Baker,  president;  Dr.  Moses  C.  Sanders, 
vice-president;  Dr.  Amos  B.  Harris,  secretary;  Dr.  Lyman  Fay,  treasurer;  Drs. 
^ illiam  F.  Kittredge,  Allen  G.  Miller,  Eber  W.  Hubbard,  Moses  C.  Sanders  and 
Daniel  Tilden,  censors. 

Officers  for  1829. — Dr.  Moses  C.  Sanders,  president;  Dr.  Daniel  Tilden, 
vice-president;  Dr.  Amos  B.  Harris,  secretary;  Dr.  Lyman  Fay,  treasurer; 
Drs.  George  G.  Baker,  Nathan  H.  Mantor,  William  F.  Kittredge,  William  W. 
Nugent  and  Henry  Kuhn,  censors. 

At  a meeting  of  the  society  held  in  1830,  a resolution  was  adopted  approv- 
es of  the  efforts  then  being  made  for  the  suppression  of  intemperance.  During 

year  Dr.  George  Anderson  was  the  president,  but  no  further  mention  of 
t:ie  proceedings  of  this  society  are  found,  and  it  is  probable  that  the  organiza- 
tion was  not  maintained  much  later  than  the  year  1S30. 

in  1828  the  practicing  physicians  of  Huron  county  were  as  follows  : George 


2 I 8 


History  of  Erie  County. 


G.  Baker,  Daniel  Tilden,  M.  C.  Sanders,  George  Anderson.  Lyman  Fay,  Will- 
iam F.  Kittredge,  William  W.  Nugent,  Amos  B.  Harris,  H.  M.  Clark,  Joseph 
Pearce,  Andrew  McMillen,  Richard  P.  Christophers,  Samuel  Stephens,  Charles 
Smith,  Samuel  B.  Carpenter,  W.  Merriman,  Lemuel  Powers  and  A.  H.  Brown; 
and  inasmuch  as  this  county  was  embraced  within  Huron  at  that  time,  the  phy- 
sicians above  named,  or  part  of  them  at  least,  resided  within  what  afterward 
became  Erie  county. 

ERIE  COUNTY  MEDICAL  SOCIETY. 

The  Erie  County  Medical  Society  was  the  outgrowth  of  a meeting  of  physi- 
cians held  at  Sandusky  on  the  6th  of  April,  1850,  at  the  office  of  Dr.  E.  S.  Lane. 
Of  this  meeting  Dr.  Daniel  Tilden  was  chosen  chairman,  and  Dr.  E.  Lauder- 
dale, secretary.  This  gathering  was  wholly  informal  and  the  main  business 
transacted  was  the  declaration  of  intention  to  organize  the  society,  and  the  ap- 
pointment of  a committee  on  constitution  and  by-laws,  as  follows : Drs.  E.  S. 
Lane,  Robert  R.  McMeens,  C.  Cochran  and  E.  Lauderdale,  of  Sandusky  ; Dr. 
Galpin,  of  Milan  ; Dr.  Caldwell,  of  Huron,  and  Dr.  Wilson,  of  Castalia. 

The  constitution  and  by-laws  were  adopted  and  the  society  organized  on 
the  13th  of  April,  1850.  The  first  officers  were  Dr.  Daniel  Tilden,  president ; 
Dr.  E.  S.  Lane,  secretary.  The  original  members  of  the  society  were  Doctors 
Daniel  Tilden,  sr.,  Aaron  Austin,  E.  S.  Lane,  Robert  R.  McMeens,  E.  Laud- 
erdale, and  Charles  Cochran. 

From  that  time  the  society  received  acquisitions  in  membership  and  was 
productive  of  much  good,  both  to  the  members  and  the  people  of  the  county. 
It  would  be  difficult,  if  not  absolutely  impossible,  to  state  the  numerical  strength 
of  the  society  at  any  time  after  its  full  organization.  As  new  names  were  ad- 
ded :he  persons  respectively  signed  the  “articles  of  faith”  of  the  society,  and 
from  the  roll  thus  formed  we  are  enabled  to  furnish  the  names  of  members  in 
the  order  of  seniority  in  the  society.  In  addition  to  those  whose  names  are 
given  above  the  following  appear  to  have  been,  at  some  time,  received  into 
membership  : Daniel  Tilden,  jr.,  Moses  C.  Hoyt,  Samuel  B.  Carpenter,  jr.,  John 
A.  Blanchard,  Henry  J.  Donahoe,  James  Hitchcock,  H.  S.  Parmenter,  Henry 
D.  Mann,  James  F.  Wilson,  George  \V.  Carpender,  Joel  Morse,  — . Horwitz. 
A.  H.  Agard,  Joseph  Caldwell,  James  D.  McKim,  Philip  Graefe,  J.  E.  Wood- 
bridge,  A.  H.  Rankin,  A.  J.  Gawne,  Elwood  Stanley,  \V.  Graefe,  Leopold  Pape, 
Charles  T.  D.  Gibson,  Carl  Heiter,  T.  S.  Field,  R.  C.  Luce,  F.  C.  McConnelly, 
Samuel  H.  Bassinger,  Michael  A.  Hughes,  P.  H.  Clements.  J.  T.  Cushing, 
George  S.  Haskins,  William  Storey,  T.  M.  Cook,  William  R.  Page,  G.  W 
Decker,  M.  J.  Love,  Rev.  Samuel  Marks,  A.  Szendery,  Alta  F.  Cook,  Charles 
Graefe,  A.  C.  Friend,  W.  D.  Wilson,  L.  S.  Szendery,  R.  L.  McNees,  W.  J.  Esch. 

The  society  continued  in  a prosperous  condition  for  something  over  ten 
years,  until  the  breaking  out  of  the  war,  and  thenceforth  it  seems  to  have  suf- 
fered with  the  general  disintegration,  not  only  of  societies,  but  of  parties  and 


The  Medical  Profession. 


219 


ail  manner  of  civil  associations.  From  1861  to  1870  but  few  meetings  were 
heid  and  no  proceedings  were  entered  on  the  records  of  the  society.  In  1870 
the  society  was  again  brought  together,  mainly  to  take  some  appropriate  action 
upon  the  occasion  of  the  death  of  Dr.  Tilden,  which  occurred  during  that  year, 
but  since  1861  the  society  has  never  been  as  strong  as  at  and  prior  to  that  time. 
It  now  numbers  not  to  exceed  a dozen  active,  working  members.  Its 
present  officers  are  as  follows : Dr.  William  Graefe,  president ; Dr.  Elwood 
Stanley,  first  vice-president  ; Dr.  W.  J.  Esch,  second  vice-president ; Dr.  Al- 
ta F.  Cook,  secretary  and  treasurer.  According  to  the  record  of  medical  so- 
cieties of  the  State  for  the  year  1887,  the  following  persons,  physicians,  are 
members  of  the  Erie  County  Society  : T.  M.  Cook,  Alta  F.  Cook,  William  J. 
Esch,  William  Graefe,  Charles  Graefe,  Ralph  W.  Nfees,  Alvis  Szendery,  Louis 
Szendery,  Elwood  Stanley,  Carl  Tuttle. 

THE  BAY  CITY  MEDICAL  SOCIETY. 

This  organization,  the  junior  of  its  class  in  the  county,  was  formed  in  the 
spring  of  1878,  and  was  made  up  in  part  of  members  of  the  older  society  just 
before  mentioned.  During  the  ten  years  of  its  existence  the  Bay  City  Med- 
ical Society  has  never  been  strong  in  point  of  membership,  and  it  numbers  now 
but  eight  members,  as  follows  : Henry  J.  Donahoe,  A.  J.  Gawne,  E.  J.  Good- 
sell,  Carl  Heiter,  M.  J.  Love,  F.  C.  McConnelly,  William  Storey,  and  L.  Szen- 
dery. Its  officers  are  A.  J.  Gawne,  president ; F.  C.  McConnelly,  vice-presi- 
dent; E.  J.  Goodsell,  secretary  and  treasurer. 

HOMEOPATHY. 

It  is  a trite  saying  that  the  improvements,  inventions  and  discoveries  of  the 
last  fifty  years  exceed  both  in  number  and  importance  all  that  had  been  ac- 
complished for  many  centuries  before.  Admitting  this  to  be  true,  it  may  be 
said  that  in  no  department  of  human  knowledge  have  greater  advances  been 
roade  than  in  medicine. 

To  affirm  that  all  the  different  theories  on  the  subject  of  the  best  methods 
treating  disease  are  alike  valuable,  would  betray  ignorance,  if  nothing  worse; 
to  deny  that  each  or  any  of  the  theories  had,  in  at  least  a limited  degree,  some 
practical  value,  would  not  only  convict  the  individual  of  ignorance,  but  be  an 
assumption  of  wisdom  that  only  bigots  would  claim,  and  even  credulity  could 
hardly  admit. 

Among  the  systems  or  theories  on  the  subject  of  curing  the  sick  that  have 
received  recognition  and  practical  application  in  this  country  within  the  last 
rffty  years,  is  that  known  as  homeopathy.  An  enthusiastic  believer  in  the  law 
-1  cure  expressed  in  the  legend  “ Si  inilia  Similibus  Curantur"  once  undertook 
t0  enforce  the  truth  and  value  of  this  system,  by  asserting  that  the  law  on  which 
rested  proceeded  directly  from  the  throne  of  God.  A “ doubting  Thomas  ” 


' 


220 


History  of  Erie  County. 


to  whom  the  remark  was  addressed,  replied  that  the  endorsement  of  a patent 
by  the  Almighty  was  usually  considered  sufficient,  but  as  there  is  a very  gener- 
ally accepted  opinion  among  the  best  informed  people  that  about  all  the  laws 
that  govern  this  world,  or  effect  its  inhabitants,  proceed  from  the  same  source, 
there  does  not  seem  to  be  any  peculiar  importance  conferred  upon  the  system, 
in  virtue  of  its  origin. 

That  the  law  of  cure  expressed  by  the  above  legend,  when  honestly  and 
absolutely  followed,  will  cure  disease,  restore  the  sick  to  health,  is  a fact  as  well 
attested  as  any  statement  resting  on  human  testimony,  and  is  capable  of  dem- 
onstration on  precisely  the  lines  of  argument  and  proof  whether  pathological 
or  dynamic,  that  apply  to  all  other  restorative  methods,  or  medical  dogmas 
of  the  age.  The  history  of  the  introduction  of  homeopathy  into  this  city,  and 
the  experience  of  the  pioneers  of  the  practice,  are  not  peculiar  or  specially  note- 
worthy, unless  it  be  in  the  fact  that  its  advent  was  welcomed  by  a few  influen- 
tial friends  and  supporters  who,  after  forty  years  of  experience,  are  still 
numbered  among  the  patrons  of  the  system  whose  birth  and  baptism  they 
helped  to  celebrate.  Thirty-four  years  ago  Sandusky  had  one  homeopathic 
physician  ; now  there  are  six.  Then  there  were  seven  thousand  inhabitants ; 
now  we  have  twenty-three  thousand.  The  entire  yearly  receipts  of  the  busi- 
ness of  the  only  homeopathic  physician  in  Sandusky,  in  1854,  was  a little  less 
than  $3,000.  Several  of  those  here  to-day  will  largely  exceed  that  amount  in 
1888.  The  homeopathic  physicians  of  this  city  are  doing  more  business  in 
proportion  to  their  numbers,  than  the  “ old  school.”  They  have  now,  and  have 
always  had  a relatively  large  clientage  among  the  wealthy  and  best  people  of 
the  city.  The  homeopathic  physicians  of  the  city  compare  favorably  with  those 
of  any  city  of  the  same  population  ; not  only  is  the  comparison  favorable  so 
far  as  their  own  school  is  concerned,  but  in  comparison  with  any  other  school. 
The  homeopathic  physicians  in  the  other  parts  of  the  county  would  suffer  no 
loss  by  a similar  comparison,  either  with  their  brethren  in  the  city,  or  with  their 
competitors  of  other  systems  of  practice.  Since  1847  fifteen  homeopathic  phy- 
sicians have  settled  in  this  city  (Sandusky),  of  whom  six  reside  here  now,  and 
are  engaged  in  active  practice.  The  same  number  have  at  different  times  lo- 
cated in  other  parts  of  the  county  ; each  of  the  following  villages  having  at  one 
time  or  other  had  one  or  more  homeopathic  physicians  : Berlin,  Castalia,  Hu- 
ron, Kelly’s  Island,  Put-in  Bay,  Milan  and  Vermillion.  Of  those  who  have  set- 
tled in  the  city  at  different  times,  to  the  present  date,  February,  1888,  only  six 
are  here  now.  Of  the  whole  number,  all  are  still  living  but  two,  Dr.  Henry 
Wigand,  who  died  about  1870,  in  Dayton,  O.,  and  Dr.  D.  T.  Kramer,  who 
died  in  Kansas  two  or  three  years  ago.  The  following  are  the  names  of  the 
different  physicians  and  the  order  of  their  location  in  Sandusky  : Henry  Wigand 
R.  Caulkins,  D.  T.  Kramer,  C.  Hastings,  I.  B.  Massey,  J.  D.  Buck,  L.  L.  Leg- 
gett, E.  Gillard,  G.  A.  Gordon,  C.  E.  Stroud,  S.  A.  Henderson,  D.  Gillard,  Dr 
Newton,  Wm.  Gaylord,  James  Gillard. 


The  Medical  Profession. 


221 


The  first  homeopathic  physician  to  settle  and  practice  in  Erie  county,  O., 
was  Dr.  Henry  Wigand.  He  was  a German  by  birth  ; a man  of  robust  and 
commanding  physique,  pleasing  manners,  scholarly  attainments,  and  very  suc- 
cessful in  his  profession.  He  settled  in  Sandusky  in  1847,  and  remained 
here  until  after  the  cholera  of  1849,  when  he  removed  to  Dayton,  in  this  State. 
He  published  a work  on  practice  in  1856,  which  had  a limited  sale,  but  has 
been  out  of  print  for  many  years.  Dr.  Wigand  came  to  this  city  from  Bos- 
ton. He  was  not  only  the  first  homeopathic  physician  to  settle  in  this  county, 
but  he  represented  that  system  in  its  most  distinctive  characteristics. 

The  next  physician  of  this  school  of  practice  to  locate  in  Sandusky  was 
Dr.  R.  Caulkins,  who  came  in  1848.  He  remained  here  in  practice  until  1850, 
when  he  left  and  returned  again  about  1862  or  ’63.  From  here  he  finally 
moved  to  Toledo,  and  after  a few  years  spent  in  that  city,  went  to  New  York 
State.  He  is  now  in  charge  as  physician  of  one  of  the  hospitals  in  Buffalo,  N. 
V.  Dr.  Caulkins  is  a man  of  pure  life,  devoted  to  his  profession;  very  religious 
in  his  nature  ; honest  in  his  opinions  and  thoroughly  independent  in  asserting 
them,  and  urged  by  his  impulsive  temperament  he  at  times  expressed  himself 
with  a vehemence  and  personality  that  reached  the  very  verge  of  social  pro- 
priety. 

The  next  representative  of  homeopathy  in  this  city  was  Dr.  D.  T.  Kramer. 
He  came  here  from  New  York  State.  He  graduated  from  the  Homeopathic 
College  in  Philadelphia  about  1848  and  located  here  the  same  year.  Dr.  Kra- 
mer was  a man  of  sterling  character,  and  commanded  the  respect  of  all  who 
knew  him.  He  devoted  himself  and  his  utmost  skill  to  the  best  interests  of 
his  patients.  He  believed  most  thoroughly  in  the  law  expressed  in  the  legend 
“ Si  mi  Ha  similibus  curantur ,”  and  as  those  who  knew  him  best  can  testify, 
whatever  professional  success  he  attained  was  the  result  of  a faithful  applica- 
tion of  the  teachings  of  the  founder  of  the  system  he  had  adopted  Home- 
opathy suffered  no  loss  at  Dr.  Kramer’s  hands;  on  the  contrary,  it  grew  in  influ- 
ence, and  its  patrons  increased  in  numbers.  A man  of  modest  and  unaffected 
address,  and  possessing  but  little  personal  magnetism,  his  success  and  popularity 
>A’ere  never  factitious,  but  the  reward  of  true  manhood  and  real  merit.  Dr. 
Kramer  moved  with  his  family  to  Kansas  in  1874,  where  he  died  in  1884.  It 
15  "'ith  sincere  pleasure  that  the  author  of  this  simple  tribute  to  Dr.  Kramer’s 
memory  embraces  this  unexpected  opportunity  to  bear  testimony  to  some  of 
the  many  virtues  of  a man  of  so  few  faults. 

About  1852  a Dr.  Hastings  came  to  this  city,  and  remained  a year  or  two 
4r>d  from  here  went  to  Detroit.  He  never  obtained  much  practice,  and  had 
0nly  a limited  acquaintance,  even  among  the  patrons  of  homeopathy.  Of  his 
Subsequent  history  the  writer  has  no  information. 

In  May,  1854,  Dr.  I.  B.  Massey  came  with  his  family  to  Sandusky  from 
Jefferson  county,  N.  Y.  At  that  time  Dr.  Kramer  was  the  only  homeopathic 
29 


222 


History  of  Erie  County. 


physician  in  the  city;  those  before  mentioned  as  having  been  here,  had  all 
left.  The  first  year  of  his  residence  in  this  city  was  at  the  old  “ Townsend 
House,”  kept  at  that  time  by  R.  D.  McDonald.  In  April,  1855,  he  formed  a 
copartnership  with  Dr.  Kramer,  which  continued  for  three  years ; their  office 
being  most  of  the  time  at  Dr.  Kramer’s  house,  the  present  residence  of  Dr. 
John  A.  Graham.  Dr.  Massey  graduated  from  the  medical  department  of 
New  York  University  in  April,  1846.  The  venerable  Dr.  Valentine  Mott  was 
president  of  the  faculty,  and  professor  of  surgery.  Dr.  Massey  was  in  active 
practice  as  an  allopathic  physician  from  the  time  of  his  graduation  until  he 
came  to  Sandusky ; he  had,  however,  for  two  or  three  years  previous  to  his 
coming  west,  been  investigating  the  claims  of  homeopathy,  and  devoted  most  of 
the  year  of  his  residence  here  before  commencing  practice  with  Dr.  Kramer,  in 
that  gentleman’s  office,  familiarizing  himself  with  the  viateria  medica  and  the- 
rapeutics of  the  system  which  he  had  decided  to  adopt,  and  in  which  practice 
he  is  still  engaged,  having  practiced  thirty-four  years  as  a homeopathist  in 
Sandusky,  and  eight  years  as  an  allopathist  in  New  York.  He  is  therefore 
the  senior  in  actual  age  — having  been  born  January  17,  1821  — as  well  as  in 
years  of  practice,  of  all  the  homeopathic  physicians  of  Erie  county.  Dr.  Mas- 
sey had  for  many  years  a large  and  lucrative  practice,  extending  not  only  over 
Sandusky  city,  but  more  or  less  into  the  different  townships  of  the  county. 
He  was  from  1861  to  1871  physician  to  the  county  infirmary,  a term  of  ten 
consecutive  years.  He  was  also  for  several  years  a member  of  the  board  of 
health,  and  a portion  of  the  time  health  officer  of  the  city.  Admonished  by 
increasing  years  and  the  growing  infirmities  incident  to  long  exposure  in  the 
duties  of  a “ doctor’s  life,”  that  the  call  from  labor  to  “ rest  and  refreshment 
had  sounded,  the  doctor  is  endeavoring  to  enjoy  the  fruits  of  an  active  profes- 
sional career,  among  those  who  remain  of  friends,  patrons,  and  acquaintances, 
extending  over  a period  of  thirty- four  years  — more  than  a “ generation  ot 
time.” 

Dr.  L.  L.  Leggett,  son  of  General  Leggett,  of  Cleveland,  located  here  about 
1870,  and  remained  a year  or  so,  when  he  relinquished  his  profession  and  en- 
gaged with  his  father  in  the  patent  law  business.  Dr.  Leggett  has  the  quali- 
fications that  will  make  him  succeed  in  whatever  he  undertakes.  The  loss  ot 
such  men  to  the  profession  is  a misfortune  to  it  and  the  public. 

The  next  recruit  to  the  ranks  of  homeopathic  physicians  in  Sandusky  was 
Dr.  J.  D.  Buck.  He  was  born  in  Fredonia,  N.  Y.  State,  November  20,  183? 
He  studied  medicine  and  graduated  at  Cleveland  Homeopathic  College  in  the 
spring  of  1864;  commenced  practice  at  Battle  Creek,  Mich.  ; moved  to  San- 
dusky in  the  spring  of  1865,  forming  a copartnership  with  Dr.  D.  T.  Kramer 
In  the  fall  of  1866  he  was  appointed  to  the  chair  of  physiology  in  Cleveland  Ho- 
meopathic College  which  position  he  filled  until  he  removed  to  Cincinnati  in  the 
fall  of  1871,  where  he  helped  to  organize,  in  1872,  the  Pulte  Medical  College  ot 


The  Medical  Profession. 


223 


that  city.  Dr.  Buck  was  for  the  first  eight  or  nine  years  professor  of  physiology 
and  registrar  of  the  faculty.  Since  that  time  he  has  been  dean  and  professor 
of  theory  and  practice  and  clinical  professor  of  throat  and  lung  diseases.  He 
was  president  of  the  State  Homeopathic  Medical  Society  in  1876.  Dr.  Buck 
has  a large  and  lucrative  practice  at  Cincinnati,  and  is  one  of  the  leading  men 
of  the  homeopathic  school  of  the  State.  A man  of  pleasing  address,  robust 
health,  extremely  social  and  attractive  in  his  intercourse  with  his  patients,  and 
the  public  ; studious  by  nature  ; gifted  with  strong  mental  powers,  he  is  an 
honor  to  the  profession  and  would  be  an  ornament  to  any  society  where  his 
lot  might  be  cast. 

Dr.  Geo.  A.  Gordon  succeeded  to  the  practice  of  Dr.  J.  Buck  in  1871,  on 
the  removal  of  that  gentleman  to  Cincinnati,  O.  Dr.  Gordon  was  born  in 
Washington  county,  Pa.,  in  1841.  He  followed  farming  until  the  spring  of 
1864,  when  he  enlisted  as  a soldier  in  the  Union  army  and  remained  until  the 
close  of  the  Rebellion.  He  graduated  from  Iberia  College,  O.,  in  1867,  when 
he  began  reading  medicine  with  R.  B.  Rush,  M.  D.,  of  Salem,  O.  He  gradu- 
ated from  Cleveland  Homeopathic  College  in  February,  1S67,  and  settled  in 
Sandusky  the  following  June,  where  he  is  still  actively  engaged  in  his  profes- 
sion. The  doctor  is  one  of  our  most  popular  and  successful  physicians.  He 
has  few  superiors  as  a prescriber. 

Dr.  Edwin  Gillard  was  born  at  Venice,  Erie  county,  O.,  in  1845  1 attended 
the  High  School  in  this  city;  and  Oberlin  College  ; served  in  the  145th  Ohio 
Volunteer  Infantry,  usually  known  as  the  One  Hundred  Day  troops.  Re- 
turning to  civil  life  he  engaged  in  teaching  school  for  five  years  and  then  en- 
tered Dr.  J.  D.  Buck’s  office  as  a medical  student,  beginning  practice  at  Belle- 
vue in  1870.  In  1871  he  became  a partner  of  Dr.  I.  B.  Massey,  and  attended 
the  Cleveland  Homeopathic  College  where  he  graduated  the  following  year. 
In  1882  he  established  the  sanitarium  at  his  present  location  No.  927  Wash- 
ington street.  Dr.  Gillard  is  favorably  known  as  a practitioner  of  skill,  and 
occupies  a front  rank  among  the  physicians  of  the  city.  As  a student  or  prac- 
Ltioner,  nature  has  endowed  him  with  a degree  of  industry,  perseverance  and 
pluck,  that  when  supplemented  by  adequate  professional  knowledge  always 
constitutes  an  energy  that  thrives  by  opposition  ; and  while  accident  or  supe- 
nor  force  may  hinder  or  delay,  they  seldom  utterly  defeat. 

Dr.  Gillard  was  coroner  of  Erie  county  for  one  term,  and  is  a prominent 
member  of  several  secret  societies. 

Dr.  Clarence  Eugene  Stroud  was  born  in  Bloomfield,  Ontario  county,  N. 

January  14,  1847  ; was  educated  at  Palmyra,  N.  Y.,  and  entered  his  fath- 
?r  s dental  office  in  Sandusky,  in  1865,  where  he  remained  as  student  or  part- 
ncr  until  1871.  Then  he  entered  the  homeopathic  medical  department  of  Micli- 
University  and  remained  one  year,  when  he  entered  the  Detroit  Home- 
°pathic  College,  graduating  in  1872.  His  first  location  in  practice  after  grad- 


■ 


224 


History  of  Erie  County. 


uating,  was  at  Wyandotte,  Mich.,  where  he  remained  one  year.  In  the  spring 
of  1873  he  came  to  Sandusky,  O.  He  was  for  a number  of  years  a member 
of  the  board  of  health  of  Sandusky,  and  was,  during  the  entire  period,  its  effi- 
cient secretary. 

Dr.  Stroud  is  a practical  dentist  and  holds  the  degree  of  doctor  of  dental 
surgery  from  the  Wisconsin  Dental  College,  issued  in  1881.  His  father  and 
only  brother  are  among  the  most  prominent  practitioners  of  dentistry  in  the 
county.  Dr.  Stroud’s  industry  and  constant  devotion  to  his  profession,  have 
achieved  for  him  a measure  of  success,  that  is  the  best  certificate  of  capacity  that 
a doctor  can  desire,  or  community  bestow. 

Dr.  Sarah  A.  Henderson  is  a native  of  Burlington,  Vt.  She  studied  med- 
icine in  Cleveland  under  Dr.  Boynton,  who  was  a member  of  the  Cleveland 
Homeopathic  College  faculty,  from  which  institution  she  graduated  and  prac- 
ticed on  Kelly’s  Island  four  years,  removing  to  Sandusky  in  1877.  She  is  a 
member  of  the  American  Institute,  the  leading  society  of  this  school  of  medi- 
cine. Dr.  Henderson  and  her  friends  have  reason  to  be  well  satisfied  with  her 
social  and  professional  status  wherever  she  is  known.  She  has  demonstrated 
not  only  her  individual  fitness  for  the  duties  of  the  physician,  but  shown  that 
the  “ Lords  of  Creation”  have  not  inherited  or  acquired  all  the  skill  or  knowl- 
edge of  the  art  of  curing  the  sick. 

The  intuitions,  quick  perception,  and  critical  observation  of  woman  amounts 
to  an  instinct  in  estimating  human  character  and  conduct,  and  is  equally  well 
adapted  to  the  interpretation  of  the  subjective  symptoms  that  are  often  all  the 
basis  there  is  on  which  to  form  an  opinion  or  diagnosis  of  disease. 

A physician  who  has  not  had  occasion  to  confess  that  he  has  often  been 
astonished  and  confounded  by  the  interpretation  of  symptoms  and  the  location 
of  disease  by  women  entirely  ignorant  of  all  the  special  knowledge  on  the  sub- 
ject that  doctors  are  supposed  to  possess,  has  had  a rare  experience  — one  that 
would  expose  him  to  a criticism  scarcely  less  disparaging  than  was  made  by  Dr. 
John  Hunter,  of  a young  surgeon  of  London,  who  was  boasting  in  the  famous 
surgeon’s  presence  that  he  had  never  lost  a case  of  lithotomy:  “Well,”  said 
Hunter,  “ I presume  the  same  cipher  would  represent  your  successful  cases.” 
That  the  conditions  for  making  useful  doctors  depend  more  on  the  amount  and 
quality  of  the  brain,  than  the  variety  of  the  gender,  will  do  very  well  as  a ques- 
tion of  discussion  for  a country  debating  society,  but  is  hardly  creditable  to 
medical  colleges  of  the  present  day. 

Dr.  Warren  Newton,  at  present  at  Ligonier,  Ind.,  was  born  and  raised  in 
Ottowa  county  ; studied  medicine  with  David  Gillard,  at  Port  Clinton  ; grad- 
uated at  Homeopathic  Hospital  College,  Cleveland,  about  1S82.  He  settled  in 
Huron,  this  county,  and  after  practicing  there  a year  or  two,  came  to  San- 
dusky, where  he  remained  less  than  a year.  Having  an  otter  of  a copartner- 
ship with  a physician  at  Ligonier,  ne  accepted  in  1885,  and  is  now  engaged  in 


V 

' 


The  Medical  Profession. 


225 


a large  and  growing  practice  at  that  place.  The  doctor -is  unusually  well 
posted  in  materia  medicay  a factor  of  supreme  importance  in  qualifying  one  for 
a prompt  and  successful  prescriber.  He  stood  high  as  a student  and  maintains 
an  equally  high  relative  position  among  practitioners. 

Dr.  David  Gillard  was  born  at  Venice,  O.,  July  30,  1852;  studied  medi- 
cine with  his  brother,  E.  Gillard,  and  graduated  at  Cleveland  Homeopathic 
College  in  1877,  and  began  the  practice  of  medicine  at  Port  Clinton;  moved  to 
Sandusky  in  the  spring  of  1SS2,  and  moved  back  to  Port  Clinton  the  same  year; 
again  moved  to  Sandusky  in  July,  1885,  and  formed  a copartnership  with  his 
brother,  Dr.  E.  Gillard,  but  dissolved  partnership  and  returned  to  Port  Clinton 
in  the  autumn  of  1886,  where  he  is  now  located.  The  doctor  left  a fine  prac- 
tice at  Port  Clinton  when  he  came  to  Sandusky  in  1885,  which  involved  so 
large  an  amount  of  country  business  that  he  hoped  to  improve  his  practice,  at 
least  in  this  respect.  A year  or  two  convinced  him  that  having  too  much 
country  practice  could  be  endured  quite  as  cheerfully,  and  more  profitably, 
than  having  too  little.  The  doctor  has  re-entered  his  old  field,  and  has  cause 
to  be  gratified  with  the  renewed  expressions  of  confidence  manifested  by  the 
public  in  his  skill  and  uniform  success. 

Dr.  John  Mathews  studied  medicine  with  Dr.  E.  Gillard ; graduated  and 
commenced  practice  at  Castalia,  and  for  a while  with  Dr.  Gillard,  in  Sandusky. 
He  went  to  California,  where  he  died  a year  or  two  ago. 

Dr.  William  Gaylord  began  the  study  of  medicine  in  February,  1878,  with 
Dr.  J.  D.  Buck,  of  Cincinnati,  as  his  preceptor.  He  was  a locomotive  engi- 
neer, running  night  express  between  Cincinnati  and  Richmond,  Ind.,  and 
continued  in  this  employment  during  his  study  and  college  course,  until  he 
graduated  in  the  spring  of  1883,  at:  the  Pulte  Medical  College,  Cincinnati,  O. 
The  following  summer  he  was  made  lecturer  on  history  and  microscopy  and 
resident  physician  in  charge  of  the  college  dispensary ; the  following  year  he 
*as  made  professor  of  chemistry  and  toxicology,  which  positions  he  held  until 
locating  in  Sandusky  in  1885. 

While  in  some  respects  Dr.  Gaylord’s  medical  education  was  obtained 
under  disadvantages,  yet  there  were  other  favorable  conditions  that  more  than 
compensated  for  the  necessity  of  devoting  so  large  a portion  of  the  ordinary 
hours  of  rest  to  providing  the  means  of  support  while  preparing  himself  for  the 
profession  he  had  adopted.  He  had  the  advantage  of  a large  amount  of  clin- 
,cal  experience  in  the  office  of  his  preceptor,  as  well  as  the  college  and  hos- 
pital clinics  of  any  of  the  professors  he  chose  to  attend,  and  these  privileges 
,n  an  office  like  his  preceptor’s,  who  was  at  that  time  a professor,  and  dean  of 
'he  medical  college,  afforded  him  superior  opportunities  for  witnessing  and 
listing  in  a large  and  varied  amount  of  medical  and  surgical  practice.  Dr. 
Gaylord  is  the  latest  addition  to  the  homeopathic  fraternity  of  the  city,  and  is 
as  liberally  equipped  with  the  essentials  of  professional  success  as  any  who  have 
preceded  him. 


. 


- 


226 


History  of  Erie  County. 


Among  the  homeopathic  physicians  of  Erie  county  Dr.  B.  F.  Hill,  whose 
home  when  in  the  county  was  at  Berlin  Heights,  was  in  his  day  a prominent 
member  of  the  fraternity. 

Dr.  Hill  was  born  December  18,  1813,  in  Tioga  county,  Pa.  Came  to  Hu- 
ron (now  Erie)  county,  O.,  when  a mere  boy,  and  engaged  in  farming;  began 
his  education  in  the  log  school- houses  of  those  times  ; finally  taught  school  for 
several  winters;  studied  law  at  Norwalk  with  Cortland  Latimer,  during  the 
years  1839-40.  Owing  to  impaired  health  he  was  induced  to  turn  his  attention 
to  medicine,  and  graduated  in  the  Eclectic  Medical  College,  Cincinnati,  Octo- 
ber 1,  1843.  He  was  demonstrator  and  assistant  professor  of  anatomy,  and 
finally  appointed  to  a full  professorship  of  anatomy,  which  he  held  until  1852, 
when  he  was  appointed  professor  of  surgery  in  the  Cleveland  Homeopathic 
Hospital  College,  in  which  institution  he  remained  as  professor  until  i860.  En- 
gagements of  a business  nature  compelled  him  to  spend  a few  years  in  Michi- 
gan, where  he  was  elected  in  i860  to  the  Legislature  of  that  State. 

His  report  on  the  establishment  of  a homeopathic  medical  department  in  the 
University  of  Michigan  is  justly  celebrated,  and  accomplished  the  purpose  for 
which  it  was  written.  In  the  spring  of  1S63  he  was  appointed  by  President 
Lincoln  consul  to  Nicaraugua.  While  engaged  in  the  medical  profession,  dur- 
ing the  years  1852  and  1853,  he  built  the  “Water  Cure”  at  Berlin  Heights; 
in  the  meantime  wrote  several  books,  among  which  was  “ Hill’s  Homeopathic 
Healing  Art,”  also  “Hill’s  Epitome  of  the  Homeopathic  Healing  Art,”  eleven 
revised  editions  of  which  have  been  published.  He  was  representative  in  the 
Ohio  Legislature  from  Erie  county  during  the  sessions  of  1867,  1S68,  1869  and 
1870.  Dr.  Hill  died  at  Marysville,  Cal.,  May  13,  1871,  aged  fifty-seven  years. 
The  doctor  was  in  many  respects  a remarkable  man.  Notwithstanding  he  was 
cut  off  when  but  little  past  middle  age,  he  had  accomplished  more  than  the  ma- 
jority of  men  under  similar  circumstances  will  ever  achieve,  no  matter  to  what 
age  they  are  spared.  The  record  of  his  labors  is  the  best  monument  to  his 
memory  that  even  filial  affection  could  erect. 

Dr.  George  S.  Hill  is  a brother  of  the  late  B.  F.  Hill.  He  lived  at  Berlin 
Heights,  and  was  a very  successful  practitioner.  He  moved  into  the  southeast- 
ern part  of  the  State  many  years  ago.  As  it  was  omitted  in  the  biography  of 
B.  F.  Hill,  it  may  be  mentioned  here  that  he  (B.  F.  H.)  was  the  author  of  “The 
American  Eclectic  Practice  of  Surgery,”  and  the  “ Homeopathic  Practice  of 
Surgery,”  both  works  of  real  practical  merit. 

Dr.  Morley  of  Huron,  was  born  December  17,  i860.  Studied  medicine  with 
Dr.  C.  S.  Morley,  at  Pontiac,  Mich.  Graduated  at  Cleveland  Homeopathic 
College  in  1884.  At  once  located  in  Huron,  where  he  is  meeting  with  flatter- 
ing success.  Dr.  Morley  gives  promise  of  becoming  one  of  the  leading  physi- 
cians of  the  county. 

Dr.  Bond  of  Vermillion,  is  an  alumnus  of  Detroit  Homeopathic  College,  re- 


. 


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The  Medical  Profession. 


227 


ceiving  his  degree  in  1873.  He  is  esteemed  by  his  patrons  and  acquaintances 
for  his  many  excellent  qualities  of  head  and  heart. 

Miss  Spalding,  a graduate  of  Cleveland  Homeopathic  College,  practiced 
medicine  a number  of  years  on  Kelley’s  Island,  previous  to  1873.  Miss  Spald- 
ing moved  to  Kansas  with  the  family  of  Captain  W.  A.  Webb,  and  remains 
there  at  this  date  (1888).  Dr.  Sarah  A.  Henderson  succeeded  her  on  Kelley's 
Island.  Not  having  Dr.  Spalding’s  address  the  writer  has  not  been  able  to  ob- 
tain any  further  items  in  connection  with  her  professional  history. 

Drs.  McConly,  Ailing,  Catlin,  Simmons  and  Sweazy,  are  names  familiar  to  the 
people  of  Milan,  the  last  two  being  engaged  there  now,  and  the  others  at  differ- 
ent times  in  the  past.  Of  the  first  three  the  writer  can  speak  but  from  a lim- 
ited acquaintance,  enough  however  to  convince  him  of  their  ability  and  success 
in  the  profession.  The  two  occupying  the  field  at  present  are  in  good  practice, 
which,  in  an  intelligent  community,  is  a sufficient  endorsement  of  professional 
merit. 

It  is  due  to  the  writer  to  say  that  the  preparation  of  this  article  was  un- 
sought, and  attempted  with  much  hesitancy,  mainly  for  the  reason  that  his 
acquaintance  with  the  profession  outside  the  City  of  Sandusky  has  necessarily 
been  comparatively  limited,  and  therefore  the  little  time  at  his  command  in 
which  to  obtain  detailed  and  correct  information  of  the  different  physicians  who 
have  at  one  time  or  another  practiced  in  the  county,  made  it  impossible  to  do 
exact  justice  to  those  whose  acquaintance  he  had  been  so  unfortunate  as  not  to 
have  made.  That  there  are  those  about  whom  no  reference  has  been  made,  or 
if  so,  simply  to  mention  their  names,  is  no  evidence  or  test  of  their  comparative 
influence  or  ability  in  the  fraternity;  but  because  I had  not,  and  under  the  cir- 
cumstances could  not,  be  more  thorough  or  critical  in  alluding  to  them.  Of 
those  of  whom  more  has  been  said,  still  more  flattering  mention  might  have 
been  made,  but  as  the  purpose  was  barely  to  refer  to  a few  of  the  characteris- 
tics of  each,  if  my  estimate  of  their  mental  and  professional  status  is  fairly  cor- 
rect and  just,  my  purpose  is  obtained;  more  than  this  I had  no  right  to  expect, 
Fraternally,  I.  B.  MASSEY. 


1 


228 


History  of  Erie  County. 


CHAPTER  XVII. 

THE  GERMAN  ELEMENT  OF  ERIE  COUNTY .* 

A WRITTEN  history  of  this  country,  as  well  as  any  part  thereof,  would  be 
incomplete  without  devoting  an  appropriate  space  to  the  Gemnan  Element , 
that  in  years  gone  by  helped  materially  to  develop  its  resources  and  is  still 
aiding  in  a humble  way  to  shape  its  future  destiny  for  good  or  evil  in  a social, 
moral,  and  political  way. 

A political  history,  strictly  speaking,  cannot  be  claimed  for  the  German 
element  in  America,  and  yet  in  the  conglomeration  of  the  diverse  elements 
constituting  this  Union  has  it  played  such  a potent  factor,  that  its  peculiar 
traits  and  characteristics  as  a nation  call  for  a special  recognition.  The  tenacity 
in  keeping  up  and  preserving  the  old  mother  tongue  in  song  and  speech  and 
the  rigid  observance  of  religious  ceremonies  and  holy  days  as  of  old,  are  most 
marked. 

Retrospecting,  we  find  German  emigration  in  its  earliest  infancy  forced. 
Refugees  in  its  proper  meaning  were  the  small  number  of  pioneers  that  crossed 
the  ocean  a century  or  more  ago.  They  were  stripped  of  all  earthly  posses- 
sions, and  yet  are  thankful  in  their  pious  devotion,  that  God  did  spare  their 
bare  lives,  a repetition  of  so-called  Christian  tolerance  so  well  illustrated  in  his- 
tory in  the  persecution  and  expulsion  of  the  Salzburger  and  Moravian  sects. 
Without  a home,  a country  of  their  own,  or  any  protection,  an  easy  and  ready 
prey  for  the  sharks  of  Holland  and  England,  they  had  only  one  desire — to  sever 
completely  the  ties  of  former  bondage  and  oppression. 

It  cannot  be  said  that  the  first  immigrants  bettered  their  condition  materi- 
ally in  their  new  home  ; they  entered  a servitude  bordering  closely  on  slavery, 
but  notwithstanding  all  this  they  felt  contented,  their  final  efforts  culminated 
in  the  acquisition  of  a home  and  a few  spare  acres  of  land  to  provide  them- 
selves.and  families  with  the  necessaries  of  life.  It  may  sound  harsh  and  offen- 
sive to  the  national  pride  of  to-day,  and  yet  it  is  an  indisputable  fact,  that 
Germany  furnished  for  a long  time  the  English  colonies  not  only  with  bought 
up  and  conscript  soldiers — Hessians — but  almost  entirely  with  the  rude  hands 
for  manual  labor. 

The  German  colonists  of  the  eighteenth  century  became  the  coolies  of  this 
country.  The  star  of  glory  at  one  time  so  bright  in  the  old  home  dictating 
the  pol  cy  of  all  other  nations,  had  lost  its  lustre  and  its  power.  The  bloody 
wars,  following  the  Reformation  and  the  Thirty  Years  War  in  special,  had  sapped 
and  taken  the  life  blood  of  this  nation,  and  had  destroyed  its  power,  progress, 
and  energy  for  more  than  one  generation.  Devastation  was  over  all ; the 
noble  guilds  that  in  years  of  former  prosperity  were  so  actively  engaged  in  the 


By  Dr.  E.  Von  Schulenburg,  Sandusky,  Ohio. 


. 


. 


The  German  Element. 


229 


erection  of  the  beautiful  structures,  that  by  their  lavish  adoration  of  sculpture 
and  exquisite  masonry  call  loud  for  praise  from  the  connoisseur  of  to-day. 
Their  work  was  finished ; the  peasant  had  neither  horses  nor  oxen  to  cultivate 
his  land,  nor  even  the  seed  for  sowing;  the  highways  had  become  impassable 
in  the  many  years  of  ceaseless  war,  and  the  potentates  and  rulers  of  the  small 
parcels  of  land  were  remorseless  and  deaf  to  the  appeals  of  their  subjects  as 
long  as  the  taxes  were  promptly  paid  in  order  to  keep  up  their  own  luxurious 
life.  They  styled  themselves  rulers  “ by  the  grace  of  God,”  and  the  kingdom 
or  duchy  had  become  their  personal  property.  Only  one  way  was  left  open 
to  escape  all  this  misery — emigration  — the  peasant  and  burgher  alike  had 
become  so  powerless  and  enervated,  that  to  make  front  against  their  common 
oppressor  was  entirely  out  of  the  question.  Flight  then  in  the  dark  hours  of 
the  night,  flight  to  safely  reach  the  frontier.  The  first  German"  emigrants 
gave  up  their  fatherland  without  pain  or  tears,  they  had  so  completely  lost 
confidence  in  themselves  and  the  old  home  regime,  that  they  blindly  and  hope- 
fully accepted  the  inducements  held  out  by  foreign  countries. 

The  German  emigration  did  in  course  of  time  assume  larger  proportions 
and  directed  itself  mainly  to  the  shores  of  this  country.  Germany'so  much  in 
need  of  hands  to  commence  the  work  of  national  reconstruction,  through  a 
false  policy,  gave  to  America  a good  share  of  its  best  productive  power,  but 
received  only  as  a just  retaliation  French  manners  and  vices,  French  luxuries, 
and  an  army  of  adventurers. 

The  impetus  of  German  emigration  in  its  infancy  may  with  a certain  amount 
of  correctness  chronologically  be  given  in  the  following  order:  Religious  op- 
pression and  persecutions  (Moravians,  Mennonites,  and  Lutherans),  famine  and 
pestilence,  over-population  in  certain  districts,  inability  to  make  a living  and  a 
desire  for  a better  existence.  There  has  been  a great  deal  of  nonsensical  talk 
in  misinformed  or  prejudiced  papers  and  books  about  an  inborn  proclivity  of 
the  Germans  to  change  their  domicile  on  the  slightest  pretext,  but  the  perti- 
nent question  may  be  excusable,  will  any  one  give  up  a home  and  sever  forever 
all  family  ties,  if  even  a shadow  of  happiness  is  left  to  share  in  the  old  beloved 
home  ? The  expectations  of  the  German  settlers  became  realized  in  a meas- 
ure. Fertile  acres  by  the  millions,  the  primitive  wilderness,  waiting  only  for 
the  strong  arm  of  the  pale  faced  Teuton  to  carve  out  a home  of  his  own  choice, 
and  as  a God  sent  blessing,  liberty  in  religion  and  in  speech  and  equality  be- 
fore a common  tribunal  of  law.  Verily,  our  forefathers  had  a trying  time  of  it, 
hut  they  were  neither  afraid  nor  ashamed  to  work,  and  hardened  by  many 
exposures  and  surrounded  by  the  contrasting  perils  of  the  frontier  life,  did  they 
nve  out  their  expectancy  of  three  score  and  ten,  and  long  enough  to  harvest, 
ln  many  instances,  the  fruit3  of  their  own  honest  and  energetic  work.  In  a 
short  time,  thanks  to  their  inborn  saving  trait,  they  became  freeholders  and 
prosperous  on  a piece  of  land  that  seemed  inadequate  to  [support  their  Dutch 
30 


J 

' 


230 


History  of  Erie  County. 


or  English  neighbors.  Peasants,  common  laborers,  servants,  and  disappointed 
merchants  made  up  the  bulk  of  the  German  emigration  at  the  beginning  of  the 
present  century,  but  none  of  them  truthfully  expressed  the  true  inwardness,  the 
character  and  genius  of  their  nation;  they  represented  it  to  a certain  extent  by 
their  independence,  by  a multitude  of  dialects  and  everyday  habits,  and  yet 
they  were  destined  in  their  physical  and  moral  healthfulness  and  strength  to 
become  a most  valuable  factor.  An  amalgamation  of  the  different  elements  of 
this  country  by  means  of  intermarriage  and  closer  social  intercourse  was  nec- 
essary to  transfuse  new  blood,  new  life  and  vigor  into  this  country. 

Endurance,  perseverance,  a limited  greed  for  earthly  possessions  were  then 
as  they  are  now,  marked  traits  of  the  Germans  ; their  aspirations  were  for  a 
home  of  their  own,  and  in  this  respect  they  differed  greatly  from  the  true 
Yankee,  who  is  ever  ready  and  willing  to  sacrifice  almost  anything  provided  it 
brings  a mercenary  gain  or  is  a bargain.  For  the  first  time  then  in  his  life  is 
the  German  put  on  his  own  feet,  no  red  tape,  no  barriers,  no  passport  or 
policeman  at  every  move  or  step,  the  rigidly  enforced  etiquette  of  the  old 
home  has  become  a dead  letter.  For  the  first  time  in  his  life  a free  man 
amongst  a multitude  of  freeholders,  welcome,  but  obliged  to  depend  from  now 
on  upon  his  own  judgment,  energy,  and  strong  arms  for  all  the  necessaries  of 
life.  The  proverbial  “help  yourself”  becomes  the  true  guiding  angel  from  this 
day  on,  on  which  his  foot  touches  the  soil  of  this  free  country.  He  passes  the 
first  years  of  probation  hard  and  ceaselessly  working  day  after  day,  and  by  and 
by  the  language  of  the  foreign  country,  so  similar  to  the  sounds  of  home,  is 
mastered  and  with  it  his  interest  in  common  as  well  as  national  questions  be- 
comes aroused  ; the  poor  despised  German  feels  proud  to  be  placed  on  a level 
with  the  rest,  and  deposits  his  first  ballot  as  a true  and  loyal  citizen,  well  know- 
ing its  importance,  and  year  by  year  does  he  learn  better  to  understand  and 
to  appreciate  the  numerous  blessings  everybody  is  welcome  to  in  this  country, 
provided  he  is  willing  to  live  up  to  its  laws.  The  leaders  of  the  Anarchistic 
and  Socialistic  movement  seem  utterly  to  forget,  that  not  more  than  a century 
ago  the  routine  work  of  a happy  and  well  contented  laborer  in  the  old  home 
ceased  only  with  the  looming  up  of  the  stars,  that  it  was  impossible  for  him 
ever  to  better  his  condition  in  life  and  to  give  to  his  children  such  an  excellent 
education  as  is  furnished  in  this  country,  even  to  the  most  humble  subject  as 
free  as  the  air  we  breathe.  We  have  no  serfs,  thanks  to  God!  No  slaves  any 
more ! In  this  country  all  work  in  the  different  branches  of  industry,  and  al- 
though keenly  competed  gives  to  all,  excepting  a spendthrift,  more  than  one 
chance  to  get  well  enough  along  in  life  ; and  it  is  an  indisputable  fact  that  the 
much  cursed  and  maligned  monopolist  started  out  in  life  as  impecunious  as  the 
so-called  and  big-mouthed  reformer,  the  only  perceptible  difference  being  that 
the  one  knew  how  to  save  his  earnings  and  properly  invest  them,  the  other 
only  how  to  squander.  Many  instances  may  be  cited  of  German  immigrants 


■ 

' 


The  German  Element. 


231 


.jut  landed  on  the  shores  of  this  country  almost  penniless  and  in  years  of  hard 
’ubor  did  they  earn  a competency,  but  it  was  their  enterprise,  fair  dealing  and 
hard  work  that  made  them  such,  and  a score  or  more  of  German  families  could 
be  named  in  this  little  county  of  Erie  that  in  a short  time  have  been  elevated 
from  obscurity  and  poverty  to  richness.  May  they  deservedly  enjoy  it  to 
their  heart’s  content ! Wealth  brings  comfort  and  comfort  brings  ease,  but 
many  would  gladly  have  given  up  a good  share  of  their  wealth  had  they  only 
learned  in  their  younger  days  the  art  of  how  to  properly  enjoy  it.  As  a rule 
the  wealthier  classes  of  Germans  in  Erie  county  have  been  instrumental  in 
building  up  its  branches  of  industries,  formerly  unknown  or  at  least  much 
neglected,  such  as  the  wine,  grape,  and  the  fish  business.  In  these  branches 
of  trade  many  thousands  of  hands  are  employed  in  the  busiest  seasons. 

The  American  continent  was,  excepting  its  geographical  location,  as 
unknown  ,to  the  first  German  settlers  as  to  the  crew  that  embarked  under 
Columbus  on  August  3,  1492,  at  Palos  in  the  fragile  ships.  The  Germans 
had  no  object  in  view ; they  did  not  come  to  perfect  any  idealistic  ideas, 
neither  did  they  have  any  outlined  work  ; they  presented  rough,  unhewn 
blocks,  that  should  fit  themselves  after  repeated  dressing  and  become  a useful 
material  in  building  up  a great  nation.  Please  glance  over  American  history : 
Go  back  to  the  war  preceding  the  Declaration  of  Independence — go  back  to 
1812,  and  the  bloody  war  of  secession — and  the  names  of  loyal  German- 
American  citizens  will  be  found  in  great  numbers,  and  many  of  them  in  the 
front  ranks,  who  were  as  willing  as  the  rest  to  sacrifice  their  blood  and  lives 
for  the  preservation  of  the  Union  and  of  peace!  Two  generations  had  to  go 
down  into  their  graves  before  an  amalgamation  of  the  German,  and  the  inborn 
element  could  be  consummated  from  that  day  on,  though  the  German  offspring 
became  a true  American  citizen,  not  only  in  name,  but  in  body  and  soul. 

With  great  pleasure  do  I recall  the  happy  days  of  my  youth,  when  I was 
brooding  over  the  tales  and  legends,  so  masterly  written  by  Grimm  and  Musaus, 
of  the  sunken  countries  and  cities — of  Vineta,  on  the  Baltic  Sea.  Tradition 
says,  that  on  a bright  night,  when  the  waters  are  calm,  the  towers  of  this 
sunken  city  were  plainly  seen  at  the  bottom  of  the  sea  and  the  tolling  of  the 
bells  could  be  distinctly  heard  in  the  stillness  of  the  night.  Many  of  the  old 
settlements  of  the  first  German  pioneers  are  buried  alike ; tradition,  entries 
in  the  old  family  Bible  or  church  record,  dilapidated  and  broken  up  slabs  in 
the  remote  corners  of  a neglected  church  or  grave-yard,  tell  in  a faint  way  the 
story  of  a century  or  more  ago.  It  was  with  the  utmost  reverence  that  the 
writer  of  this  chapter  opened  two  years  ago  the  old  time-worn  chest  which 
the  great-grandfather  of  his  children  had  willed  to  him  as  a small  token  of  his 
love.  Old  books  dating  back  to  the  time  when  their  ancestors  came  to  the 
shore  of  America  as  refugees,  nearly  two  hundred  years  ago — old,  but  priceless 
books — an  almost  complete  list  of  works  first  printed  in  America  in  the  be- 
loved mother  tongue,  by  Sauer,  of  Germantown,  Pa. 


232 


History  of  Erie  County. 


German  emigration  assumed  the  most  gigantic  proportions  in  the  middle 
of  the  present  century.  As  it  will  undoubtedly  interest  the  general  reader,  an 
authentical  list,  taken  from  the  record  of  the  Statistical  Bureau  at  Washington, 
is  given  below  : 


1820,  German  emigrants 968 

1821,  “ “ 383 

1822,  “ 44  148 

1823,  “ “ 183 

1824,  “ “ 230 

1825,  “ 44  450 

1826,  4 4 44  51 1 ! 

1827,  4 4 4 4 432  I 

1828,  44  4 4 1,851 

1829,  44  44  597 

1830,  4 4 4 4 1,976 

1831,  4 4 4 4 2,413 

1832,  44  44  10,194  ; 

1833,  44  44  6,988  | 

1834,  44  44  17,686 

1835,  44  44  8,311 

1836,  44  44  20,707 

1837,  “ “ 23,740  | 

1838,  “ 44  11,683  | 

1839,  44  44  21,028  j 

1840,  44  44  29,704 

1841,  44  44  15,291 

1842,  44  44  20,370 

1843,  “ “ 14.441 

1844,  “ N “ 20.731 

1845,  “ “ 34355 

-846,  44  “ 57,56i 

1847,  44  4 4 74,281 

1848,  44  44  58,465 

1849,  44  4 4 60,233 

1850,  44  “ 63,182  | 

1851,  44  44  88,196 

1852,  “ 44  145,918 


1 853,  German  emigrants ....  141,946 

1854,  “ “ 215,009 

1855,  “ “ 7i,9i8 

1856,  4 4 44  71.028 

1857,  44  “ 91,781 

1858,  44  4 4 45,310 

1859,  “ “ 41,784 

1860,  44  44  54491 

1861,  4 4 4 4 31,661 

1862,  4 4 44  27,529 

1863,  44  44  33462 

1864,  “ 44  67,276 

1865,  44  44  83,424 

1866,  44  44  115,892 

1867,  44  44  133426 

1 868  , 44  44  123,070 

1869,  4 4 4 4 124,788 

1870,  44  44  9!-779 

1871,  4 4 4 4 107,201 

1872,  “ 44  i55o93 

1873,  “ “ 133441 

1874,  “ “ 56.927 

1875,  4 4 4 4 36.565 

1876,  44  44  31.323 

1877,  44  “ . 27,417 

1878,  44  44  3 !.95s 

1879,  44  44  43-531 

1880,  4 4 4 4 i34-.°4° 

1881,  4 4 4 4 249.572 

1882,  44  44  250.630 

1S83,  44  44  180,812 


Total  in  sixty-four  years 3.817,193 


This*  list  will  speak  for  itself.  Conclusions  may  be  drawn  by  every  one 
that  is  familiar  with  the  history  of  his  nation. 

The  ravens  of  Kueff  Hamser  desert  their  former  habitation  ; Barbarossa 
sleeps?now  in  peace — once  more  a solid  and  an  undivided  empire  in  strength 
and  power  as  of  old.  The  price  was  dear,  and  many  thousands  of  our  brave 
sons  were  "laid  to  rest  in  a strange  land  ; once  more  did  the  bloody*  wars  of 
1866  and  1870  take  the  life-blood  of  this  nation,  but  when  King  William 
placed  the  emperor’s  crown  of  a once  more  united  country*  on  his  silver  hair  in 
the  halls  of  Versailles,  it  was  another  just  retaliation,  when  he  remembered  in 
that  eventful  hour,  with  tears  in  his  eyes,  the  humiliation  of  his  country'  and 


. 


The  German  Element. 


233 


his  own  beloved  parents  in  the  dark  hours  of  1806.  Once  more  were  the  reins 
of  supremacy  placed  in  the  hands  of  a ruler,  that  had  proven  not  only  a de- 
fender of  his  and  his  people’s  rights,  but  a protector  and  preserver  of  peace. 
From  that  day  on  has  the  flag  of  our  old  fatherland  given  ample  protection  to 
her  sons,  that  are  scattered  over  all  the  world’s  creation,  as  outspoken  as  the 
stars  and  stripes  we  now  adore. 

And  still  they  come,  the  Teutons,  but  not  as  refugees  as  of  a century  ago 
stripped  of  all  earthly  possessions, — they  come  now  of  their  own  free  will,  with 
means,  and  the  same  strong  and  muscular  arm  that  cleared  the  wilderness  so 
many  years  ago.  The  light  so  conspicuously  displayed  by  the  goddess  of  lib- 
erty, at  the  main  port  of  this  country,  seems  to  draw  them  nearer  and  nearer. 

The  German  element  form  about  the  seventh  part  of  the  total  population 
of  this  country ; entire  counties  and  cities  are  almost^iven  up  to  them.  San- 
dusky city  has  a German  population  of  nearly  one- half,  and  New  York  city 
has  become  the  third  largest  German  city  in  the  world,  and  yet  the  strength 
and  influence  of  the  German  element  is  far  less  than  should  proportionately  be 
expected.  The  Germans  confront  in  this  country  an  inborn  nation  that  has  for 
two  centuries  not  only  accepted  and  welcomed,  but  digested  the  diverse  ele- 
ments of  the  old  world  ; an  inborn  element,  that  in  all  those  years  had  become 
powerful  and  strong,  and  it  cannot  reasonably  be  expected  that  it  abruptly 
should  change  their  habits,  ways  of  Sabbath  consecration  and  all  existing  laws, 
simply  to  please  a foreign-born  element,  far  less  to  obey  their  dictations.  Fif- 
teen hundred  years  is  a long  while  ; in  that  time  laws,  traits  and  a once  com- 
mon language  change  to  such  an  extent  that  the  link  of  close  relationship  may 
seem  entirely  defunct,  and  yet  blood  will  tell  and  call  for  recognition  at  first 
sight  The  Anglo-Saxons  and  the  Germans  meet  once  more  after  1,500  years 
of  separation,  and,  strange  as  it  may  seem,  on  a newly  discovered  continent,  to 
join  hands  to  build  it  up  mutually  for  their  combined  interest  and  glory. 

“ In  union  there  is  strength.”  There  are  many  vital  questions  to  be  de- 
cided in  a fair  and  unprejudiced  way  by  a coming  generation  ; questions  to 
match  in  battle,  civilization  and  rudeness ; intellectual  power  and  genius 
a£ainst  stupidity;  but  it  is  to  be  hoped  that  religious  questions  will  never  en- 
ter the  race,  and  that  the  horrors  of  inquisition  and  religious  intolerance  and 
persecution  that  came  at  one  time  very  near  strangling  the  new-born  babe  and 
destroying  the  future  prosperity  of  this  country,  may  not  be  repeated. 

The  fathers  of  independence,  and  the  framers  of  our  constitutional  laws, 
were  in  the  right  by  ignoring,  entirely,  in  their  declarations  all  religious  mat- 
ers, holding  that  every  one  had  a perfect  right  to  accomplish  his  salvation  in 
a way  that  suited  him  best.  They  did  plainly  foresee,  that  by  granting  the  ut- 
most liberty  in  this  direction,  emigrants  would  come  from  all  parts  of  the  world 
t0  the  shores  of  America,  and  that  it  would  have  been  much  like  the  work 

a Sisyphus  to  regulate  by  law  the  spiritual  welfare  with  the  worldly,  alike. 


' 


234 


History  of  Erie  County. 


If  we,  to  come  to  a close,  correctly  understand  the  mission  of  the  German  ele- 
ment in  this  country,  we  must  come  to  the  conclusion  that  its  future  prosper- 
ity is  not  to  be  found  in  a strict  exclusiveness  and  in  fantastic  dreams  of  a 
Utopia.  Our  final  mission  is  to  become  more  closely  amalgamated,  and  to 
unite  with  the  inborn  element,  and  to  preserve  at  the  same  time  the  many 
laudable  traits  of  the  Teutonic  race.  Let  us  preserve  our  love  for  the  home 
circle,  domestic  felicity,  our  love  for  everything  sublime  in  arts,  our  classical 
music,  our  gold  mine  of  poetry,  our  mother  tongue,  and  song  and  speech,  and 
feel  contented  that  our  influence  in  political,  social  and  every  day  affairs  will 
become  greater  in  the  proportion  we  make  ourselves  better  understood.  There 
will  be  nothing  regretted  then,  if  we  lose  our  name  as  a distinct  nation.  It  is 
useless  to  simulate ; whoever  emigrates  gives  up  his  fatherland,  and  cannot 
claim  it  with  any  more  right  than  he  could  claim  two  fathers.  The  name 
German-American  becomes  less  and  less  distinct  from  year  to  year,  and  will, 
by  gradual  transmutation,  become  as  defunct  in  the  course  of  time  as  the 
aborigines  of  the  wilderness  and  the  buffaloes  of  the  plains. 

More  has  been  said  in  the  foregoing  lines  than  was  originally  intended,  but 
as  the  incorporated  sentiments  are  the  key  to  understand  properly  the  mission 
of  the  German  element,  it  will  be  duly  appreciated. 

REMINISCENCES  AND  OLD  LANDMARKS. 

The  time  that  has  passed  since  the  pioneer  first  walked  in  the  wilderness 
by  the  side  of  the  river  and  creeks,  is  almost  fourscore  years.  Strange  and 
startling  scenes,  in  life  dramas,  have  been  enacted  before  and  since  then.  The 
Indian,  glorying  in  his  wild  freedom,  and  holding  undisputed  possession  of  the 
forest,  has  here  lain  in  wait  for  the  deer  to  come  and  drink.  Human  blood 
has  flowed  by  the  side  of  the  streams.  The  white  man  came,  and  with  hard 
labor  rolled  together  the  logs  for  a humble  home.  The  prattle  and  the  laugh- 
ter of  little  children  mingled  with  the  songs  of  birds.  The  sound  of  the  ax 
was  heard  along  the  shore,  and  the  crushing  of  falling  timber  shook  the  earth. 
The  forest  melted  away  before  the  march  of  the  army  of  peace.  The  country 
was  dotted  with  human  habitations  ; a village  grew  up  and  became  a busy 
mart.  The  church  and  school-house  appeared.  Where  once  were  no  sounds 
but  those  of  nature,  there  had  come  the  hum  of  industry,  the  bustle  of  trade,  a 
hurrying  to  and  fro,  the  greetings  of  man  with  man,  the  activity  impelled  by 
varied  human  interests.  There  were  births,  marriages,  deaths,  the  ever  occur- 
ring  joys  and  griefs  of  humanity;  the  change  and  mutation  of  life  and  time. 
The  old  log-houses  well  nigh  faded  from  existence  ; the  houses  and  landmarks 
of  old  Portland  rolled  away.  Men  who  were  babies  when  the  country  was  new, 
grew  old  and  went  down  to  their  graves.  It  is  the  fulfillment  of  a hard  task 
that  the  writer  came  in  possession  of  such  facts,  that  are  little,  if  any,  known, 
excepting  to  a few  more  closely  interested.  It  is  a great  pleasure  to  him  to 


The  German  Element. 


235 


present  to  the  reader  of  to-day  carefully  trimmed  outlines  of  the  characters  of 
those  men  and  women  whose  lives  were  passed  in  preparing  the  wilderness  for 
the  present  generations.  Wherever  we  failed  to  come  into  possession  of  a cor- 
rect family  record,  we  have  striven  to  perpetuate,  at  least,  the  names  of  those 
who  bore  the  brunt  in  the  great  struggle  of  subduing  a new  country,  who  sur- 
mounted its  obstacles  and  faced  its  dangers  bravely.  The  hard  work  has  been 
persistently  carried  on  for  many  months.  May  these  offerings,  with  all  their 
imperfections,  find  a warm  place  in  the  hearts  and  homes  of  his  German  fel- 
low men,  and  may  the  living  generation  learn  from  the  past  something  about 
the  contentedness,  frugality  and  honesty  of  the  good  old  time. 

The  writer’s  table  has  been  covered  for  weeks,  with  numerous  letters,  pass- 
ports, certificates  and  musty  papers,  dating  back  half  a century  and  even  more. 
The  time  worn  pages  of  the  old  Clarion  and  Baystadt  Democrat , tell  of  many 
well-meant  but  ill-spent  endeavors  of  our  forefathers,  of  incidents  and  official 
acts,  that  will  appear  ridiculous  at  this  day.  That  a well-meaning  member  of 
the  City  Council  of  Sandusky,  nearly  forty  lyears  ago,  to  be  faithful  to  his 
constituents,  introduced  a resolution  that,  chickens  caught  in  the  act  of  tres- 
passing, might  lawfully  be  killed,  is  only  a sample ; but  may  it  truthfully  be 
said  that  after  a fierce  battle,  not  the  chickens,  but  the  resolution  was  un- 
mercifully killed.  The  aspirations  of  our  city  fathers  did  not,  apparently, 
run  high  in  those  days,  and  instead  of  confining  themselves  strictly  to  the 
needed  work,  they  allowed  the  golden  opportunity  to  slip  and  Cleveland  and 
Toledo  to  reap  the  harvest. 

To  confine  ourselves  more  closely  to  the  subject,  very  little,  if  anything,  is 
known  about  the  German  settlers  in  Erie  county,  before  the  beginning  of  the 
present  century. 

Anton  Eickhoffs  claim  in  Der  Deutschen  Heimath , page  229,  that  a Ger- 
man Polander,  by  name  Sodowsky,  established  a trader’s  post  at  the  beginning 
of  the  past  century,  and  before  1728,  on  the  southern  shore  of  Lake  Erie,  at 
the  present  site  of  Sandusky,  is  not  sufficiently  substantiated.  His  claim  that 
Sandusky  received  its  name  from  this  trader  is  disputed  by  the  noted  historian 
George  Bancroft,  and  others. 

The  German  element  may,  without  fear  of  contradiction,  though,  celebrate 
its  centennial  in  Erie  county,  in  kind  remembrance  of  the  good  deeds  of  the 
Moravians,  who  established  a mission  in  Milan  township  in  1787,  under  the 
leadership  of  David  Zeisberger  and  Johann  Heckenwelder.  History  should 
spare  them  a page,  and  fame  should  keep  alive  the  names  of  these  heroes  that 
sought  out  the  rude  savages  of  the  forest  and  did  what  they  could  to  civilize 
and  elevate  them. 

The  first  permanent  settlements  in  Erie  county  were  made  in  the  first  and 
second  decades  of  the  present  century,  in  about  the  following  chronological  or- 
der: Townships — Huron  and  Vermillion,  1S0S;  Portland  and  Groton,  1S09; 
Berlin  and  Milan,  1810;  Margaretta  and  Oxford,  1810;  Florence,  1811. 


■ 


History  of  Erie  County. 


236 


No  German  names  appear  in  the  list  of  the  first  settlers  excepting  the  name 
of  a Mohawk  German,  Peter  Cuddeback,  who  settled  in  Vermillion  township 
in  1810,  about  two  miles  west  of  the  river.  He  died  in  1833.  In  the  sprint 
of  1828  Martin  Eldis  (originally  litis),  settled  in  Portland  township,  Sanduskv, 
and  opened  a bakery  and  provision  store  on  Water  street,  at  a place  known  in 
our  days  as  “Turner  Hall.”  Martin  Eldis  was  born  at  Munster,  St.  Gregori- 
enthal,  Elsass,  January  4,  179S,  and  emigrated  to  America  in  1817.  He  was 
married  in  1827  to  Louise  Guckenberger,  at  Cincinnati,  O.,  and  died  on  No- 
vember 28,  1852,  leaving  to  his  wife  and  children  an  abundant  share  of  earthly 
goods. 

“We  were  not  welcomed,”  said  the  old  esteemed  lady  to  the  writer,  “on 
our  arrival  sixty  years  ago,  we  were  advised  to  better  move  on;  if  it  had  not 
have  been  for  the  steamboat  trade,”  she  continued,  “ we  never  could  have  made 
a living  in  the  first  year  or  two.  By  and  by  though,  the  inborn  element  be- 
came more  friendly  to  us,  and  learned  to  respect  our  ways.  For  nearly  four 
years  we  were  the  only  German  family  in  this  hamlet,  and  in  all  probability  in 
the  county.” 

In  the  following  lines  a list  of  names  of  the  German  settlers  is  given,  who  lo- 
cated permanently  in  Erie  county  between  1830-40.  In  some  instances  it  was 
extremely  difficult  to  obtain  accurate  information,  not  only  because  of  the 
vagueness  of  memory,  but  of  the  imperfection  of  records.  Again,  the  lives  of 
some  of  our  most  esteemed  pioneers  have  been  made  a target  by  an  illiterate 
and  unscrupulous  writer,  and  for  said  reasons  they  were  reluctant,  and  withheld 
information  that  otherwise  would  have  been  of  great  value.  As  it  is,  we  claim, 
that  this  list  is  as  complete  and  reliable  as  circumstances  will  permit : 

Portland  township,  (Sandusky),  population:  1820,  300  souls;  1830,  594 
souls;  1840,  1,500  souls. 

The  Booss  family  who  settled  here  in  1833  was  possessed  of  great  wealth  in 
the  old  country.  When  Roesel,  one  of  the  family  engaged  to  become  married, 
some  remarks  were  made  about  her  diminutive  stature.  Her  father  simply 
said,  “ If  Roesel  will  stand  on  a half  bushel  of  crown  dollars  she  will  not  look 
so  small.”  And  he  was  perfectly  able  to  redeem  his  pledge.  This  happened 
in  the  good  old  time.  The  Booss  family,  who  emigrated  to  America  years  af- 
ter, was  still  in  possession  of  considerable  means.  Of  nine  children  that  left 
Bahlingen,  in  Baden,  more  than  half  a century  ago,  only  two  are  living,  Mrs. 
John  Schmidt  and  Mrs.  Aug.  Hornung. 

Fred  George  Booss  was  born  November  9,  1812,  and  was  married  on 
Christmas  eve,  1836,  to  Christine  Rohrbacker,  in  Sandusky.  He  worked  in 
Martin  Eldis’s  bakery  for  years,  and  became  the  proprietor  of  the  Portland 
House,  one  of  the  old  landmarks  of  Sandusky.  He  died  in  i860;  his  wife  sur- 
vived him  many  years;  she  died  in  1S86.  Jacob,  who  had  a butcher  stand, 
died  in  1876.  His  widow  lives  on  East  Market  street.  William  was  drowned 


_ 


Mnil  ’ ■ . - 


The  German  Element. 


237 


years  ago.  Martin  died  in  Toledo  in  1885.  Mrs.  Parsons,  Mrs.  J.  Bauer,  and 
Mrs.  Peter  Gilcher  sleep  at  the  side  of  their  life  companions  at  Oakland  Ceme- 
tery. 

The  Magle  family  settled  here  in  1832.  The  two  brothers  were  born  in 
Mehringen,  Wurtemberg,  and  emigrated  in  1831,  making  Sandusky  their  home 
in  the  following  year.  They  were  blacksmiths  by  trade.  George  Magle  was 
born  March  21,  1814,  and  was  married  in  1835  to  Theodora  Mahler.  He  was 
one  of  the  founders  of  the  First  German  Evangelical  Church  in  Sandusky,  and 
a member  of  the  Ancient  Order  of  Druids.  He  died  July  15,  1882,  on  his  farm 
near  the  county  poor-house.  His  brother  John  preceded  him  on  his  last  jour- 
ney many  years  ago. 

John  Hoken  settled  here  in  1833.  Very  little  of  his  family  record  could  be 
ascertained.  He  was  a stone-cutter  by  trade,  and  a sample  of  his  masterly  work 
representing  sun,  moon  and  stars,  may  be  admired  at  any  time  in  passing  Nic. 
Biglin’s  house  on  Market  street.  He  died  in  the  cholera  time,  1849,  dropping 
dead  in  front  of  the  National  House,  and  it  is  a common  popular  belief  that  he 
was  buried  alive. 

Peter  Gilcher  was  born  at  Essweiler,  Rheinbayern,  on  May  24,  1812,  and 
emigrated  to  America  in  1833,  arriving  in  New  York  City  June  24th.  He  was 
a carpenter,  and  worked  faithfully  at  his  trade  for  years.  The  Venice  Mill 
was  built  by  him  and  Fred  Reinheimer.  He  started  into  the  lumber  busi- 
ness about  1845,  his  yard  being  located  at  the  corner  of  Hancock  and  Jeffer- 
son street.  The  business  rapidly  increased,  and  was  transferred  to  its  present 
location  on  Water  street  in  1853.  He  was  married  to  Christine  Barbara  Booss 
on  May  2,  1837.  Of  a large  family  of  eleven  children  three  died  in  their  in- 
fancy, eight  surviving:  Magdalena  Heck,  Wilhelm  Heinrich  Gilcher,  Peter  Gil- 
cher, Christine  Barbara  Kunz,  Carl  August,  Heinrich  Johann,  Josephine  Ma- 
tem  and  Louise  Reif.  P.  Gilcher  was  one  of  the  founders  of  the  First  Ger- 
man Protestant  Church  in  Sandusky,  and  its  presiding  officer  for  many  years, 
tor  political  honors  he  cared  little,  devoting  his  time  principally  to  business 
and  his  family.  In  later  years  he  served  his  constituents  as  infirmary  di- 
rector, councilman  and  water- works  trustee.  He  was  at  the  time  of  his  death 
vice-president  of  the  Third  National  Bank.  In  all  his  dealings  he  was  honest 
and  highly  respected  by  his  fellow-citizens.  He  died  July  1,  1877.  His  wife, 
Christine,  followed  him  two  years  later,  on  August  3. 

Henry  Laubsher  was  born  in  Weingarten,  Baden,  and  emigrated  to  Amer- 
lca  with  his  wife,  Catharine,  in  1833,  making  Sandusky  his  home  in  the  same 
year.  Of  the  four  children  of  their  married  life  only  one  is  now  living,  Mrs. 
Catharine  Neumeyer,  born  May  16,  1834.  She  is,  as  far  as  the  writer  could  as- 
certain, the  second  German  girl  born  in  the  city.  Mr.  Laubscher  was  a mason 
by  trade.  He  died  in  1847,  and  his  wife,  Catharine,  in  1883. 

Nicolaus  Biglin,  originally  Bueglin,  is  one  of  the  oldest  settlers  in  Sandusky. 

31 


238 


History  of  Erie  County. 


He  was  born  in  Arlesheim,  Canton  Basel,  Switzerland,  on  February  12,  1817, 
and  came  to  America  with  his  parents  in  1832.  The  family  settled  in  Rich- 
land county,  near  Mansfield,  O.,  where  his  father  died  in  1833.  In  1835  thev 
moved  to  Sandusky.  Mr.  Biglin  was  married  to  Christine  Louise  Hornung 
June  12,  1847.  Six  of  their  children  are  now  living:  Marie  Louise  Ernst,  John 
Louis,  Louise  Schoeneman,  Nicolaus,  Edward  and  Augustus  Eberhard.  Mr. 
Biglin  was  a common  laborer,  and  retired  from  work  some  years  ago,  enjoying 
with  his  wife,  excellent  health  and  a well  deserved  rest. 

Johannes  Hornung  and  his  wife,  Anna  Maria  Reichenecker,  emigrated  to 
America  with  a family  of  six  children  in  1833.  Rummelsbach,  Oberamt  Tu- 
bingen, Wurtemberg,  was  their  former  home.  For  a short  time  they  lived  in# 
Pennsylvania  and  Richland  county,  O.,  and  in  1835  moved  to  Sandusky.  Mr. 
Hornung  died  of  cholera  in  1849,  an<^  his  wife,  Anna  Maria,  in  1830.  Five  of 
their  children  are  now  living : Johannes,  Christiana  Biglin,  August  Wilhelm, 
Jacob  and  Albert. 

Christopher  Daniel.  The  Daniel  family  had  their  former  home  in  Dorn- 
diel,  Kreis  Tieburg,  Hessen  Darmstadt.  Christopher  was  born  February  25, 
1813,  and  emigrated  with  his  wife,  Marie,  in  1835,  making  Sandusky  his  home 
in  the  same  year.  He  was  a blacksmith,  and  worked  at  his  trade  in  the  S.  M. 
and  N.  R.  R.  shop  till  1849.  In  the  fall  of  that  year  he  bought  the  Loftier 
property  on  the  corner  of  Market  and  Fulton  streets,  and  became  engaged  in 
the  grocery  business.  His  first  wife  died  July  10.  1850.  He  was  married  again 
the  following  year,  and  died  of  cholera  at  his  brother  Peter’s  place  in  Perkins 
township  on  August  3,  1852.  His  second  wife,  Veronica,  died  in  1886.  Pe- 
ter Daniel,  his  brother,  was  a tailor  by  trade;  after  working  a few  years  at  Put- 
in-bay Isle  he  moved  into  Perkins  township,  on  a piece  of  land  he  had  bought. 
He  died  in  1880.  His  wife,  Dorothea,  is  living  at  this  writing. 

Jacob  Lay,  a son  of  Christian  and  Barbara  (Stein)  Lay,  was  born  at  Schafi- 
hausen,  Baden,  in  1814,  and  came  to  Sandusky  with  his  wife,  Maria  Anna  Balz- 
meyer,  in  1836.  He  was  the  pioneer  in  Erie  county  in  the  brewing  business, 
manufacturing  small  beer.  He  kept  a grocery  store  at  the  corner  of  Water  and 
Hancock  streets,  where  L.  Guth’s  hotel  is  now  located.  He  died  in  the  first 
cholera  epidemic  of  1849.  His  three  sons,  Henry,  Jacob  and  John  L.,are  en- 
gaged in  the  fishing  business,  under  the  firm  name  of  Lay  Bros.  Christian 
Lay,  the  father,  died  in  La  Porte,  Indiana.  Barbara,  his  wife,  died  many  years 
ago  in  the  old  country.  p 

John  Martin  Zimmerman  was  born  April  13,  1807,  in  Buechenau,  Oberamt 
Brugsal,  Baden,  and  crossed  the  ocean  with  his  life  companion,  Louise,  in  the 
spring  of  1834.  His  wife,  Louise,  dying  on  shipboard,  found  a watery  grave  a 
few  days  before  he  landed  on  the  shore  of  this  country.  He  was  married  to  his 
second  wife,  Margaretha  Fisher,  on  December  9,  1834,  in  Sandusky,  and  en- 
joyed all  the  blessings  of  a happy  life  with  her  for  nearly  fifty  years.  Of  their 


r 


•-  •>  > . • • " > i I 


The  German  Element. 


^39 


twelve  children,  five  are  now  living:  Martin,  Joseph,  Mrs.  Margaretha  Embse 
(widow),  Johann,  and  Mrs.  Maria  Fitzpatrick.  Mr.  Zimmerman  was  a weaver, 
but  did  not  follow  his  trade  in  this  country.  His  first  home  was  located  on 
Wayne  street,  where  L.  Herb’s  livery  stable  is  located  at  present.  For  years 
he  worked  in  Hollister’s  warehouse,  established  himself  as  a drayman  after- 
wards, and  retired  from  work  in  i860,  having  run  a saloon  on  Wayne  street  for 
several  years.  He  died  on  December  14,  1884.  His  wife,  Margaretha,  pre- 
ceded him  in  1881.  John  Fisher  and  the  Guenther  family  in  the  German  set- 
tlement, Perkins  township,  all  came  to  this  country  in  the  same  boat. 

The  Schuck  family  consisting  of  father,  Jacob,  and  two  sons,  Jacob  j r. , and 
John,  emigrated  to  America  in  1833.  Their  former  home  was  in  Essweiler, 
Rheinpfalz,  Bavaria.  In  Albany,  N.  Y.,  they  parted.  Jacob,  jr. , the  older  of 
the  two  brothers  remained  with  his  wife  in  Albany,  intending  to  make  it  his 
future  home  ; his  father  and  brother,  John,  went  west.  Their  path  was  not 
strewn  with  roses.  A few  weeks  of  hard  work  in  a trench  and  Jacob  broke 
his  leg  and  to  fill  the  measure  his  wife  died  in  the  same  year  and  was  buried 
in  Albany.  Left  in  a strange  country,  without  means  or  funds  he  had  only 
one  desire,  to  meet  again  his  father  and  brother,  who  in  the  meantime  had  di- 
rected their  steps  to  Buffalo,  N.  Y.,  and  in  their  nomade  wanderings  to  Ken- 
ton, Massillon  and  Seneca  county,  O.,  where  they  finally  had  stranded.  Here 
they  met  again  in  the  summer  of  1834  and  kept  council.  It  was  decided  to 
give'  Sandusky  a trial,  and  with  the  royal  fortune  of  fifty  cents  in  their  pockets 
did  they  walk  all  the  way  to  the  Bay  City.  A small  house  on  Jackson  street, 
near  where  Biemiller’s  Opera  House  is  located  now,  gave  them  their  first  shel- 
ter. They  went  to  work  the  next  day.  The  building  occupied  at  this  writ- 
ing by  Barney  & Ferris  on  Water  street,  was  then  in  course  of  construction 
and  they  busied  themselves  carrying  up  bricks,  the  father  for  seventy- five  and 
John  for  fifty  cents  per  day.  It  would  occupy  too  much  space  to  go  into  de- 
tail, but  it  is  sufficient  to  say  that  perseverance  and  faithfulness  received  a proper 
reward.  The  father,  Jacob,  born  in  1781,  lived  long  enough  to  see  his  chil- 
dren well  provided  for  in  life.  He  died  in  1861.  Jacob,  jr.,  the  oldest  son,  was 
born  February  22,  1802,  and  married  his  second  wife,  Magdalena  Benz,  in  1834 
,n  Sandusky.  He  worked  for  six  or  seven  years  in  a warehouse  and  became 
engaged  afterwards  in  the  dray  business.  He  died  March  1 1,  1879,  at  his 
homestead  on  Adams  street.  His  wife,  Magdalene,  died  June  12,  1875.  His 
four  children  now  living  are  Mrs.  Marie  Pietchman,  Mrs.  Julia  Schumacher, 
Mrs.  Wilhelmine  Fisher  and  Mrs.  Christine  Schumaker.  A son  by  the  first 
marriage  is  now  living  in  Minnesota.  John  Schuck,  born  April  22,  1817,  and 
married  in  1840  to  Louise  Knerr,  is  the  representative  of  the  family  in  Erie 
county.  He  is  the  oldest  Germart  settler  in  Sandusky  with  the  exception  of 
one-  His  wife,  Louisa,  died  in  her  seventieth  year,  May  9,  1S83.  Mr.  Schuck 
retired  from  active  life  about  1871,  having  accumulated  considerable  property. 


240 


History  of  Erie  County. 


Of  the  five  children  of  wedded  life,  four  have  died,  only  one  now  living,  Ran- 
del  Schuck,  born  October  6,  1843,  a partner  in  the  prosperous  lumber  firm  of 
Gilcher  & Schuck,  located  on  Water  street,  a stone’s  throw  from  where  his 
father  and  grandfather  found  their  first  shelter. 

Gottlieb  Schieble.  The  Schiebles  had  their  former  home  in  Switzerland, 
in  the  village  Fisselsbach,  Canton  Aargau,  and  emigrated  to  America  in 
1832.  Gottlieb  was  a mere  lad  of  eleven  years,  when  his  parents,  John 
Louis  and  Maria  Schieble  left  the  old  homestead  to  better  their  condition  in 
life.  In  the  same  year  they  settled  in  Richland  county,  O.,  six  miles  west  of 
Shelby,  and  moved  to  Huron  village,  Erie  county,  in  1836.  In  1842  they 
made  Sandusky  their  permanent  home.  Gottlieb,  born  February  27,  1821, 
started  for  himself  in  1834.  There  must  have  been  something  of  the  idyllic 
life  of  an  Alpine  shepherd  boy  in  him,  when  he  hired  himself  to  James  Fore- 
man in  Sandusky,  in  1S34,  to  take  charge  of  a thousand  or  more  sheep,  that 
found  an  abundant  pasture  ground,  and  gratis,  where  Sandusky  stands  to- 
day. Foreman  (old  settlers  will  remember. him  well  as  an  outspoken  advocate 
of  the  doctrines  that  found  a champion  in  Bob  Ingersoll)  paid  him  three  dollars 
per  month  and  board.  In  1836  he  started  to  work  for  L.  S.  Beecher;  a few 
years  later  he  became  a sailor  and  crossed  the  lakes  till  he  entered  the  port  of 
matrimony  with  Catharine  Homegartner  in  January,  1850.  Of  the  seven  chil- 
dren of  wedded  life,  five  are  living,  Maria  Price,  Joseph,  Frank,  Henry  and 
William.  Gottlieb  resides  on  Clinton  street.  Sandusky,  and  is  in  easy  circum- 
stances. He  owns  a small  farm  of  about  fourteen  acres  near  the  brick  mill  in 
Margaretta  township.  His  father  died  in  the  first  cholera  (’49)  and  his  mother, 
Maria,  in  1882. 

Johann  Fehrenz  came  here  in  1834. 

“ Froehlich  Pfalz 
Gott  Er'nalt’s  ! ** 

It  was  a balmy  day  in  the  spring  of  1833,  when  the  Fehrenz  family  said  good- 
by  to  friends,  neighbors,  and  made  their  parting  call  to  the  dear  ones  slumber- 
ing in  the  little  graveyard  of  Welgsweiler  in  Rhefnpfalz,  one  consolation  it  was 
that  trusted  friends,  the  Schuck  family  and  Peter  Gilcher  and  Fred  Reinhei- 
mer  took  passage  on  the  same  boat  to  share  their  lot.  Without  question  many 
a tear  was  shed  when  the  songs  of  the  old  fatherland  died  slowly  away  in  the 
stillness  of  the  night  and  when  they  timidly  directed  their  thoughts  to  what 
would  become  of  them  in  a strange  land.  John  Fehrenz  felt  confident  that  his 
strong  muscular  arms  and  his  trade  as  blacksmith,  would  well  support  his  lov- 
ing wife  and  his  two  children.  He  was  in  the  prime  of  life,  being  born  on  June 
1 7,  1795,  and  his  wife,  Julianna  Steinhauer,  was  ready  and  willing  to  help  him  ; 
as  for  the  children  Philippine  was  in  her  twelfth  year  and  Charles  in  his  fourth, 
and  they  should  share  in  what  they  honestly  expected  to  accomplish  in  their 
new  home.  It  is  well  that  providence  does  not  acquaint  us  with  our  destinies 


The  German  Element. 


241 


as  otherwise  it  would  lame  our  hands  before  having  made  an  earnest  effort.  In 
the  summer  of  1833  the  family  located  in  Massillon,  0.,  and  Fehrenz  started 
to  work  at  his  trade.  In  the  year  following  his  wife  died  and  was  buried  at 
that  place.  In  the  winter  of  1S34  he  moved  with  his  motherless  children  to 
Sandusky  and  opened  a blacksmith  shop  on  Wayne  street,  next  to  the  old 
Hoelzer  House,  his  earnings  being  insufficient  though  for  support,  he  moved 
back  to  Massillon  where  he  faithfully  worked  at  the  anvil  from  1836-46,  when 
lie  retraced  his  steps  to  the  Bay  City.  His  two  children  had,  in  the  meantime, 
grown  up  and  were  in  a condition  to  take  care  of  themselves.  His  daughter, 
Philippine,  born  January  30,  1823,  had  in  1840  taken  Peter  Unckrich  as  a 
partner,  and  Charles,  born  August  9,  1829,  had  found  employment  in  a shop. 
Hack  then  in  Sandusky  they  opened  a provision  store  and  saloon  on  Water  street 
next  door  to  the  old  Bethel  Church,  under  the  firm  name  of  Fehrenz  & Unck- 
rich. In  1849  John  Fehrenz  entered  for  the  second  time  the  bonds  of  matri- 
mony. His  life  companion,  Caroline,  did  go  him  one  better,  having  buried 
two  husbands,  Boehm  and  Reber  in  succession.  Her  dower  consisted  princi- 
pally in  the  two  children,  Amalia  Boehm  and  Frederick  Boehm,  being  nine  and 
eleven  years  old  respectively.  In  he.r  sixteenth  year  Amalia  was  married  to 
Ferdinand  Geiersdorf,  who  became  one  of  the  most  popular  Germans  in  San- 
dusky, and  was  elected  mayor  repeatedly  by  a rousing  popular  vote.  He  ac- 
cumulated great  wealth  in  the  fish  business;  his  goodness  was  proverbial.  He 
died  September  22,  1870,  lamented  by  all  who  knew  the  kindness  of  his  heart. 
His  widow,  Amalia,  married  again  in  1872,  choosing  Louis  Adolph  as  a part- 
ner (Adolph  & Zollinger).  She  died  on  February  9,  1888.  Fred,  her  broth- 
er, is  foreman  in  the  extensive  fish  business  of  his  brother-in-law. 

Old  Father  Fehrenz,  as  he  was  commonly  called,  reached  an  old  age.  He 
was  a founder  of  the  first  German  Church,  and  although  he  left  no  fortune  his 
children  inherited  an  honored  name  without  a speck  or  stain. 

Philippine’s  husband,  Peter  Unckrich,  was  born  May  17,  1817,  in  Hoch- 
staedten,  Rheinpfalz,  and  emigrated  in  1837.  He  died  September  23,  1870. 
The  children  born  to  them  are  all  living  in  Sandusky  (excepting  one)  and  are 
highly  respected.  They  are  Julianne  Bauer,  Crawford  county;  Elizabeth  Ker- 
ner,  Philippine  Koegele,  Emilie  Zimmerman,  Carl,  Johann  and  Ferdinand. 
The  widow,  Philippine,  now  resides  on  the  corner  of  Clinton  and  Madison 
streets. 

Charles  Zollinger  came  to  this  county  in  1835.  the  list  of  German  pi- 
oneers the  Zollingers  take  a well  deserved  place.  Uprightness  and  fairness  in 
all  their  dealings,  and  an  exemplary  Christian  life  call  for  a more  than  passing 
notice.  Charles  Zollinger  was  born  July  23,  1813,  in  Wiessbaden,  Nassau,  and 
emigrated  to  America  in  1835.  He  was  a wood-turner  by  profession  and 
niade  Sandusky  his  permanent  home  in  the  same  year.  His  stepfather,  W ill- 
’•ani  Meyer,  and  his  mother,  Johanette,  settled  in  Richland  county,  where  they 


242 


History  of  Erie  County. 


lived  on  a farm  for  several  years.  They  subsequently  moved  to  Sandusk> 
and  then  to  Fort  Wayne,  Ind.,  where  they  died,  being  respectively  seventy- 
five  and  eighty-three  years  of  age.  Charles  being  a skillful  mechanic  found 
ready  work  in  Thomas  White’s  cabinet  shop  on  Hancock  street,  near  the  east 
Market  Square,  and  was  in  his  employ  for  nearly  five  years.  Whenever  you 
pass  O.  Follett's  house  on  the  corner  of  Wayne  and  Adams  streets,  look  up  to 
the  bannister’s  and  scroll  work,  they  are  samples  of  his  work  dating  back  to 
1836.  In  1840  Charles  Zollinger  branched  out  for  himself  on  the  corner  of 
Wayne  and  Washington  streets,  by  renting  a wooden  structure  belonging  to 
the  Clemons  family  on  the  Peninsula.  He  employed  from  four  to  six  work- 
men all  the  year  round.  In  those  days  nothing  was  known  about  “ cheap 
John  " goods,  everything  was  substantial  and  made  to  last  for  a generation  or 
two.  Improved  machinery  and  cheap  labor  put  an  end  to  this  as  well  as 
many  other  industries  that  were  prosperous  in  the  good  old  time.  In  the 
cholera  of  1849  his  shop  was  running  day  and  night  to  meet  the  demand  for 
coffins,  plain  and  unfinished  as  they  were.  In  1863  he  moved  his  shop  to 
Wayne  street,  next  door  to  the  corner  of  Market.  Undertaking  had  then  be- 
come the  most  remunerative  part  of  his  business.  He  retired  in  1868  in  pos- 
session of  considerable  wealth.  Christ  R.  Ruff  (member  of  the  firm  of  Ruff, 
Son  & Kugler)  became  his  successor.  Charles  Zollinger  was  married  in  1839 
to  Christine  Schmidt,  who  was  born  April  14,  1821,  in  Bahlingen,  Baden.  Of 
the  twelve  children  born  to  them  in  married  life  ten  are  now  living,  viz.: 
Maria  Nagele,  Sandusky;  John,  Adolph  and  Zollinger;  Henriette  Weiss,  San- 
dusky; Catharine  Schneer,  Elyria;  Carl,  Columbus;  Christine  Crass,  San- 
dusky ; Elizabeth,  Sandusky  ; William,  Powers  & Zollinger  ; Frederick,  Third 
National  Bank;  and  Frank,  Sandusky.  Mr.  Zollinger  died  in  1S68.  His 
widow  is  enjoying  good  health  and  the  fruit  of  hard  and  honest  work. 

Johannes  Schmidt  was  in  Bahlingen,  Baden,  in  1784,  and  emigrated  with 
his  wife,  Catharine  Ernst,  in  1833.  He  was  a baker  by  profession.  Their 
journey  through  France  was  accomplished  by  wagon.  In  Havre  de  Grace 
they  took  passage  with  the  Booss  family  on  the  sailing  vessel  Henry  Clay. 
The  Booss  family  were  very  wealthy,  said  the  Widow  Zollinger,  in  conversa- 
tion to  the  writer,  the  chest  containing  their  money  and  valuables  was  heavy 
enough  to  require  two  men  to  lift  it  on  the  wagon.  For  seven  long  weeks 
did  they  encounter  wind  and  storm  on  the  ocean.  At  their  arrival  in  New 
York  they  directed  their  steps  to  the  metropolis  of  the  west,  Sandusky.  The 
steamboat  Perry  landed  them  safely  near  the  B.  and  O.  R.R.  shops.  A little 
house  on  Water  street  was  their  first  home,  but  they  did  not  stay  more  than 
two  or  three  weeks,  when  they  moved  to  Richland  county,  the  El  Dorado  in 
those  days,  as  the  name  plainly  signifies.  Here  Johannes  Schmidt  settled  with 
his  wife  and  children,  here  he  toiled  and  died.  Eand  was  cheap  in  those  days, 
fifty  dollars  paid  for  their  first  homestead  of  forty  acres,  but  it  was  a wilder- 


The  German  Element. 


ness,  tasking  physical  strength  to  the  utmost.  In  order  to  lessen  the  burden 
the  older  children  left  the  parental  roof  and  came  to  Sandusky  in  1834,  where 
Christine  found  work  in  Hollister’s  family  and  John  in  a baker  sho.p.  John 
lived  only  a short  time  in  Sandusky  when  he  moved  to  Fremont,  Toledo,  and 
in  the  gold  fever  to  California.  In  1852  he  came  back  to  Sandusky  and  en- 
gaged in  the  wholesale  liquor  business  on  Water  street  with  his  brother-in-law 
Parsons.  He  died  several  years  ago.  His  wife  is  living  on  Jackson  street. 
Johannes  Schmidt  died  February  22,  1870,  and  his  wife,  Catharine,  on  Janu- 
ary 16  of  the  same  year.  The  names  of  their  children  are  as  follows:  Chris- 
tine Zollinger,  Maria  Barbara  Holderman,  Elizabeth  Nicolai,  Frederick,  John, 
Catharine  Klink  and  Rosine  Schroeder. 

Valentin  Nicolai  was  born  in  Saxonia  in  1806  and  emigrated  in  1834.  He 
worked  at  his  trade,  that  of  carpenter,  for  many  years  with  Peter  Gilcher  and 
F.  R.  Rheinheimer.  In  1837  he  was  married  to  Elizabeth  Schmidt;  of  their 
six  children  four  are  now  living:  Frederick,  residing  in  Tiffin;  Ezra,  also  a 
resident  of  Tiffin  ; Johannes,  residing  in  Cincinnati,  and  Christine  Scheer,  of 
Michigan.  Mr.  Nicolai  died  of  the  cholera  in  the  epidemic  of  1849.  His 
widow  is  living  at  the  Rohrbacher  homestead  in  Perkins  township. 

Johannnes  Heimgartner  (Homegardner)  was  born  in  Fisselsbach,  Canton 
Aargau,  Switzerland,  and  emigrated  with  his  wife,  Catharine,  to  America  in 
1833.  He  settled  in  Richland  county,  O.,  in  the  same  year,  on  a farm  con- 
sisting of  one  hundred  acres,  which  he  had  bought  for  ten  shillings  per  acre, 
the  regular  market  price  in  those  days.  In  1837  he  sold  his  farm,  doubling 
his  money,  and  moved  to  Sandusky,  where  he  died  in  1840.  His  widow  sur- 
vived him  twenty-six  years.  Following  are  the  names  of  the  children  of  this 
marriage : Barbara  McHatton,  widow  ; George,  Catharine  Schieble,  Eliza- 

beth Hauck,  widow;  John  and  Jasper.  The  three  brothers  were  engaged  in 
their  earlier  days  in  the  timber  business,  felling  the  stately  oak  and  hickory 
trees  near  Venice.  They  found  a ready  market  whenever  they  came  to  San- 
dusky with  their  oxen  teams. 

John  Homegardner,  representative  of  the  family  in  Erie  county,  was  born 
December  20,  1829,  and  was  married  in  1852  to  Marie  Loeblein.  In  i860  he 
engaged  in  the  wood,  sand  and  stone  business,  and  has  become  one  of  the 
most  substantial  business  men  of  the  town.  He  has  served  his  constituents 
for  many  years  in  different  capacities,  being  elected  councilman  in  the  fifth 
ward.  He  held  this  office  for  twenty-one  consecutive  years.  In  1881  he  was 
elected  county  commissioner,  and  retired  in  1887,  after  six  years  of  service. 
He  was  a member  of  the  Buckeye  l7ire  Company  for  eight  years.  The  Home- 
gardners  are  devout  Catholics.  Of  their  six  children  five  are  now  living: 
Catharine  Giedeman,  John,  Louise,  Josephine  and  Fred. 

Conrad  Poppenbo  settled  here  in  1835.  conversation  with  his  step-son, 
Herman  Windau,  the  following  interesting  sketch  of  the  first  German  engineer 


244 


History  of  Erie  County. 


on  the  old  Mad  River  road  was  taken  : “ My  step-father,  Conrad  Poppenbo," 
he  said,  “was  married  to  my  mother,  Lucaea  Burman,  in  the  old  country  fifty 
years  ago.  My  father,  Anton  Riedenbusch,  had  his  residence  in  the  cast:- 
Windau,  Westphalia,  and  was  a high  officer  in  the  government  service.  He 
died  in  1832.  For  some  reason  our  mother  never  acquainted  us  with  our 
father’s  name  till  we  were  grown  up,  and  we  had  in  the  meantime  adopted  the 
name  of  our  former  estate,  ‘ Windau.’  The  family  consisted  of  five  of  us  when 
we  emigrated  in  1835,  my  parents  and  three  of  us  children,  viz.:  Joseph  Ried- 
enbusch-Windau ; Moritz  Riedenbusch,  Seneca  county ; and  Hermann,  of 
Sandusky.  Sandusky  became  our  home  in  the  same  year,  and  I have  lived 
and  worked  here  faithfully  for  nearly  half  a century.’’  Standing  in  the  yard 
of  the  old  Mad  River  Company’s  shops  he  pointed  out  a landmark;  “where 
you  see  the  three  old  oak  trees  near  the  Market  street  entrance,”  he  said. 
“ Davidson’s  slaughter-house  was  standing  fifty  years  ago  ; to  your  left  and 
only  a short  distance  from  the  paint-shop  was  the  boundary  line  of  the  firu. 
burying-ground  in  Sandusky,  that  was  located  at  the  foot  of  Shelby  street 
Everything  has  changed.  I was  a mere  lad  of  twelve  or  thirteen  years  when 
the  first  road  to  Bellevue  was  surveyed  in  1839,  but  I recollect  it  as  well  as 
to-day,  when  I was  carrying  the  chain  and  made  myself  generally  useful. 
After  the  strap  rails  were  laid  Thomas  Hogg  became  the  first  engineer  on  the 
primitive  branch  of  the  road,  and  my  step-father,  Conrad,  became  his  fireman 
Jn  my  recollection  the  Lane,  Erie,  Sandusky  and  Wyandotte  were,  in  the 
order  named,  the  first  engines  operated  on  this  road.  The  crew  consisted  cl 
three  men,  an  engineer  and  a fireman,  and  wood  passer.  They  worked  by  the 
day  and  received  $1.50  and  $1.00  respectively.  It  was  customary  in  those 
days  that  everybody  had  to  work  himself  up  on  the  ladder.  After  Thomas 
Hogg’s  promotion  to  the  place  of  master  mechanic,  my  father  took  charge 
of  Tom’s  engine,  and  Paul  Klauer,  who  settled  here  in  1837,  became  h:s 
fireman.  After  Klauer’s  promotion,  a few  years  later,  he  engaged  John  Hauer 
as  fireman,  who,  in  due  time,  was  entrusted  with  an  iron  horse  of  his  own. 
Both  died  of  the  cholera  in  1849.  Paul  Klauer,  in  harness,  being  taken  sick 
on  the  road,  was  carried  from  his  engine  into  the  station-house  at  Urbana. 
where  he  died.  His  widow,  Catharine,  was  married  in  1852  for  the  second 
time,  choosing  Math.  Dietz  as  a partner.  She  is  living  on  Fulton  street  in 
feeble  health.  ‘This  reminds  me,’  said  my  captive,  ‘of  a curious  affair  that 
occurred  in  the  first  years  after  the  old  Mad  River  road  became  operated.  A 
young  man,  by  name  Besterman,  had  found  employment  on  one  of  the  loco- 
motives as  fireman,  and  had  made  a trip  or  two  when  his  work  terminated 
rather  abruptly.  His  aged  mother,  after  having  implored  him  to  give  up  the 
devil’s  work,  threw  herself  bodily  before  his  engine  as  he  was  ready  to  pu: 
®ut,  and  prayed  so  fervently  to  give  up  the  devil’s  wagon  that  her  prayer  was 
answered.  He  resigned  the  same  day  and  moved  subsequently  to  Cincinnati 


' 


The  German  Element. 


245 


with  his  mother.’  My  step-father,  C.  Poppenbo,  resigned  his  post  in  1859, 
and  died  six  years  ago  on  a farm  which  he  had  bought  out  of  his  savings,  in 
I3ig  Spring  township,  Seneca  county.”  Hermann  Windau  said  : “As  for  my- 
self,  I was  born  on  June  24,  1826,  and  worked  on  this  road  from  boyhood,  at 
first  in  the  yard,  then  as  wood  passer,  and  for  years  past,  as  you  see  me  now, 
attending  the  boiler  in  our  extensive  shops.  I was  married  to  my  wife,  Marie 
Eva  Caspar,  in  1847.  Of  our  seven  children,  five  are  now  living.  You  had 
better  see  old  Kenne  and  Hank  Pfenner,  if  I have  left  space  for  supplement- 
ing,” he  said,  as  I closed  my  book  with  many  thanks  for  the  interesting  in- 
terview. 

Johann  Loffler  settled  in  this  county  in  1835.  Every  one  of  the  old  set- 
tlers will  recollect  the  Loffiers,  and  these  lines  will  bring  to  memory  their 
tragic  end.  It  seems  cruel  that  the  cold  hand  of  death  should  exterminate  a 
whole  family  of  six  within  the  short  period  of  a week  or  two,  leaving  a helpless 
baby  to  the  cold  mercies  of  this  world.  Johann  Loffler  was  born  in  Rentheim, 
Bavaria,  and  was  a tailor  by  trade.  He  emigrated  to  America  in  1835,  an<^ 
was  married  to  Catharine,  in  Sandusky,  in  the  same  year.  He  became  quite 
prosperous  from  the  start,  and  acquired  a little  property  on  the  corner  of  Ful- 
ton and  Market  streets,  where  he  worked  at  his  trade  and  kept  a saloon  and 
boarding-house  in  combination.  In  1846  he  built  the  commodious  brick  house 
on  the  corner,  owned  at  present  by  Anselm  Albrecht.  In  the  meantime  he 
had  added  a selected  stock  of  groceries  to  his  business.  Here  they  lived  hap- 
pily and  prospered  until  1849,  when  the  cholera  overtook  them  alike  with 
countless  other  families  in  Sandusky.  Of  a once  happy  family  circle  none 
was  left  excepting  John,  the  babe,  who  in  his  innocent  prattle  betrayed  no 
signs  of  grief.  We  give  the  death  record  of  this  unfortunate  family:  John 
and  Catharine  Loeffler ; George,  aged  eleven;  Francisca,  aged  eight  years; 
Conrad,  aged  six  years ; and  Wilhelm,  aged  four  years.  John,  although  in- 
heriting the  old  homestead,  is  a poor  man.  The  administration  for  many  years 
swallowed  up  a large  share  of  the  estate,  and  what  finally  passed  into  his  hands 
"‘as  quickly  lost,  as  he  had  no  chance  in  his  former  dependent  life  to  acquire 
correct  business  principles,  and  was  left  without  a guiding  hand.  He  is  now 
»n  his  fortieth  year,  honest  to  a fault,  and  single.  With  him  will  die  the  last 
of  the  Loefflers. 

Fred  Reinheimer  settled  here  in  1833.  As  a young  man  of  twenty-two 
years  did  Mr.  Reinheimer  leave  his  native  village  in  Bavaria  to  better  himselt 
,n  the  new  world.  He  was  a carpenter  by  trade  and  worked  side  by  side  with 
frk‘ter  Gilcher  and  Valentine  Nicolai  for  years.  He  accumulated  considerable 
Property,  but  was  so  unfortunate  as  to  lose  it  again.  His  last  days  were  passed 
In  almost  total  blindness.  He  could  have  saved  himself  from  ruin,  had  he 
chosen,  but  he  preferred  rather  to  live  and  die  in  scantiness  than  to  deviate 
from  the  path  of  honor.  He  was  one  of  the  founders  of  the  first  German  Prot- 
32 


■ 


246 


History  of  Erie  County. 


estant  Church  in  Sandusky.  He  was  born  February  15,  1811,  in  Horschbach, 
Rheinpfalz  and  was  married  in  1840.  His  first  wife  died  in  1849  °f  cholera. 
Elizabeth  Gartner  became  his  second  wife.  She  is  living  on  Meigs  street  in  a 
little  house  of  her  own.  Seventeen  children  were  born  in  the  two  marriages 
Mr.  Rheinheimer  died  March  13,  1882. 

John  Jacob  Klooss  (Close)  and  his  wife,  Magdalene  Walter,  had  their  former 
home  in  the  Grand  Duchy  of  Baden,  in  Weingarten  and  Groetzingen,  respec- 
tively. They  joined  hands  in  1829  and  it  was  God’s  will  that  they  should  mu- 
tually share  for  fifty  years  the  joy  and  sorrow  of  a married  life.  Two  children, 
John  Henry  and  John  Jacob  were  born  in  the  old  county.  In  the  spring  of 
1834,  they  emigrated  to  America,  arriving  at  Sandusky  in  May.  In  this  city 
they  lived  and  worked  for  half  a century,  with  the  exception  of  six  years  (37-43) 
when  Massillon,  O.,  became  their  temporary  home.  Nine  children  were  born 
to  them,  including  the  two  born  in  the  old  country.  At  their  festive  day  of 
golden  wedding,  in  the  fall  of  1879,  they  could  count  the  Closes  by  the  score, 
nine  children,  forty  grandcnildren  and  two  great-grandchildren.  Klooss  was  a 
day  laborer,  but  managed  to  acquire  a home  of  his  own  in  a short  time.  He 
was  a respected  and  well  loved  citizen.  He  was  one  of  the  founders  of  the 
first  German  Protestant  Church.  He  died  July  22,  and  his  wife  in  February, 
1880. 

A practical  joke,  played  on  him  only  a few  years  after  his  coming  to  San- 
dusky, may  find  a place  here,  it  will  bring  a smile  even  to  the  lips  of  a misan- 
thrope. Close  was  very  found  of  poultry  and  fancied  his  ducks  especially. 
One  night  they  failed  to  reach  their  home  and  nothing  was  heard  or  seen  of 
them  for  several  days  ; all  hopes  of  their  recovery  had  long  been  given  up, 
when  in  the  morning  a solitary  duck  entered  the  gate  with  the  following  orig- 
inal poem  well  secured  on  her  neck  : 

**  Guten  Morgen,  Herr  Klooss  ! 

Hier  bin  ich,  arm  und  Blooss, 

Doch  meine  arme  Camerathen 
Sind  alle  Gebrathen  !” 


The  perpetrator  has  not  been  found  to  this  day. 

Henry  Sprau  came  to  this  place  in  1839.  Two  old,  time  worn  papers  are 
before  me,  the  one  a citizen  paper  dated  September  26,  1844,  and  signed  by 
Rice  Harper,  clerk  of  Erie  county,  and  the  other  a Dienstbuch,  from  which 
I copy  the  following  entry  : 

“ Das  betragen  von  Meiner 
Mackt  is  gut,  welches 
Ich  bescheinige.’' 

27th  December,  1836. 


“Johannes  Ross, 

“ZU  WURZELBACH.” 


As  an  explanation  I will  say,  that  servants  were  under  strict  police  control  fifty 
years  ago  in  the  old  country  and  that  by  a heavy  penalty,  their  conduct  had 


' 

, 


The  German  Element. 


247 


to  be  written  into  a special  book  (Dienstbuch)  every  year  by  the  head  of  the 
family  they  were  employed  by.  They  were  not  allowed  to  change  their  places 
without  due  cause  and  reason  before  the  expiration  of  the  contract.  The  first 
twelve  pages  of  this  interesting  little  book  gives  in  twenty-two  articles,  the  laws 
passed  in  1838  in  Hessen,  regulating  the  conduct  and  duties  of  servants.  For 
the  edification  of  those  interested,  one  of  the  articles  is  given  in  translation : 
Article  VIII.  Servants  not  born  in  the  district  where  employed,  shall  forci- 
bly— auf  dem  schub  — be  expelled  and  taken  to  the  nearest  boundary  line 
for  the  following  reasons,  viz  : 

1st.  For  breaking  their  contract  without  cause. 

2d.  For  absenting  themselves  at  night  time  without  permission  of  the  lady 
of  the  house. 

3d.  For  associating  with  bad  company. 

4th.  For  changing  places  repeatedly  in  a year’s  time. 

5th.  For  contracting  at  the  same  time  with  different  parties. 

The  citizen  paper  bears  the  name  of  Henry  Sprau  ; the  “ Dienstbuch  ” was 
at  one  time  the  property  of  his  second  wife,  Marie  J ustine  Bauer.  Henry  Sprau 

was  born  in  Waldshausen,  Bavaria,  in  1815  and  emigrated  in  1839,  making 
Sandusky  his  permanent  home,  where  he  was  engaged  in  the  dray  business  for 
thirty  years.  He  was  married  twice.  One  of  the  three  sons  of  his  first  mar- 
riage, Henry,  is  living  at  Put-in-bay  Island.  With  his  second  wife,  Marie  Jus- 
tine, he  had  eight  children,  four  of  whom  are  now  living  viz  : Paul,  Marie, 
Wilhelm  and  Susie.  Mr.  Sprau  died  in  September,  1869,  and  his  second  wife 
on  March  27,  1874.  He  left  to  his  children  a homestead  on  Adams  street. 

Conrad  Ebner  emigrated  to  America  with  his  wife,  Catharine  Biehler,  in 
1836.  Their  wealth  consisted  principally  in  three  helpless  waifs,  Marie  three 
years  old,  Peter,  nearly  two  years,  and  Caroline,  nine  months.  After  a short 
stay  in  Sandusky  they  moved  into  Richland  county,  where  they  settled  on 
a farm,  returning  to  Sandusky  in  1845,  where  they  died.  Their  children 
live  and  prosper  in  this  city.  Peter,  now  a confectioner  on  Market  street ; 
Marie,  wife  of  Conrad  Mooss,  residing  on  Decatur  street,  and  Caroline,  widow 
of  Ph.  Walter,  residing  on  Tiffin  avenue. 

Jacob  Knerr,  whose  home  was  in  Battenbach,  near  Zweibruecken,  Bavaria, 
"here  he  kept  a tavern,  engaged,  in  his  spare  hours,  in  the  honest  profes- 
sion of  tailor.  His  wife,  Elizabeth  Margarethe  Schweitzer,  having  died,  he 
took  heart  to  cross  the  ocean  with  his  four  children,  Louise,  Catharine  Eliza- 
beth, Catharine  and  Elizabeth.  Almanacs  could  not  have  been  as  plenti- 
ful then  as  now.  The  similarity  in  names  was  perplexing  enough  to  cost 
the  writer  a couple  of  hours  work  to  cut  the  Gordian  Knot.  Louise  became 
the  wife  of  John  Schuck,  and  died  in  1883;  Catharine  Elizabeth  was  married  to 
Matthew  Dietz  and  died  in  1851;  Catharine  became  Paul  Klauer’s  wife  and  suc- 
ceeded her  sister,  after  her  husband’s  death  in  Urbana,  in  marrying  M.  Dietz, 


248 


History  of  Erie  County. 


and  Elizabeth,  Jacob  Hertels  first  wife,  died  in . Mr.  Knerr  worked  fora 

short  time  at  his  trade,  when  he  retired,  to  live  with  his  children.  He  was  one 
of  the  founders  of  the  First  German  Protestant  Church  in  Sandusky  and  used 
to  busy  himself  as  sexton  of  his  church  for  years.  He  died  in  1849  of  cholera. 

Jacob  Benz  came  to  Sandusky  in  1834.  If  there  is  anything  in  a name  it 
is  not  easily  comprehended  why  the  village  of  Weingarten  (Vinegarden)  in 
Baden  should  have  furnished  such  an  unusual  large  contingent  of  early  settlers 
In  this  as  in  many  other  instances  can  the  real  cause  be  traced  to  repeated 
failures  in  crops  and  high  and  accumulating  taxes;  again  the  whole  town  was 
intermarried  and  the  glowing  letters  from  the  new  world  spread  like  wild  fire 
and  awakened  a desire  to  participate  in  all  the  blessings  so  vividly  described. 
Jacob  Benz,  sr.,  was  one  of  the  :many  that  left  Weingarten  in  1834  with  his  wife, 
Barbara  Meyer.  He  was  a weaver  but  never  worked  at  his  trade  in  this  coun- 
try. He  made  his  living  as  a day  laborer  and  drayman.  On  account  of  the 
deep  interest  he  took  in  the  establishment  of  the  First  German  Protestant 
Church,  he  earned  the  name  of  Church  Father  (Kirchen-father)  Benz.  Of  the 
original  eleven  founders  of  this  church  only  one  or  two  are  living  at  this  writ- 
ing. Of  the  five  children  born  in  wedlock  two  have  died  viz.:  Mrs.  Jacob 
Schuck  and  Christian.  The  Benz  family  is  represented  in  Erie  county  by  Ja- 
cob jr.,  a drayman  ; Eva  Catharine  Reinheimer,  Barbara  Walter.  Jacob  Benz. 

sr.,  died  in , and  his  wife,  Barbara,  in . Jacob  Benz,  jr.,  was  born 

Juiy  23,  1823,  in  Weingarten,  Baden,  and  was  married  in  1847  to  Christina 
Wagner  in  Sandusky,  O.  Seven  children  were  born  to  them,  all  of  whom  are 
now  living:  Christine  Waterfield,  Elizabeth  Bersch,  Port  Clinton;  Fred,  Car- 
oline Belt,  Toledo,  O. ; Marie  Moore,  Julia  Hayden,  Indiana,  and  Jessie  Hoe- 
lein. 

Johann  Heinrich  Platz  was  Pennsylvania  German  and  was  born  near  Beth- 
lehem, January  7,  1819.  He  came  to  Sandusky  in  1832,  where  he  learned  the 
carpenter  trade  with  Sam  White,  sr.  In  1845  he  was  married  to  Margarethe 
Bauer.  He  was  a charter  member  of  the  First  German  Protestant  Church  and 
an  organizer  of  the  first  fire  company  in  Sandusky.  He  died  in  the  prime  of 
life  on  July  22,  1849,  of  cholera.  His  widow  became  the  wife  of  J.  Clemens 
in  1851.  J.  Clemens  died  in  May,  1888. 

John  Koegle,  who  came  here  in  1839,  was  a son  of  Jacob  and  Catharine 
Koegle,  and  was  born  September  23,  1813,  in  Weingarten,  Baden,  and  emi- 
grated with  his  wife,  Maria  Eva  Meyer,  and  their  infant  daughter,  Elizabeth, 
in  1837,  making  Sandusky  their  permanent  home  in  1839.  Elizabeth  was  mar- 
ried to  P'erdinand  Ziegler,  and  died  a year  ago.  Of  the  six  children  born  to 
them  in  this  country  only  two  are  now  living  viz.:  George,  the  efficient  street 
commissioner,  and  August,  the  prosperous  dry  goods  merchant  of  Hancock 
street.  For  thirty-six  years  did  John  Koegle  work  faithfully  for  the  old  San- 
dusky, Mansfield  and  Newark,  and  the  B.  and  O.  R.  R.  He  retired  a few  years 


' 


The  German  Element. 


249 


a<r0  to  pass  the  years  of  his  allowance  in  peace  and  rest.  His  first  wife  died  in 
1861.  Susanna  Gablentz  became  his  second  partner.  Two  sons  and  one 
daughter  are  the  fruits  of  this  marriage. 

John  Klauss  came  here  in  1835.  No  reliable  information  could  be  ascer- 
tained about  this  family.  Mr.  Klauss  was  a day  laborer  and  was  married  in 
Sandusky.  They  had  no  children.  He  died  in  the  last  cholera  time  (1854). 
His  widow  moved  to  Elmore,  O.,  where  she  married  again. 

Gottfried  and  Charles  Doerflinger  came  here  in  1836.  A majestic  bronze 
statue  “ Under  den  Linden  ” in  Berlin  represents  Doerflingcr,  the  general  in 
chief,  the  hero  of  the  battle  of  Fehrbellin  (1675),  the  trusted  friend  of  Fred- 
erick of  Brandenburg,  who  laid  the  corner  stone  to  Prussia’s  present  might  and 
glory.  A poor  tailor  in  his  younger  days  did  he  exchange  the  yard  stick 
for  the  sword  and  became  a hero,  immortalized  in  song  and  speech.  Gott- 
fried the  subject  of  our  sketch,  has  seen  similar  changes  in  his  life ; a tailor  like 
him — although  the  habitations  in  the  old  country  are  too  far  apart  as  to  admit 
of  any  relation — did  he  exchange  the  yard  stick  for  the  terror  of  unruly  boys, 
the  rod,  and  became  the  first  German  teacher  in  the  public  schools  of  San- 
dusky many  years  ago.  He  commanded,  like  his  namesake,  an  army,  but 
only  of  boys  and  girls,  and  worked  his  way  faithfully  and  without  any  osten- 
tation for  more  than  thirty  years.  He  retired  a year  or  two  ago  to  spend  file 
remainder  of  his  life  with  his  wife  and  children.  Carl  Doerflinger,  his  brother, 
emigrated  in  the  same  year,  1836.  He  was  born  in  Blankenloch,  Baden,  in 
1825,  and  was  married  to  Margarethe  Maul  in  Sandusky  in  1850.  For  more 
than  thirty  years  has  he  been  in  the  employ  of  the  Old  Mad  River  Railroad 
as  carpenter.  The  names  of  the  children  of  his  family  are  given  as  follows  : 
Louise  Prediger,  Christine  Bock,  Frank  and  John. 

Heinrich  Walter  came  to  Sandusky  in  1835.  His  cradle  stood  in  Kret- 
zingen,  Baden,  where  he  was  born  in  1813.  He  emigrated  in  1836  making 
Sandusky  his  home  until  about  ten  years  ago,  when  he  settled  with  his  grown 
up  boys  on  a well  cultivated  farm  in  Perkins  township,  about  five  miles  from 
town.  Walter  was  married  to  Barbara,  a daughter  of  old  Jacob  Benz,  in  San- 
dusky. By  trade  he  was  a shoemaker,  and  managed  to  accumulate  by  hard 
"ork  sufficient  means  to  pass  his  last  days  in  comfort.  Of  the  nine  children 
born  in  married  life,  six  are  living,  viz.:  Jacob  Walter,  Caroline  Spiegel,  Per- 
kins township;  Susanne  Fischer,  Middle  Bass  Tsle  ; Wilhelm  W.,  Johann  W. 
and  Carl  W.  in  Perkins. 

Christian  Engel  came  to  Sandusky  in  1835.  Of  the  five  children  of  John 
Peter  Engel  and  his  wife  Sophie  I'rederika  Eleonore  Ernstine,  two  died  in 
tbe  old  home  in  Ostheim,  P'or  der  Rhoen,  in  Saxonia  ; the  remaining  three, 
Christian,  Christiane  and  Marie  made  Sandusky  their  home.  Christian,  the 
oldest,  became  a resident  as  early  as  1835.  He  was  a shoemaker  by  trade, 
and  had  his  workshop  where  Kunzman’s  hotel  is  located  on  Jackson  street. 


250 


History  of  Erie  County. 


He  was  married  in  Sandusky  to  Maria  Anne  Biglin.  A number  of  years  ago 
he  left  his  bench  and  settled  in  Put-in-Bay  Island,  where  he  is  engaged  in  the 
grape  culture.  His  children  are  living  at  the  same  place.  Christiane  Eliza- 
beth was  born  March  8,  1812,  and  married  in  1843  to  John  Christopher  Klee, 
and  came  with  her  husband  to  Sandusky  a year  before  the  first  cholera.  She 
died  in  1887.  Her  husband,  and  the  only  son,  John,  are  living  on  Adams 
street.  Maria,  the  oldest  one,  was  born  in  1808,  and  married  in  the  old  coun- 
try to  Andreas  Duennisch.  After  her  husband’s  death  she  made  Sandusky 
her  home.  She  died  in  1886.  Her  two  sons  are  well  provided  for;  Louis  is 
the  manager  of  the  Butlers’  planing  mill,  and  Christian,  the  oldest,  has  become 
a wealthy  farmer  in  Margaretta  township. 

Daniel  Reinheimer,  a son  of  Peter  and  Elizabeth  Reinheimer  was  born 
in  Horschbach,  Bavaria,  in  1815,  and  joined  his  uncle  Fred  in  Sandusky  in 
1840.  Regine  Emele  became  his  wife  in  1844.  Eleven  children  were  born 
to  them.  In  1854  the  family'  moved  west  and  settled  on  a farm  near  Sheboy- 
gan, Wis.  Wilhelm  R.  was  born  in  1822,  and  made  Sandusky  his  home  in 
1845,  and  was  married  two  years  later  to  Eva  Catharine  Benz.  Nine  children 
were  born  to  them,  all  are  now  living,  except  one.  Wilhelm  now  resides  on 
Perry  street.  Jacob  was  born  October  1,  1820,  and  was  the  last  of  the  family 
to.  this  country  in  company-  with  the  aged  parents.  The  old  dayr  book  of 
Peter  Reinheimer  is  before  me  and  I take  liberty  to  copy'  from  it  (translated). 

1848,  May  18,  we  left  Horschbach  this  day-. 

May  24,  we  arrived  at  London. 

June  1,  started  on  shipboard. 

July  9,  arrived  at  New  York. 

July  21,  landed  at  Sandusky. 

September  1,  bought  a lot  for  $330. 

Build  house  same  year  fo.r  $486.40. 

Summary  $816.40. 

Old  Peter  Reinheimer  and  his  wife  died  years  ago.  The  children  are  liv- 
ing, honest  and  industrious  as  they  are,  they'  never  accumulated  means  of  any 
account.  The  support  of  a large  family'  absorbed  the  earnings  of  a year's 
hard  work. 

Adam  Hemberle  came  here  in  1 83 S.  The  Hemberle  family,  consisting  of 
the  parents,  Adam  and  his  wife  and  five  children,  John,  Frederick,  Caroline, 
Christine  and  Marie,  left  their  former  home,  Blankenloch,  in  Baden,  in  tin- 
spring  of  1836,  and  settled  on  a farm  in  Crawford  county,  O.,  in  the  same 
year.  Two  yrears  later  they'  moved  to  Sandusky'  where  they  lived  and  died 
years  ago.  Of  the  five  children  only'  three  are  now  living:  Frederika,  wife  oi 
John  Fisher  ; Caroline,  wife  of  Adam  Bauer,  and  Marie,  wife  of  Adam  Zim- 
mermacher.  John  and  Christine,  who  was  the  wife  of  Casper  Schneider  are  in 
a better  world.  Mr.  Hemberle  was  a day  laborer  and  much  respected. 


' 


The  German  Element. 


251 


Jacob  Hopfinger  was  born  in  1795  in  Eisenthal,  Rheinpfalz,  and  came  to 
Sandusky  in  1840.  His  first  wife,  Sylvia  Braun,  died  in  the  old  country. 
He  married  again,  choosing  Elizabeth  Burghofer  as  a partner.  Two  of  his 
children  are  living  in  Sandusky,  viz  : Margarethe  Weiss  and  Magdalene 
Scherer.  He  died  on  June  12,  1879,  in  Ottawa  county. 

Conrad  Linker  came  to  Sandusky  in  1839,  and  was  a son  of  Heinrich  and 
Anna  Elizabeth  (Rudolph)  Linker.  He  was  born  May  15,  1791,  in  Specks- 
winkel,  Hessen,  and  was  married  in  1818  in  the  old  country  to  Christine  Rose. 
He  left  his  home  in  1832  with  the  intention  to  meet  relatives  in  Crawford 
county,  O.  His  wife  died  almost  in  sight  of  their  destination  and  was  buried 
in  Mansfield.  She  was  in  her  thirty-eighth  year.  In  1839  Linker  moved  to 
Sandusky  to  live  with  his  daughter  Catharine  Elizabeth,  who  had  become  the 
wife  of  Jacob  Hertel,  the  founder  of  the  Baystadt  Demokrat.  He  died  of 
cholera  in  1849.  The  names  of  the  children  are  given  in  chronological  order  : 
Catharine  Elizabeth  Hertel,  born  June  10,  1819;  Anna  Elizabeth  Schmidt,, 
born  January  30,  1822  ; Johannes,  born  July  18,  1824;  Anna  Catharine,  May 
17,  1827;  Johannes  F.  born  January  2,  1830. 

The  Merklein  family  settled  in  Sandusky  about  1835.  No  reliable  infor- 
mation could  be  had  about  this  family.  They  came  to  Sandusky  about  1835,. 
where  they  both  died  of  the  cholera  in  1849.  George  Werner,  formerly  living 
on  the  corner  of  Hancock  and  Madison  streets,  was  a brother  of  Mrs.  Merk- 
lein ; he  was  a day  laborer  employed  in  the  warehouse. 

August  Mueller  settled  here  in  1835.  His  name  would  long  have  faded 
from  memory  had  not  a rather  peculiar  incident  occurred  which  kept  it  alive. 
Sandusky,  fifty  years  ago,  afforded  an  excellent  pasture  ground,  not  only  for 
old  Foreman’s  sheep,  but  for  a number  of  cows,  that  in  a go-as-you-please 
way,  found  food  and  water,  shelter  and  shade  among  the  hazel  bushes  of  the 
village.  Mueller  was  the  proud  possessor  of  a cow,  but  it  was  a great  chagrin 
to  him  that  his  cow  returned  dry  repeatedly,  in  the  evening.  A kind  hearted 
neighbor  enlightened  him  that  in  all  probability  some  one  procured  the 
precious  lacteal  fluid  without  consent.  Whether  our  friend  August  in  his 
younger  days  had  read  Cooper’s  “ Lederstrumpf  ” and  the  “ Last  of  the 
Mohicans  ” or  not,  we  leave  this  an  open  question.  He  started  on  his  war- 
path, the  scalping  knife  in  his  pocket,  I see  him  plainly  wend  his  way  through 
the  bushes  on  hands  and  feet,  and  there  he  sits,  the  perpetrator  of  all  his 
Misery,  leisurely  abstracting  the  precious  fluid.  One  warwhoop,  one  jump 
and  he  had  him  by  the  ear,  one  cut  and  he  had  the  trophy  in  his  hands.  His 
friends  persuaded  him,  as  he  apparently  was  not  conscious  of  the  enormity  of 
the  crime,  to  take  passage  on  a boat  that  was  ready  to  leave  for  Buttalo  on 
the  next  morning.  Between  the  two  ports  he  worked  on  shipboard  for  nearly 
two  years,  but  never  allowed  his  feet  to  touch  the  soil  of  this  city,  except 
under  the  cover  of  night.  He  subsequently  moved  to  St.  Louis,  and  may 


' 


2 52 


History  of  Erie  County. 


live  there  yet  for  all  I know.  His  victim,  Lemon,  minus  one  ear,  died  years 
ago  in  Sandusky. 

Jacob  Schmied,  a son  of  Jacob  A.  and  Catharine  (Meyer)  Schmied,  settled 
here  in  1838.  He  was  born  in  Oberendingen,  Canton  Aargau,  Switzerland,  on 
June  8,  1820,  and  came  with  his  parents  to  this  country  in  1829.  They  settled 
on  a farm.  Jacob  came  to  Sandusky  in  1838,  where  he  worked  as  a cooper  for 
many  years  in  Post  & Co.’s  employ.  He  was  married  in  1857  to  Margaretha 
Rivers,  and  ten  children  were  born  to  them.  He  died  in  1884.  His  widow  now 
resides  on  Washington  street. 

Johann  Caspar  Ritter.  The  day-book  of  this  unfortunate  man  is  before  me. 
It  gives  in  twenty-four  pages  an  accurate  account  of  his  trip  across  the  ocean. 
It  is  dated  April,  1837,  aQd  well  preserved.  I take  the  liberty  to  copy  from  it 
as  follows : 

( Translation .)  “ My  name  is  John  Caspar  Ritter,  merchant.  I left  Burg- 
sinn,  Hessen,  on  April  3,  1837,  with  my  wife,  Wilhelmine  Charlotte,  a daughter 
of  the  game-keeper,  Jungerman,  of  Mittelsinn,  and  our  four  children:  Chris- 
tiane  Elizabeth,  age  nine  years;  Emilie  Frederike  Margarete,  seven  years; 

Wilhelm  Heinrich,  five  years ; Ernst  Christoph,  three  years We 

reached  Fulda  the  same  night  Rothenburg  the  next  day,  and  Cassel  on  the 
fifth  of  April,  1837.  . . . Weather-bound;  the  oldest  inhabitants  cannot 

recollect  a storm  of  such  severity.  Snow,  reaching  up  to  the  middle  of  the  win- 
dows, and  no  living  soul  to  be  seen  on  the  streets.  ...  A damper,  but  we 
are  determined  to  move  on  and  regret  only  the  delay.  Victuals  cheap,  espe- 
cially beer,  and  it  is  excellent.  The  officers  are  very  polite ; everybody  is  ad- 
dressed by  ‘sie’  (you.)  In  presenting  my  passport  I was  offered  a chair,  and 
repeatedly  insisted  upon  to  make  use  of  it.  Goettingen,  April,  10th' 

snow  five  and  six  feet  deep  in  the  streets;  regular  tunnels  are  constructed  at  the 
-crossings;  it  looks  like  a labyrinth.  Nordheim,  1 ith,  Einbeck,  April  13th,  and 
Bremen  the  14th.  Left  Bremen  May  1st  on  the  sailboat  “Isabella"  Captain 
F.  Meyer.  . . . May  16,  my  wife  Emilie,  Wilhelm  and  Ernst  are  seasick. 

Christiane  and  myself  are  in  good  health  and  eat  double  rations.  Ours  are  the 
-only  children  on  shipboard.  . . . May  20,  Emilie’s  birthday;  I gave  her  a 

crown  dollar  as  a keepsake.  . . . Our  board  is  excellent,  and  many  wish 

the  voyage  to  last  a year.  Arrived  at  New  York  June  12,  where  we  boarded  on 
John  street,  paying  $12  per  week  for  the  family.  My  wife  was  confined  on  St 
John’s  day,  (June  24,  1837)  in  this  place.  The  mid-wife,  Caroline  Collman,  wa- 
skillful,  and  was  educated  in  an  institute  in  Wuerzburg.  I paid  her  fifteen  gul- 
den for  her  services.  We  left  New  York  July  6,  and  arrived  at  Buffalo  July 
14,  reaching  our  destination,  Huron,  on  the  16th,  at  2 P.  M 

This  is  only  a meagre  abstract,  but  the  original  written  in  a bold  hand  test:- 
fies  in  numerous  instances  of  the  great  kindness  and  love  Ritter  had  for  hi? 
family.  Well  educated,  and  in  possession  of  means,  he  would,  undoubtedly. 


.nq A ..'U  • ■ 


The  German  Element. 


253 


have  become  a prosperous  and  prominent  citizen,  had  not  the  hand  of  a villain 
terminated  his  life  in  a most  cruel  and  unprovoked  way.  After  a short  stay  in 
Huron  the  family  moved  to  Sandusky,  where  Ritter  opened  a general  provis- 
ion store  on  Columbus  avenue.  He  was  shot  dead  at  his  own  door  by  a crip- 
oled  tailor,  called  Evans,  for  which  crime  the  latter  was  made  the  culprit  of  the 
last  scene  of  execution  witnessed  in  Erie  county,  in  Huron  Park  in  1840. 

Ritter  died  on  May  5,  1840,  in  his  forty-sixth  year,  leaving  his  widow  and 
six  children  well  provided  for.  His  wife  died  in  December,  1880,  in  her 
eighty-third  year.  One  of  the  daughters,  Wilhelmina,  a faithful  and  trusted 
servant  in  the  United  States  mail  service  for  many  years,  is  well  known  by  every 
man,  woman  and  child  in  this  city.  The  writer  does  most  heartily  wish  that  she 
may  survive  all  changes  of  the  national  administration  for  many  a year  to  come. 

Conrad  Wiegand  was  born  in  Hessen,  and  came  to  Sandusky  in  1835, 
where  he  worked  for  years  at  his  trade  as  shoemaker.  His  wife  having  died, 
he  moved  to  Put-in-bay  Island  to  spend  his  last  days  with  his  children,  who 
took  good  care  of  him.  He  had  become  very  infirm  and  crippled  up  with 
rheumatism.  He  died  a year  ago,  and  was  buried  at  the  side  of  his  wife  in 
Oakland  Cemetery,  Sandusky.  He  was  a highly  respected  citizen  His  chil- 
dren are  prospering. 

Franz,  Joseph  Motri  came  here  in  1834,  An  old  marriage  certificate,  well 
preserved  reads  thus : 

“Know  all  men  by  this  presents  that  Joseph  Motri,  a taylor,  and  Elizabeth 
Ziegler,  were  lawfully  joined  together  in  holy  matrimony  on  the  22d  day  of 
July,  in  the  year  of  the  Lord,  1834. 

“F.  W.  Geissenhainer,  SEN. 

“St.  Mathaus  Church, 

“N.  Y.  City.” 

Aside  from  its  value  as  a family  relic,  this  paper  becomes  more  precious  in 
having  the  signature  of  one  of  the  most  noted  Germans  of  New  York  attached 
to  it.1  Motri  was  born  on  March  31,  1811,  in  Untergrombach,  Baden.  His 

1 The  name  of  the  officiating  clergyman  calls  for  a more  than  passing  notice.  The  First 
German  Lutheran  congregation  was  organized  in  New  York  in  1749,  and  the  first  substantial 
church  edifice  was  erected  in  1767,  on  the  northwest  corner  of  William  and  Frankfort  streets. 
The  building  was  standing  as  late  as  1850,  and  was,  in  its  dilapidated  condition,  finally  used  as 
a liver)'  stable.  Johann  Christopher  Kunz,  son-in-law  of  old  Muehlenberg,  of  Revolutionary' 
fame,  became  the  first  pastor.  F.  W.  Geissenhainer,  sr.,  succeeded  him.  He  preached  exclu- 
sively in  German.  As  in  1814  some  of  the  members  of  old  Mathaus  Church  made  an  effort  to 
abolish  the  German  language  in  song  and  speech  in  their  devotional  exercises,  Geissenhainer 
father  gave  up  his  pastorate,  than  enter  into  this  bargain.  F.  C.  Schaeffer,  his  successor 
•‘si’eed  to  preach  mornings  in  the  German,  and  evenings  in  the  English  language.  Geissen- 
a;ner,  who  in  the  meantime  had  moved  to  Pennsylvania,  where  his  beloved  mother  tongue 

held  in  better  reveration,  was  recalled  seven  years  later.  He  gained  his  point ; German 
A*s  exclusively  spoken  from  that  day  on  in  the  old  pioneer  church.  Geissenhainer,  a typical 
German,  died  in  1838,  in  New  York  City,  lamented  by  all  who  knew  him. 

33 


t 


254 


History  of  Erie  County. 


wife,  Elizabeth,  was  born  in  Weingarten,  Baden,  in  1808.  They  emigrated  in 
1834,  and  lived  in  Sandusky  up  to  the  time  of  their  deaths.  Of  the  six  chil- 
dren of  this  marriage,  three  are  living:  Theodor,  born  June  30,  1838  ; Frede- 
rick of  Port  Clinton,  born  January  16,  1841,  and  Heinrich,  born  March  12, 
1842.  Elizabeth,  Motri’s  first  wife,  died  in  April  26,  1843,  in  childbed.  On 
November  15th,  of  the  same  year,  he  married  the  second  time,  taking  Theresa 
Leonhard  as  wife.  Five  of  the  children  of  the  second  marriage  are  living:  Eliz- 
abeth Molitor,  born  August  25,  1844;  Joseph,  born  October  26,  1845  5 Alex- 
ander, born  October  20,  1846;  Carl  Ludwig,  born  September  23,  1848;  John 
Frank,  born  November  16,  1850.  Motri  was  a tailor  by  trade,  and  had  his  first 
workshop  where  Robertson’s  store  is  located  at  present  on  Water  street,  mov- 
ing from  there  to  a place  now  occupied  by  the  Ruprecht  family.  He  subse- 
quently built  the  National  House  on  Market  and  Wayne  streets,  where  he  kept 
a hostlery  in  connection  with  his  tailor  shop.  In  1854  he  engaged  in  the  nurs- 
ery business  in  Bigfield.  He  was  a great  hunter  and  known  far  and  wide  as  an 
excellent  marksman.  He  died  May  4,  1867.  His  widow  lives  on  Hancock 
street.  He  was,  without  question,  the  fashionable  tailor  in  his  time.  His  old 
ledger,  dated  January  1,  1840,  is  before  me.  In  its  index  I find  the  following 
names  of  the  aristocracy  of  our  day,  the  Mooses,  Folletts,  Sloanes  and  many 
others.  Most  interesting  though  for  our  purpose,  are  the  names  of  the  old 
German  settlers  that  opened  an  account  with  him  nearly  fifty  years  ago.  In 
giving  their  names  I am  in  hopes  that  those  appearing  in  the  foregoing  pages 
may  quasi  supplement  my  carefully  prepared  list. 

From  this  interesting  book  I copy  the  following  German  names  : John 
Bauer,  John  Bach,  1843  1 Fred  Booss,  Jacob  Benz,  Clausius,  1841  ; Valentin 
Degen,  1843;  Martin  Eltis,  Fred  Epp,  1842;  And.  Earney,  1843;  Anton 
Fink,  1842;  Peter  Gilcher,  Guckenheimer,  1843;  John  Hornung,  Wilhelm 
Heisser,  1845;  Alph.  Lucas,  1842;  Hopfinger,  Hocken,  Iceman,  Henry  Laub- 
•scher,  John  Meyer,  1843;  F Paul,  1840;  Valentine  Peter,  1842;  Fr.  Rein- 
Eeimer,  and  John  Schnecker. 

For  the  edification  of  our  merchant  tailors,  I will  say  that  according  to 
"Motri’s  figures,  thirteen  cents  was  charged  for  cutting  a pair  of  pants,  and  that 
a good  share  of  his  earnings' were  liquidated  by  accepting  almost  anything 
from  a load  of  wood,  stone,  or  sand,  down  to  farm  produce  and  labor  in  ex- 
change. Fr.  Reinheimer’s  account  is  balanced  by  thirty-nine  days  of  work, 
$53.43  ; P.  Gilcher’s  account  thirty-seven  days  of  work,  $5  1.00  ; Henry  Laub- 
scher’s  account  for  two  days’  work,  $3.  By  this  we  see  that  skilled  labor  was 
well  paid  for,  and  that  even  forty  years  ago  a boss  carpenter  received  as  much 
as  twelve  shillings  wages  per  day. 

1830-1850. 

POLITICS,  SOCIETIES,  SCHOOLS,  CHURCHES  AND  PRESS. 

Federal  organization  and  the  liquidation  of  the  war  debts  became  the  prin- 
cipal work  for  our  law  makers  after  the  declaration  of  independence. 


■ 

' 


. 


The  German  Element. 


255 


One  party,  the  Federalists,  aimed  principally  to  shape  our  government 
after  the  English  fashion,  the  other  party,  “ Republicans,”  more  often  called 
Democrats,  were  anxious  to  transplant  the  new  patriotic  ideas  of  France  into 
the  young  republic.  A king  even  would  have  been  acceptable  to  the  Feder- 
aiistic  party,  had  not  Jefferson,  under  Gallatin's  advice  and  guidance  most 
vigorously  resisted.  Jefferson's  election  as  president  decided  the  issue  and  a 
political  lethargy  reigned  for  years. 

The  German  element  without  hardly  any  exceptions  made  front  against 
the  Federal  party,  and  played  as  such  an  important  factor  in  shaping  the  form 
of  our  national  administration  in  those  days.  In  1824  the  political  pot  com- 
menced to  boil  again.  A diversity  of  opinion  in  the  domineering  party  ended 
in  their  defeat.  Instead  of  entering  the  battle  in  an  unbroken  phalanx,  did 
the  leaders  of  the  Republican  party  quarrel  among  themselves,  and  headed 
their  national  ticket  by  three  candidates,  viz  : Crawford,  as  legitimate  suc- 
cessor, Clay,  the  choice  of  the  national  Republicans,  and  Jackson,  as  banner 
carrier  of  the  convention,  posing  as  “ Democrat.”  Jackson,  although  receiv- 
ing the  majority  of  the  popular  and  electoral  votes,  was,  nevertheless,  lacking 
the  required  plurality,  and  the  election  for  president  came  up  before  the  House 
of  Representatives  for  final  action.  By  their  decision  Adams,  the  Federalist, 
was  elected,  and  the  deal  was  brought  about  by  a compact  between  Clay’s  fol- 
lowers and  the  leaders  of  the  Federal  party.  The  wrong  was  righted  four 
years  later,  when  Jackson  was  elected  by  an  overwhelming  majority.  In  1828 
we  find  the  German  element  again  supporting  Jackson,  and  Ohio  gave  him 
the  electoral  votes  in  1828  and  1832.  A great  change  though  in  public 
opinion  took  place  after  his  second  election.  New  and  vital  questions  had 
come  to  the  front,  and  the  champion  of  the  party  had  made  himself  disliked 
bv  his  uncalled  for  action  against  the  United  States  Bank,  his  numerous 
vetoes,  and  by  practically  carrying  out  the  nefarious  doctrine  : “ The  spoils 
belong  to  the  victor.”  A reconstruction  of  the  party  as  planned  by  Jackson, 
was  never  reached.  The  older  German  settlers  had  in  the  meantime  in  close 
pursuit  of  daily  work  learned  better  to  understand  the  true  inwardness  of  pol- 
itical promises  and  pledges,  had  cooled  down  and  become  more  conservative 
,n  their  views,  a large  portion  of  them  united  in  1834  with  the  Whig  part)'. 

To  follow  up  the  strides  and  efforts  of  the  German  element  in  the  political 
arena  in  the  years  following  would  call  for  more  space  than  could  justly  be 
Claimed  for  this  chapter. 

The  more  liberal  German  element  had  always  a strong  leaning  towards  the 
democratic  party  and  deservedly  so,  as  they  owed  to  this  party  all  conces- 
sions made  to  foreigners.  It  is  an  indisputable  fact,  that  by  the  unceasing 
c;iorts  of  this  party  the  price  of  government  land  was  fixed  at  a nominal  figure, 
*as  put  in  the  market  in  parcels  to  suit  the  means  of  the  individual  purchaser, 
a:*d  that  a non-citizen  became  legally  qualified  to  partiepate  in  this  great 


256 


History  of  Erie  County. 


boom.  After  many  a fierce  battle  laws  were  passed  by  a Democratic  body  to 
enable  a settler  to  pay  for  his  land  almost  with  the  yield  of  the  first  year's 
harvest.  These  liberal  concessions  were  opposed  by  Clay,  as  leader  of  the 
Whig  party. 

If  we  furthermore  consider,  that  at  that  time  the  amalgamation  of  the 
National  Republican  and  the  Whig  party  took  effect,  and  that  in  the  new-born 
party  the  first  nativistic doctrines  came  to  the  surface,  it  is  not  surprisingat  all  that 
the  German  element  en  masse  cast  their  lot  with  the  Democratic  party.  To  bring 
about  a more  effective  and  uniform  action,  German  societies  of  various  natures 
were  organized  in  every  town  in  Ohio,  wherever  they  had  any  representation 
to  speak  of.  The  German  element  became  a potent  factor  in  political  life,  but 
it  would  have  been  impossible  to  perpetuate  and  preserve  for  any  length  of 
time  harmonious  action,  had  not  circumstances  of  a specific  nature  come  to  its 
relief.  The  Germans  were  at  all  times  considered  unruly  by  the  leaders  of 
political  parties  as  a nation  not  easily  harnessed  or  controlled  by  an  autocratic 
wish  or  will.  Even  the  far-seeing  Franklin  laments  that  the  Germans  will  out- 
number the  inborn  element  in  a little  while,  and  that  the  political  power  will 
pass  into  their  hands.  In  this  respect  though  Franklin's  fears  were  un- 
grounded, the  inborn  jealousy  of  the  different  German  nationalities,  not  to 
speak  of  the  difference  of  opinion  in  religious  matters,  excluded  such  presump- 
tions plainly.  It  cannot  be  denied  that  the  Germans  tipped  the  scales  more 
than  once  in  national  elections.  At  the  least  provocation,  if  ever  they  mis- 
trusted that  customs  and  ways  of  their  own  were  endangered,  they  made  a 
solid  front ; in  all  other  respects  they  were  reliable,  consistent  and  loyal.  They 
never  were  wax  in  the  hands  of  party  rulers,  and  the  most  eloquent  appeals  of 
politicians  would  never  have  persuaded  them  to  follow  blindly  their  dictations 
had  personal  or  principal  interest  combined  not  made  a stronger  appeal.  The 
nativistic  movement  of  1836  and  1838  strengthened  the  knees  of  those  that 
had  become  stragglers  and  drove  them  into  the  flock  for  mutual  safety  and 
protection.  The  power  and  strength  of  the  German  element  was  well  known 
even  in  those  days  to  the  inborn  American.  An  editorial  extract  from  the 
American , published  in  New  Orleans  in  1838,  may  find  a place  here: 

“ Ohio  is  ruled  by  ignorant  Germans  who  have  inundated  sections  of  this 
glorious  State.  The  votes  are  cast  and  the  results  are  known  as  endangering 
our  government  and  the  welfare  of  all  concerned ; . . . This  trouble  will 

not  end  unless  the  privilege  of  voting  is  restricted.” 

As  far  as  the  ignorance  of  the  Germans — God  bless  them  — and  the  en- 
dangering of  the  government  and  general  welfare  are  concerned,  the  editor  was 
a poor  prophet,  but  he  came  nearer  to  the  mark  in  predicting  laws  aimed 
against  the  Germans  to  make  use  of  the  royal  privilege  as  voters.  The  ghost 
of  nativism  was  banished  for  another  decade,  the  liberal  party  gained  a vic- 
tory in  1844  and  the  German  element  was  instrumental  in  bringing  it  about 


. 


The  German  Element. 


257 


this  time  the  Germans  had  outgrown  their  baby  shoes  ; no  political  party 

Ohio  would  take  their  chances  without  previously  consulting  their  wishes. 
Thev  demanded  in  1838  that  public  documents  should  be  published  in  their 
mother  tongue,  and  their  wish  was  granted.  The  representation  of  this  ele- 
ment in  the  State  House  of  Columbus  was  about  twenty- five  per  cent,  since 
•::c  adoption  of  the  new  State  laws  in  1851.  Erie  county  is,  at  this  writing, 
r presented  in  the  Legislature  by  Fred.  Ohlemacher,  of  Sandusky;  in  the 
Senate  by  Joseph  Zimmerman,  of  Fremont,  and  in  the  congressional  district 
by  Jacob  Romeiss,  of  Toledo.  All  three  were  rocked  to  sleep  in  the  old 
country,  and  came  to  America’s  shores  as  poor  and  impecunious  lads. 

This  solid  German  representation  may  count  for  nothing  than  a mere  coin- 
cidence, and  yet  it  demonstrates  clearly  that  the  Germans  had  learned,  in  years 
of  bondage  and  humiliation,  to  use  their  irresistible  strength  for  something 
better  than  quarrels.  Not  more  than  thirty  years  ago  the  Germans  had  very 
little  if  any  standing,  politically  and  socially,  in  Erie  county.  An  editorial  in 
the  Baystadt  Democrat , June  26,  1857,  reads  as  follows: 

“ The  true  Americans,  and  better  to  call  them  by  their  right  names,  the 
Knownothings,  are  becoming  rather  arrogant  in  their  deportment.  To  them 
the  foreigners  are  simply  tools,  to  be  used  at  will,  and  as  long  as  they  can  be 
utilized.  After  that  their  thanks  are  a ‘pereat.’  In  our  city,  laws  have  been 
passed  of  late,  directly  aimed  against  the  Germans.  They  cannot  acquaint 
themselves  with  the  provisions  of  law  as  very  few  understand  the  English  lan- 
guage. Thousands  of  dollars  are  annually  expended  for  school  purposes, 
where  not  a cent  is  granted  for  the  preservation  of  their  mother  tongue.  A 
general  meeting  of  the  German  element  of  this  county  has  been  called  to  con- 
sider our  duties  and  rights  as  citizens  or  a free  country.” 

The  meeting  was  held  in  the  Volks  Theater  Hall  on  June  20,  1857,  and 
was  largely  attended.  Conrad  Ernst  was  the  presiding  officer,  and  W.  F. 
Meyers  acted  as  secretary.  The  following  resolutions  were  unanimously 
adopted  (abridged) : 

1.  All  ordinances  to  be  published  in  the  German  language. 

2.  Wholesome  drinking  water  to  be  supplied  liberally,  free  of  cost,  in  all 
the  wards  of  the  city. 

3-  To  introduce  German  tuition  in  the  public  schools,  and  to  cut  down  the 
salary  of  the  superintendent  of  instruction,  to  confront  the  every  day  cry  for 
of  means. 

A-  To  pay  all  city  employees  in  cash. 

5*  To  denounce  immorality  and  drunkenness,  but  protect  respectable  citi- 
engaged  in  the  liquor  traffic. 

6-  To  abolish  license  laws. 

To  repeal  the  market  ordinance. 

S-  To  invest  any  surplus  in  our  treasury  in  factories  and  institutions  em- 
p.Oying  skilled  labor,  instead  of  donating  it  to  railroads  and  wildcat  schemes. 


>,u«b  !>»- 


_ 


258 


History  of  Erie  County. 


9.  To  reorganize  the  fire  department. 

10.  To  elect  for  local  offices  only  men  of  unquestionable  character,  with- 
out considering  political  creed  or  religion. 

1 1.  To  denounce  the  rulings  of  Judge  Taylor  as  being  biased  and  nativistic 
in  the  extreme. 

The  following  members  were  elected  as  a standing  committee  to  guard  the 
interest  of  the  German  element,  viz.:  C.  Parson,  Jacob  Hertel,  Ph.  Dauch, 
Adam  Bauer,  W.  F.  Meyers,  and  H.  Ruess. 

Between  1840  and  1850  German  societies  were  organized  in  nearly  every 
town  in  Ohio,  and  Sandusky  had  its  share.  The  following  societies  flourished 
in  those  days:  Jaeger  Company,  organized  by  Captain  Louis  Traub;  Artil- 
lerie  Company,  organized  by  Dr.  Silva,  and  F.  Bollinger;  Harmonie  Band; 
Hacken  & Leiter  Company;  Cossuth  Garde,  J.  Bauer,  commander;  Freie 
deutsche  Harmonie,  Sandusky  Gesangverein,  Freimaenner  Verein,  Turn  Verein. 
Druids,  Odd  Fellows,  Workingmen’s  Society,  and  others. 

Sandusky  could  also  boast  of  two  German  theaters,  the  Volks  Theater  and 
the  Concordia  Theater.  Some  of  our  most  prominent  citizens  of  to-day  took 
an  active  part.  A well  preserved  programme  reads: 


CONCORDIA  THEATER 


In  Von  Hausen’s  Block 
December  26,  1853. 

Repertoire— Menschenhass  und  Reue,  by  Kotzebue. 
Admission,  25  Cents. 

Another  one : 

VOLKS  THEATER 


Hubbard’s  Block,  Jackson  Street 
March  3,  1857. 

Repertoire — The  White  Slave. 


In  an  editorial  in  the  Baystadt  Democrat  of  May  1,  1857,  Hertel  argues 
that  any  allusion  to  religion  and  politics  “ should  be  excluded.”  Undoubtedly 
these  societies  had  their  ups  and  downs.  The  resolutions  passed  at  a meeting 
that  was  called  for  the  purpose  of  expelling  four  of  the  unruly  members  ot 
the  Volks  Theater,  April  20,  1853,  is  in  my  possession.  The  signatures  ot 
the  following  members  of  this  society  are  attached:  Jacob  Engels,  president 
Dr.  Silva,  secretary;  Jacob  Bentz,  F.  G.  Willi,  Carl  Gaa,  Gregory  Haegy, 
Georg  Von  Hausen,  Ernst  Boeth,  Carl  Bretz,  A.  Miller,  Georg  Bergmoser, 
Joseph  Keller,  G.  Nusly,  Cornel.  Schnaitter,  Andr.  Riesterer,  Philip  Kunz, 
Georg  Baer,  Jacob  Steitz,  Carl  Wagner,  M.  Malzky,  Jacob  Alder,  L.  Baumann. 
Ph.  Lanz,  Jacob  Baubach,  Joh.  Walter,  Georg  Graul,  Jacob  Schaub,  John 
Bricht,  Dr.  Lange,  N.  Auer,  Georg  Geiss. 


. ' 


■ 


The  German  Element. 


259 


We  take  pleasure  to  put  also  on  record  the  names  of  the  leaders  and  stars 
of  the  two  societies  : 

Volks  Theater. — Natan  Baer’s  Hall,  on  Water  street.  J.  M.  Geyerstanger, 
j Jandorf,  Christ.  Wiedel,  Jacob  Neuert,  A.  Sorg,  Conrad  Ernst,  L.  Kind, 
August  Seeger,  Fr.  Wentz,  Chas.  Baetz,  Georg  Graul ; Mrs  Graul,  Peters, 
Lehr  and  Hauser,  and  Miss  Steitz  and  Ruemmele. 

Concordia  Theater. — Rudolph  Holverscheid,  A.  Textor,  Bretz,  Georg  Von 
Hausen,  H.  Brohl,  Conrad  Mooss,  Schaub  and  Willi  ; Mrs.  Kranz,  Von  Hau- 
sen and  Birkmeyer. 

Dances  and  entertainments  for  the  pecuniary  benefit  of  the  numerous 
societies  were  then,  as  now,  the  order  of  the  day.  The  admission  fee  was 
unusually  high,  considering  times.  A few  advertisements,  taken  from  the 
German  press,  may  find  a place  here : 

First  annual  hop  of  the  freimaexner- 

Verein,  in  Euterpean  Hall,  December  26,  1853. 

Tickets,  $1.00.  Z.  Engels,  Steitz,  Stark,  Dauch. 

GREAT  BALL,  in  West  Hall.  Harmonie  Band. 

July  4,  1857.  Admission.  $1.00. 

MILITARY  BAND  BALL  — Euterpean  Hall, 

July  4,  1857.  Tickets,  $1.00. 

In  classical  music  Sandusky  has  always  excelled  and  taken  the  lead  of 
cities  of  similar  size  in  Ohio  for  many  a year.  Even  the  automatic  orchestrion 
music  of  more  than  thirty  years  ago  could  not  help  but  develop  this  culture  to 
a high  degree.  As  a relic  we  give  the  programme  of  Fr.  Butz  first  orchestrion 
concert : 

GRAND  ORCHESTRION  CONCERT 
In  Euterpean  Hall,  April  29,  1857. 

Admission,  25  Cents. 

PROGRAMME  : 

I.  Die  Stummen  of  Portici. — Auber. 

II.  German  songs. 

III.  Was  gleichet  wohl  auf  Erden. 

IV.  O,  Susanna. 

V.  Introduction. 

VI.  Yankee  Doodle. 

VII.  Duett. 

VIII.  Selections  from  “ Freischuetz.” 

IX.  Patric,  willst  du  nun. 

X.  Jaegerchor  aus  “Freischuetz," 

XI.  Overture.  “Wilhelm  Tell." 

XII.  Overture,  “Postillion  de  Lorjumean.” 

XIII.  Overture,  “ Romeo  and  Juliet." 

XIV.  Najades  Walzes. — Labitzky. 


260 


History  of  Erie  County. 


The  Mozart  Quartette  Club  was  organized  by  Ph.  Ruppert.  The  Grc. : 
Western  Band,  organized  by  Charles  Baetz  many  years  ago,  has,  under  h 
leadership,  gained  an  almost  national  reputation.  Bauman,  Hauser,  Ber;. 
moser,  Bock  and  others  are  experts  on  their  separate  instruments. 

The  last  one,  in  a long  list  of  musical  societies  in  Sandusdy,  is  the  Philhar- 
monic Orchestra,  under  the  leadership  of  Professor  F.  Puehringer,  a not  ; * 
musician  and  composer.  The  members  of  this  society  are,  with  the  exceptic  . 
of  six,  of  German  parentage.  The  first  meeting  was  held  at  Fischer’s  Ha. 
March  12,  1888.  The  names  of  the  members  are  given:  J.  C.  Hauser,  Geo 
E.  Anderson,  F.  A.  Hubbard,  C.  Schnaitter,  John  Traub,  John  I.  Esch,  A. 
J.  Peters,  George  C.  West,  J.  C.  Leser,  L.  J.  Taubert,  A.  Haecker,  Willie 
Peters,  Joseph  Lebensburger,  C.  F.  Schrenck,  J.  H.  Dempsey,  Lane  Lock- 
wood,  Walter  Scott,  Louis  Scherz,  jr. , John  Bauer,  Fred.  Bauer,  Al.  Bauer 
John  Schaub,  Ed.  Rossfelder,  George  Knopf,  John  Trieschman,  Eugene  Baetz. 

The  first  German  Protestant  church  in  Sandusky  was  organized  in  1845 
it  was  situated  on  the  public  grounds  between  Grace  Church  and  the  old  court- 
house, and  became  the  mother  of  six  prosperous  offsprings.  The  names  of 
the  charter  members  of  the  Emanuels  Church  are  given  : John  Schuck,  Paul 
Klauer,  John  Hauer,  Jacob  Hertel,  Peter  Gilcher,  Fred.  Reinheimer,  John 
Klauss,  John  Platz,  Georg  Magle,  Fred.  Booss,  and  John  Bauer.  John  Schuck 
is  the  only  survivor. 

The  German  Reformed  Church  was  formed  by  seceders  of  the  Emanuei . 
Church  and  organized  into  a body  August  12,  1853,  by  the  late  Rev.  Peter 
Briecker.  The  house  of  worship  is  situated  on  the  corner  of  Hancock  andjei- 
ferson  streets. 

The  Salems  Church,  “evangelical  association,”  was  built  of  stone  in  1854 
Size  forty  by  sixty.  The  society  was  organized  in  1840  by  John  Hull  and  M. 
Stroh,  Charles  Zollinger,  Henry  Kreiner,  Jacob  Brost  and  Leonhard  Scheuer- 
man  were  the  first  trustees. 

The  Lutheran  Zion’s  Church  on  the  southeast  corner  of  the  public  grounds 
was  organized  in  June,  1852.  The  names  of  the  first  officers  are  John  H.  Buck. 
Wilhelm  Schade,  August  Klotz,  George  Hartman,  Henry  Wenck  and  George 
Klein. 

German  Methodist  Protestant  Church,  organized  about  1845. 

German  Protestant.  St.  Stephen’s  Church,  on  the  corner  of  Jefferson  and 
Poplar  streets,  organized  by  old  members  of  the  Emanuel  Church  in  January. 
1882.  The  first  officers  were  Heinrich  Rudolph,  president;  Jacob  Stein,  sec- 
retary, Adam  Oehm,  treasurer  ; trustees,  Charles  Krueger,  Jacob  Dick,  jr. 
Adam  Nagel ; elders,  Jacob  Dick,  sr.  ; John  Ouehl,  Jacob  Hartman.  Dr.  von 
Schulenburg,  pastor. 

The  German  Catholics  did  not  own  a place  of  worship,  for  years  attending 
Father  MastbeaPs  church  in  Western  Liberties.  At  this  day  they  are  in  pos- 


■ 


. 


The  German  Element. 


261 


<-$5ion  of  a magnificent  structure  on  the  corner  of  Miami  avenue  and  Jefferson 
street 

For  any  additional  information  the  reader  is  kindly  referred  to  the  general 
chapter  on  church  organizations. 

The  Germans  became  thrifty  and  monopolized  many  branches  of  industry. 
The  **  Stoss-seufzer  ” of  the  English  nativistic  press  in  those  days,  that  they 
were  irresistible  in  annexing  trade  and  manufactures  was  called  for.  As  the 
Germans  before  1830  excelled  in  agricultural  pursuits,  they  now  had  become 
A potent  factor  in  the  diverse  branches  of  industry.  The  brewing  business  is 
exclusively  in  the  hands  of  Germans  in  Erie  county.  The  Kuebeler  Brothers, 
Frank  Stang  and  Anton  Ilg  have  become  wealthy  in  this  trade. 

The  fish,  wine  and  lime  business  is  likewise  controlled  by  Germans.  Most 
of  the  representative  firms  have  started  out  years  age  on  a small  scale  and  be- 
come prosperous  beyond  expectation. 

The  capital  invested  in  the  fish  business  by  Adolph  & Zollinger,  Simeon 
Schacht,  A.  J.  Stoll,  Lay  Brothers,  Fruechtenicht  & Nielson  & Arend  Brothers ; 
in  the  wine  business  by  Engels  & Krudwig,  Wm.  Alstaetter,  John  G.  Dorn, 
Conrad  Ernst,  August  Guenther,  M.  Hommel,  Morris  Link,  Edw.  Mooss,  Edw. 
Steuck,  John  Strobel  and  Albert  Textor;  in  the  lime  manufactory  by  Daniel 
Kunz  and  the  Ohlemacher  Brothers  represents  more  than  a million  of  hard  cash 
and  provides  bread  and  butter  for  many  a hundred  of  families. 

To  facilitate  business  the  Germans  organized  in  September  16,  1872,  the 
Third  National  Bank,  a prosperous  and  almost  exclusive  German  institution, 
electing  L.  Cable  as  president,  Philip  Graefe,  vice-president ; George  Ander- 
son,  cashier;  Christ  F.  Schoepfle,  Dr.  Donahoe  and  Jacob  Engles,  directors. 

Lorenz  Cable  was  born  1823,  March  20,  in  the  village  of  Siegeri,  Elsass, 
and  came  to  America  in  the  spring  of  1843.  He  worked  as  a cabinet-maker 
lor  David  Moore,  Bellevue,  O.,  till  spring  of  the  next  year,  when  he  wended 
his  way  to  Sandusky,  where  he  resided  for  nearly  forty-five  years.  On  his  ar- 
rival in  this  city  he  found  a place  open  in  H.  F.  Merry’s  cabinet  shop,  and  subse- 
quently in  Charles  Zollinger’s  and  the  old  Mad  River  Railroad  Shops.  In  1856 
he  embarked  with  John  Bricht  in  the  boot  and  shoe  trade.  He  has  become  pos- 
v*ssed  of  great  wealth.  In  1872  he  was  elected  as  president  of  the  Third  Na- 
tional Bank,  a position  he  holds  to  this  day.  The  capital  stock  of  this  bank  is 
>200,000,  with  a surplus  of  $34,000. 

L.  Cable  resides  with  his  second  wife  on  the  corner  of  Monroe  and  Law- 
rence streets. 

Jacob  Engels  was  born  1799,  in  Solingen,  Germany,  and  emigrated  in  1848, 
taking  Sandusky  his  home  in  the  vear  following.  He  became  quite  wealthy 
*n  the  wine  business.  He  always  took  an  active  part  in  organizing  societies 
that  aimed  to  cultivate  and  preserve  the  German  language  in  song  and  speech. 

died  November  6,  r875. 

34 


262 


History  of  Erie  County. 


The  office  as  postmaster  in  Sandusky  is  held  for  the  first  time  by  a German, 
George  Daniel,  who  came  to  America  as  a lad  in  the  40’s.  The  German  element 
is  represented  in  the  city  council  by  thirteen,  and  in  the  school  board  by  twehv 
members.  Dr.  Von  Schulenburg  was  the  chairman  of  the  committee  on  Ger- 
man instruction  for  several  years.  The  board  of  cemetery  trustees  is  exclu- 
sively German,  viz.:  John  G.  Strobel,  Jacob  Witzel  and  Louis  Duennisch. 

Germa7i  Physicians. — Drs.  Von  Sick,  Silva,  Philip  Graefe,  Lange  and  Ea- 
derle  (’48- 50).  Heiter,  Leop.  Pape,  William  and  Charles  Graefe,  Szenderyand 
Von  Schulenburg.  William  Graefe  is  a conservative  and  skilful  surgeon,  ar.d 
has  spent  several  years  abroad  attending  lectures  in  the  Universities  of  Berlin 
and  Vienna.  Dr.  C.  Heiter  was  educated  and  took  his  degree  in  a Russian 
college.  Dr.  Von  Schulenburg  was  educated  in  Germany,  and  has  a large  prac- 
tice among  the  Germans. 

The  German  language  was  taught  as  early  as  ’52  in  pay  schools  by  Charles 
Plate,  Hoffman,  Keller  and  Lehrer,  through  the  arduous  work  of  Adam  Bauer, 
the  first  German  school  director,  who  served  his  constituents  faithfully  for 
nearly  twenty  years.  It  was  finally  introduced  in  the  public  schools  of  San- 
dusky and  became  a part  of  the  regular  course  of  study.  Nearly  a thousand 
children  are  benefited  by  it  at  this  day. 

German  Press. — The  first  German  paper  published  in  Erie  county  was  the 
Intelligenz-Blatt , by  Ruemmele  and  Ruess.  The  first  number  made  its  appear- 
ance in  April,  1851  ; it  existed  for  nearly  twenty  years. 

In  1856  the  Baystadt  Demokrat  entered  the  field  as  a rival.  Captain  L 
Traub  was  the  first  publisher.  A few  months  later  it  was  sold  to  Jacob  Hertc.. 
who  was  editor  and  proprietor  till  1873,  when  it  passed  into  the  hands  of  tne 
p**esent  proprietor,  William  Senn.  It  has  greatly  improved  in  size  and  appear- 
ance since  then,  and  has  become  the  exponent  of  true  Democratic  principles 
under  his  regime.  It  is  well  conducted  and  prosperous. 

By  all  their  love  for  the  new,  the  Germans  never  failed  to  take  a propor- 
tionate interest  in  the  welfare  of  the  old  fatherland,  and  many  an  imposing 
procession,  that  wends  its  way  through  the  streets  of  the  town  testifies  plainly 
of  their  ardent  and  true  love  for  their  former  home.  The  capitulations  at  ^re- 
dan and  following  restoratian  of  the  old  German  Empire,  manifested  itself  by 
an  outburst  of  joy  and  jubilee.  At  the  bicentennial  anniversary  of  German  em- 
igration in  1883,  the  strength  of  the  German  element  was  plainly  seen.  It  was 
a multitude  of  thousands,  that  turned  out  on  that  bright  Sunday  afternoon  to 
honor  their  pilgrims.  A very  accurate  account  of  this  celebration  was  pu- 
blished in  the  local  columns  of  the  Sandusky  Demokrat , October  9,  1883,  ana 
we  take  the  liberty  to  quote  from  it : 

“ A gala  day.  Two  thousand  in  procession  and  six  to  eight  thousand 
at  the  fair  ground ; the  most  imposing  demonstration  ever  witnessed  »n 
Erie  county.  The  procession  started  from  the  West  Market  at  2 P.  M.,  under 


. 


Railways  of  the  County. 


263 


the  leadership  of  Charles  Baetz  and  Constantin  Zipfel,  assisted  by  Osterman, 
Motry  and  Wiedeman.  All  the  German  societies  of  Sandusky  were  represented  ; 
the  old  German  pioneers  were  under  the  command  of  Cornelius  Schnaitter.  A 
l.ir^e  delegation  representing  the  German  element  of  Kelley  Island,  Middle 
bass  and  Put-in- Bay  were  in  line.  L.  Herb’s  State  coach,  drawn  by  four  white 
horses  came  next.  The  president,  Adam  Bauer,  Captain  Dewald,  of  Mexican 
fame,  Councilman  August  Kunzman,  and  the  orator  of  the  day,  Dr.  von  Schu- 
Icnburg,  were  the  proud  occupants.  In  the  following  carriages  the  members 
of  the  city  council  and  the  vice-presidents  were  seated,  prominent  among 
them  being  Messrs.  Lorch,  Mooss,  H.  Rudolph,  Pietchman  and  \Vm.  Brehm. 
A cavalry  troop  of  a hundred  men  under  Gottlieb  Epples’  command  came  next,* 
followed  by  an  endless  caravan  of  vehicles  of  all  descriptions,  music  bands  and 
drum  corps  heading  the  subdivisions.  A score  of  thousands  of  people  lined 
the  streets.  In  strict  accordance  with  the  program  of  the  day,  the  president, 
Adam  Bauer,  introduced  at  the  fair  grounds  after  an  overture  by  the  Great 
Western  Band,  the  orator  of  the  day,  Dr.  von  Schulenburg,  who  spoke  at  length 
about  the  true  mission  of  the  German  element  in  America,  defining  it  in  mas- 
terly and  well  received -way.  Herman  Ruess  made  an  eloquent  address.  The 
Frohsinn  and  Harmonie  singing  societies  captured  the  immense  audience  by 
their  superb  rendering  of  patriotic  songs.  The  Active  and  Social  Turnverein 
gave  an  exhibition  of  gymnastic  exercises,  Gambrinus  even  had  a stand  but 
may  it  be  put  on  record  that  not  a single  one  could  be  found  in  all  this  multi- 
tude, although  watched  with  argus  eyes,  who  did  not  deport  himself  respect- 
fully.” 

May  this  feeble  effort  to  put  the  Germans  of  Erie  county  on  record,  be 
kindly  accepted  by  all  interested. 


CHAPTER  XVIII. 

RAILWAYS  OF  THE  COUNTY. 

IT  is  now  more  than  half  a century  since  the  first  railroad  was  put  in  opera- 
tion in  Erie  county,  and  in  relation  to  this  class  of  institutions  the  county 
cnJoys  the  distinction  of  having  constructed  within  its  borders,  the  first  rail- 
Way  in  the  State  and  among  the  first  in  the  country. 

In  the  year  1832  two  railroad  companies,  each  having  a part  of  their  line 
:n  Erie,  or  what  afterward  became  Erie  county,  were  chartered  as  follows  : The 
‘dad  River  and  Lake  Erie,  and  the  Milan  and  Columbus  companies,  the  first  being 
bartered  January  5,  1832,  and  the  other  on  the  1 ith  February  following.  The 


. 


264 


History  of  Erie  County. 


Milan  and  Columbus  road  was  never  built  nor  are  we  possessed  of  any  in- 
formation  showing  the  performance  of  any  substantial  act  other  than  the  in- 
corporation thereof. 

Then,  again,  although  the  creation  of  a later  period,  in  reviewing  these  facts 
a mention  must  be  made  of  that  mythical  and  mysterious  thoroughfare  of  travel 
known  as  the  “ Underground  Railway,”  having  its  invisible,  though  well  pat- 
ronized route  between  the  city  of  Sandusky,  O.,  and  Malden,  in  Canada.  This 
was  the  usually  traveled  route  taken  by  escaping  slaves  who  sought  a refuge 
beyond  the  reach  of  the  owner’s  power  and  the  driver’s  lash. 

There  lives  in  Sandusky  to-day,  probably  not  to  exceed  fifty  persons  who 
recall  the  partial  construction  of  the  road  of  the  Ohio  Railroad  Company,  which 
was  chartered  at  the  session  of  the  Legislature  of  1835-6.  The  route  of  this 
road  was  entirely  practicable,  but  its  enterprising  projectors  had  not  the  means 
sufficient  to  complete  the  work,  and  it  was  abandoned  after  a vast  amount  of 
money  had  been  expended.  The  route  of  this  road,  as  defined  by  its  charter, 
was  as  follows  : “ Beginning  at  the  westwardly  line  of  the  State  of  Pennsylva- 
nia, and  extending  westwardly  to  the  Maumee  River  in  the  State  of  Ohio.”  a 
distance  of  one  hundred  and  seventy-seven  miles.  The  line  of  this  road,  had 
it  been  completed,  would  have  crossed  Washington  Square,  in  Sandusky.  And 
many  of  the  people  of  the  county  will  remember  the  old  Sandusky  & Louis- 
ville Railroad  Company,  to  the  construction  of  which  they  liberally  contrib- 
uted, but  the  road  was  never  built. 

THE  INDIANA,  BLOOMINGTON  AND  WESTERN  RAILROAD. 

This  road  is,  indeed,  of  comparatively  recent  creation.  But  the  line  now 
in  part  operated  by  the  receiver  of  the  above  company,  has  a history  more  va- 
ried and  more  interesting  than  that  of  any  road  now  in  operation  in  the  State 
of  Ohio  ; and  for  an  intelligent  and  clear,  as  well  as  an  accurate  narration  ot 
the  facts  of  that  history  we  must  look  back  to  the  early  years  of  the  present 
century  and  note  the  efforts  that  were  made  to  establish  the  first  railroad  in  tins 
State,  or  in  the  west,  and  recall  the  events  of  the  early  life  of  a road  famed  in 
history  as  the  Mad  River  & Lake  Erie  Railroad. 

When  the  people  of  Sandusky  were  by  fraud,  deceit  and  corruption  de- 
feated in  their  efforts  to  establish  communication  between  this  point  and  the 
Ohio  River  by  canal,  the  most  enterprising  and  energetic  of  her  residents  said. 
“ Let  us  build  a railroad.”  This  was  prior  to  the  year  1825.  During  the  pe- 
riod of  the  greatest  agitation  of  this  question  a public  meeting  was  held  in  San- 
dusky which  was  attended  by  all  the  leading  men  of  the  place,  prominent 
among  whom  can  be  recalled  the  names  of  David  Caswell,  who  was  made  chair- 
man ; Dr.  George  Anderson,  Colonel  John  N.  Sloane,  Elentheros  Cooke,  Cy- 
rus W.  Marsh,  Hector  Kibourne,  Moors  Farwell,  Colonel  Abner  Root,  Davi  • 
Campbell,  Aaron  C.  Corbett,  William  Townsend  and  others,  possibly,  whose 
names  cannot,  at  this  late  day,  be  remembered.  This  was  in  1826. 


Railways  of  the  County. 


265 


By  these  persons  the  situation  was  freely  discussed,  and  united  action  was 
determined  upon  to  urge  the  subject  of  building  a road  to  connect  Sandusky 
and  Dayton,  thence  reaching  south  by  the  proposed  Miami  canal  to  Cincinnati 
and  the  Ohio  River,  thus  opening  direct  and  free  communication  between  the 
rreat  lakes  on  the  north  and  the  large  rivers  on  the  south.  But  it  was  several 
years  before  the  fond  hopes  of  the  people  of  this  locality  were  realized,  but  at 
last  the  thing  was  made  possible. 

The  Mad  River  and  Lake  Erie  Railroad  Company  was  incorporated  by  an 
act  of  the  Legislature  of  Ohro,  passed  on  the  5 th  day  of  January,  1832.  Among 
the  persons  named  as  commissioners  in  the  act,  three,  William  Townsend, 
Henry  H.  Wilcox,  sr.,  and  George  Anderson  were  residents  of  Sandusky.  It 
became  the  duty  of  these  commissioners  to  open  books  for  subscriptions  to  the 
stock  of  the  company,  but  no  organization  could  be  effected  until  there  had 
been  subscribed  to  the  corporation  stock  the  amount  of  two  hundred  and  fifty 
thousand  dollars. 

This  was  accomplished  in  the  course  of  a few  months,  and  in  October  of 
the  same  year  the  company  was  organized,  Horatio  G.  Philips,  of  Dayton, 
Montgomery  county,  being  elected  president.  A treasurer  was  chosen  at  the 
same  meeting.  Other  than  this  no  business  was  transacted  at  this  time,  except 
to  receive  reports  and  urge  the  importance  of  prompt  action  in  getting  sub- 
scriptions to  the  stock  of  the  company. 

In  the  year  1834  another  annual  meeting  was  held,  and  Mr.  Philips,  being 
unwilling  to  hold  further  the  office  of  president,  declined  a re-election,  where- 
upon Joseph  Vance,  of  Champaigne  county,  was  chosen  as  his  successor.  In 
the  spring  of  the  next  year,  1835,  James  H.  Bell  was  appointed  chief  engineer 
of  the  company,  and  by  him  the  route  was  located  and  surveyed  between 
Sandusky  and  Tiffin,  by  the  way  of  Bellevue,  after  which  the  work  of  construc- 
tion was  at  once  commenced.  Ground  was  first  broken  at  the  east  end  of 
Water  street,  at  the  intersection  of  Meigs  street,  in  Sandusky,  on  the  17th  of 
September,  1835.  General  William  Henry  Harrison,  the  hero  of  Tippecanoe, 
afterwards  president  of  the  United  States,  put  the  first  spade  in  the  earth,  at 
the  point  above  indicated. 

That  was  a day  of  general  jubilee  in  Sandusky,  and  the  celebration  was 
followed  by  a banquet  at  the  Victor’s  Hotel,  the  distinguished  guests  and  the 
prominent  citizens  taking  part  in  the  festivities  of  the  occasion.  In  this  same 
year,  1835,  the  contracts  were  let  for  bridging  and  grading  on  the  located  line, 
*nd  the  work  of  construction  commenced. 

In  1836  Colonel  John  H.  James,  of  Urbana,  one  of  the  pioneers  of  the 
•Mate,  was  chosen  president  of  the  company,  and  under  his  management  the 
'•york  of  construction  was  pushed  with  the  greatest  energy  the  limited  means 
°f  the  corporation  would  permit.  In  this  same  year  Colonel  James  contracted 
f°r  the  iron  to  be  used  between  Sandusky  and  Bellevue.  He  also  entered  into 


' 


266 


History  of  Erie  County. 


a contract  with  the  firm  of  Rogers,  Ketchum  & Grovenor,  of  Paterson,  X.  J.t 
for  the  construction  a locomotive  to  be  named  the  “Sandusky.”  This  firm 
was  at  that  time  engaged  in  the  manufacture  of  cotton  machines,  and  under- 
took the  work  of  building  a locomotive  with  the  greatest  reluctance,  but  sub- 
sequently they  became  most  celebrated  as  manufacturers  of  locomotives,  and 
the  outgrowth  of  their  factory  is  found  in  the  present  extensive  “ Paterson 
Locomotive  Works.” 

The  locomotive  “ Sandusky,”  was  brought  from  Buffalo  on  the  vessel 
Sandusky , Thomas  C.  McGee,  skipper,  to  the  town  of  Sandusky,  in  the  year 
1837,  anch  during  that  fall,  was  placed  upon  the  track  and  run  between  San- 
dusky and  Bellevue,  the  road  having  been  completed  between  these  points  in 
that  year,  all  statements , impressions , and  opinio?is  to  the  contrary  notwith- 
standing. 

In  the  year  1850  the  road  was  completed  to  Dayton,  a distance  of  one  hun- 
dred and  fifty-four  miles,  and  in  the  following  year  was  in  operation. 

Colonel  James  was  succeeded  in  the  presidency  of  the  company  by  William 
Hunt,  and  he,  in  succession  by  these  men  : Hon.  Ebenezer  Lane,  E.  F. 

Osborne,  R.  E.  Runckle,  John  P.  Yelderton,  Oran  Follett,  Rush  R.  Sloane, 
and  John  S.  Farlow,  the  last  named  having  been  continued  to  the  present  date, 
notwithstanding  the  frequent  changes  in  the  name  of  corporate  management. 

The  same  year  in  which  the  Mad  River  and  Lake  Erie  road  was  completed 
to  Dayton,  another  line,  known  as  the  Cincinnati,  Hamilton  and  Dayton  Rail- 
road Company,  met  the  former  at  Dayton,  and  thus,  in  1851,  was  constructed 
and  in  operation  a through  connection  between  Sandusky  and  Cincinnati. 

In  1851  an  act  was  passed  by  the  Legislature  incorporating  the  Sandusky 
City  and  Indiana  Railroad  Company.  This  company  was  organized  in  fact  lor 
the  purpose  of  constructing  a road  from  Sandusky  to  Tiffin,  by  the  way  0: 
Clyde,  to  be  built,  moreover,  in  the  interest  and  with  the  capital  of  the  Lake 
Erie  and  Mad  River  road.  On  the  1st  of  December,  1854,  this  road,  via 
Clyde,  was  leased  for  ninety-nine  years,  renewable  forever,  to  the  Mad  River 
Company,  and  the  old  road  to  Tiffin  by  way  of  Bellevue  was  discontinued  and 
abandoned. 

The  first  change  in  the  name  of  the  Mad  River  and  Lake  Erie  Railroad 
was  made  on  February  3,  1858,  under  a decree  of  the  Common  Pleas  of  Lr;e 
county,  by  which  the  road  became  known  as  the  Sandusky,  Dayton  and  Cin- 
cinnati Railroad  Company.  And  under  a bill  filed  in  the  Erie  county  Common 
Pleas  on  February  4,  1865,  Oran  Follett  was  appointed  receiver,  under  order 
of  the  court,  and  continued  as  such  until  its  reorganization,  on  July  2,  iS6e, 
when,  under  that  reorganization,  the  line  passed  under  the  management  of  the 
Sandusky  and  Cincinnati  Railroad  Company,  and  so  remained  until  the  8th  ot 
October,  1866,  when  the  line  was  leased  for  a term  of  ninety-nine  years,  re- 
newable forever,  to  the  Cincinnati,  Dayton  and  Eastern  Railroad  Company,  and 


bte  Y 


. 


Railways  of  the  County. 


267 


Kush  R.  Sloane  was  made  president.  On  the  9th  of  January,  1868,  this  lease 
•A- as  surrendered. 

In  1868,  on  the  nth  of  January,  by  a decree  of  the  Common  Pleas  of 
Krie  county  the  name  was  changed  to  the  Cincinnati,  Sandusky  and  Cleveland 
Railroad  Company,  by  which  it  is  known  at  this  day,  although  managed  by 
the  receiver  of  the  Indiana,  Bloomington  and  Western  Company  as  a part  of 
that  system.  That  part  of  the  road  between  Dayton  and  Springfield  was 
icased  for  a term  of  ninety- nine  years,  renewable  forever,  to  the  Cleveland, 
Columbus  and  Cincinnati  Company,  in  1868.  This  contract  of  lease  was  nego- 
tiated by  Rush  R.  Sloane,  and  it  was,  without  doubt,  the  most  profitable  lease 
for  the  lessor  company  that  was  ever  effected  and  executed  in  the  State  of 
Ohio. 

About  the  year  1881  or  1S82  the  Cincinnati,  Sandusky  and  Cleveland  por- 
tion of  the  road  was  leased  to  the  Indiana,  Bloomington  and  Western  Com- 
pany. This  latter  corporation  was  operating  a line  of  road  extending  from 
Indianapolis,  Ind.,  to  Springfield,  O.,  and  desirous  of  obtaining  a lake  connec- 
tion, leased  the  part  above  named  and  made  it  a portion  of  their  system. 
Some  months  ago,  however,  the  Indiana,  Bloomington  and  Western  Company 
became  insolvent,  and  a receiver  was  appointed,  and  since  that  event  the  Cin- 
cinnati, Sandusky  and  Cleveland  as  well  as  the  Indianapolis,  Bloomington  and 
Western  Company  has  been  operated  by  the  receiver  of  the  general  Indiana, 
Bloomington  and  Western  System. 

THE  SANDUSKY,  MANSFIELD  AND  NEWARK  RAILROAD  COMPANY. 

This  company  embraces  three  others  of  much  earlier  organization,  which, 
'Mth  the  dates  of  their  charters,  respectively,  were  as  follows  : The  Monroeville 
^nd  Sandusky  City  Railroad  Company,  chartered  March  9,  1835;  the  Mans- 
field and  New  Haven  Railroad  Company,  chartered  March  12,  1836,  and  the 
Columbus  and  Lake  Erie  Railroad  Company,  chartered  March  12,  1S45. 

The  two  first  named  were  united  under  the  name  of  the  Mansfield  and 
Sandusky  City  "Railroad  Company  ; and  that,  in  turn,  consolidated  with  the 
Columbus  and  Lake  Erie  Company,  and  became  known  as  the  Sandusky, 
Mansfield  and  Newark  Railroad  Company,  on  the  23d  of  November,  1853. 
In  the  year  1856  the  road  was  sold  and  then  reorganized,  retaining,  however, 
the  former  name.  On  February  13,  1869,  the  road  was  leased  to  the  Central 
C)hio  Railroad  Company,  and  the  Baltimore  and  Ohio  Company  guaranteed 
,lnd  assumed  the  covenants  of  the  Central  Ohio  Railroad  Company.  The 
road  extends  from  the  city  of  Sandusky  to  Newark,  O.,  a distance  of  one  hun- 
dred and  sixteen  miles. 

The  work  of  construction  on  the  old  Monroeville  and  Sandusky  City  road 
was  begun  in  the  year  1835,  and  was,  of  course,  necessarily  slow.  At  a point 
si*  miles  south  of  Sandusky  the  workmen  encountered  a ridge  of  slate,  and  tins 


■Mr.*bm 


268 


History  of  Erie  County. 


proved  the  rock  on  which  the  founders  of  the  enterprise,  the  Hollisters,  were 
wrecked.  In  1837  an  effort  was  made  to  purchase  the  iron,  to  be  used  in 
building  the  road,  in  England,  and  for  that  purpose  James  K.  Campbell  was 
sent  to  negotiate  ; but  this  effort  was  unsuccessful.  The  bed  was  finally  com- 
pleted as  far  as  Monroeville,  a distance  from  Sandusky  of  sixteen  and  one-half 
miles.  It  was  operated  as  early  as  1837,  but  the  motive  power  used  was 
horses,  with  which  regular  trips  were  made  between  these  points.  The  rail; 
were  of  hard  wood,  and  as  no  great  speed  was  acquired  or  desired  this  primi- 
tive method  answered  very  well  for  a time. 

The  State  rendered  considerable  substantial  aid  in  the  construction  of  thi- 
old  road,  which  was  completed  and  put  in  operation  under  the  presidency  of 
Burr  Higgins.  Its  results,  however,  were  not  very  satisfactory  from  a financial 
point  of  view,  therefore  a reorganization  became  necessary,  to  which  reference 
has  already  been  made.  The  stock,  which  was  considered  of  little  value,  wa; 
bought  up,  and  by  the  results  of  the  lease,  virtually  to  the  Baltimore  and  Ohio 
Company,  bids  fair  to  be  of  some  considerable  value  in  the  future.  The  road 
is  now  earning  an  excess  above  interest  on  its  bonded  indebtedness. 

The  line  of  this  road  through  Sandusky  formerly  and  for  somevyears  lay 
through  Franklin  street,  but  it  was  subsequently  changed  to  Warren  street. 
The  old  residents  of  the  city  will  remember  the  old  depot  of  the  Monroeville  and 
Sandusky  City  Company,  that  was  located  about  in  front  of  the  old  Lake  House 
on  Water  street. 

THE  LAKE  SHORE  AND  MICHIGAN  SOUTHERN  RAILWAY  COMPANY. 

The  Lake  Shore  and  Michigan  Southern  Railway  proper  was  created  or 
formed  by  the  union  or  consolidation  of  other  lines  of  road  having  an  existence 
prior  to  the  year  1869.  And  inasmuch  as  this  is,  undoubtedly,  the  most  im- 
portant Vail  way  now  passing  through  Erie  county,  a brief  mention  of  the  several 
coporations  from  which  it  was  formed  will  not  be  considered  inappropriate  in 
this  connection. 

The  first  union  occurred  by  the  consolidation  of  the  Buffalo  and  State  Line 
Railroad  (extending  from  the  City  of  Buffalo,  N.  Y.  State,  west  to  the  State  Line 
of  the  State  of  Pennsylvania,  a distance  of  sixty-eight  miles),  with  the  Erie  and 
Northeast  Railroad  (extending  from  the  Pennsylvania  State  Line  to  the  city’  ot 
Erie,  a distance  of  twenty  miles),  under  and  in  pursuance  of  laws  of  the  Stater 
of  New  York  and  Pennsylvania,  in  the  year  1867,  and  became  known  as  the 
Buffalo  and  Erie  Railroad  Company. 

And  by  the  consolidation  of  the  Cleveland,  Painesville  and  Ashtabula  Rai’- 
road  (extending  from  Erie,  Pa.,  to  Cleveland,  O.,  a distance  of  ninety-five  mile-' 
with  the  Cleveland  and  Toledo  Railroad  (extending  from  Cleveland  to  Toledo, 
a distance  of  one  hundred  and  thirteen  miles),  with  a branch  or  northern  divis- 
ion of  the  latter  road  extending  from  Elyria  twenty-six  miles  west  of  Cleve- 


- 

' 


Railways  of  the  County. 


269 


:and  to  Sandusky,  a distance  of  thirty-five  miles.  Also  from  Oak  Harbor, 
(twenty-six  miles  west  of  Sandusky)  to  Millbury,  near  Toledo. 

These  two  last  mentioned  roads  were  consolidated  under  the  name  of  the 
I^ake  Shore  Railway  Company  in  March,  1869,  under  the  laws  of  Ohio  and 
Pennsylvania. 

Then  the  Michigan  Southern  and  Northern  Indiana  Railroad,  extending 
from  Toledo  to  the  city  of  Chicago,  111.,  a distance  of  two  hundred  and  forty- 
four  miles,  was  consolidated  with  the  Lake  Shore  Railway  Company  in  May, 
1869,  under  the  laws  of  Pennsylvania,  Ohio,  Michigan,  Indiana  and  Illinois,  un- 
der the  name  of  the  Lake  Shore  and  Michigan  Southern  Railway  Company. 

In  August,  1869,  the  Buffalo  and  Erie  Railroad  Company  was  consolidated 
with  the  Lake  Shore  and  Michigan  Southern  Railway  Company,  under  the  lat- 
ter name,  thus  forming  a continuous  line  of  road  five  hundred  and  forty  miles 
in  length  between  the  cities  of  Buffalo  and  Chicago. 

This,  in  the  main,  formed  the  ground-work  of  the  great  Lake  Shore  and 
Michigan  Southern  System.  It  will  be  noticed  above  that  mention  is  made  of 
a “branch’'  or  “Northern  Division”  of  the  Cleveland  and  Toledo  Road.  This 
is  the  line  extending  through  Erie  county,  and  is  described  above  as  “extend- 
ing from  Elyria  (twenty-six  miles  west  of  Cleveland),  to  Sandusky,  a distance 
of  thirty- five  miles.” 

This  branch  road,  as  it  was  called,  was  that  formerly  chartered  as  the  Junc- 
tion Railroad,  intended  to  reach  from  Cleveland  to  Sandusky,  and  thence  to 
Fremont.  It  was  chartered  March  2,  1846,  and  amended  so  as  to  extend  to 
Toledo  in  January,  1851.  It  was  built  during  the  years  1851  and  1852,  but 
about  the  same  time  the  lower  division,  known  as  the  Toledo,  Norwalk  and 
Cleveland  Railroad  was  built,  which  road  by  connecting  with  one  already  in 
operation,  reached  Cleveland  before  the  northern  line  was  completed,  and 
thenceforth  did  everything  possible  to  obstruct  the  latter,  among  other  acts  to 
prevent  the  bridging  of  the  Cuyahoga  River.  Then,  again,  the  construction  of 
the  southern  line  from  Toledo  to  Norwalk  tapped  the  Fremont  region,  thus 
rendering  unprofitable  the  building  of  the  Junction  Road  from  Sandusky  to  that 
point.  The  Fremont  people  gave  it  no  encouragement  and  the  project  was 
abandoned. 

After  the  abandonment  of  the  plan  of  building  to  Fremont  it  was  still  nec- 
essary to  have  a western  outlet  for  the  Junction  Road,  and  the  idea  was  con- 
ceived of  crossing  the  Sandusky  Bay  and  running  to  Port  Clinton,  and  thence 
west  to  Toledo  ; but  in  this  several  obstacles  must  be  overcome.  There  was 
‘nuch  opposition  to  building  across  the  bay,  that  being  navigable  water;  then, 
again,  the  charter  did  not  call  for  a road  over  that  route.  This  led  to  the  char- 
ter granted  the  Port  Clinton  Railroad  Company,  and  under  it  the  road  was 
built,  though  not  without  many  difficulties  and  much  litigation,  but  at  last  it 
"as  accomplished  and  put  in  operation. 

35 


■ • 


' 


270 


History  of  Erie  County. 


But  the  difficulty  at  Cleveland  was  not  satisfactorily  adjusted,  and  the  Junc- 
tion Road  was  eventually  “frozen  out,”  and  being  so  unfortunately  conditioned, 
the  two  divisions,  the  north  and  south,  were  finally  consolidated  under  the  nanv- 
of  the  Cleveland  and  Toledo  Railroad.  That  part  of  the  old  Junction  Road  be- 
tween Cleveland  and  Elyria  was  practically  abandoned,  though  never  entirely* 
so,  and  the  two  branches  joined  again  at  Milburn,  a town  west  of  Sandusky,  and 
near  Toledo. 

Under  the  consolidation  of  1869  the  Cleveland  and  Toledo  systems,  both 
divisions  passed  to  the  control  of  the  Lake  Shore  and  Michigan  Southern  Com- 
pany, and  is  by  that  company  managed  at  the  present  time. 

The  former  line  of  this  road  through  Sandusky  lay  along  Water  street,  bu- 
the  Lake  Shore  people  needed  more  room  for  the  transaction  of  their  largely 
increasing  business  in  the  city  ; therefore,  a part  of  the  line  was  changed  to  pas* 
through  the  south  portion  of  the  town  over  which  the  bulk  of  their  freight  busi- 
ness passes,  the  Water  street  line  being  used  only  for  accommodation  purpose.'. 
Another  part  was  sold  to  the  I.  B.  & W.  Company,  and  is  now  used  by  them 

In  1870  the  revenue  from  passenger  traffic  at  Sandusky  on  the  Lake  Shore 
Road  was  $8,858,  while  in  1886  it  amounted  to  $39,892.  In  1870  the  freight 
forwarded  amounted  to  over  twenty-six  thousand  tons,  and  freight  received  to 
more  than  eighteen  thousand  six  hundred  and  forty-four  tons.  In  1886  the 
shipment  of  freight  was  four  hundred  and  eighty-four  thousand  six  hundred 
and  eighty-six  tons,  and  freight  received  one  hundred  and  fortv-eight  thou- 
sand one  hundred  and  seventy-four  tons. 

THE  WHEELING  AND  LAKE  ERIE  RAILROAD  COMPANY 

The  main  points  touched  by  this  road  in  Erie  county  are  Huron  and  Milan. 
It  starts  from  the  former  and  follows  the  general  course  of  the  Huron  River  u 
Milan,  and  thence  passes  ii.to  Huron  county  on  the  south. 

The  company  was  chartered  by  an  act  of  the  Legislature,  passed  April  ' . 
1871.  By  June  30,  1873,  ten  miles  of  its  line  were  graded.  In  1876  the  roau 
was  completed  from  Huron  to  Norwalk,  a distance  of  twelve  and  one-half  miles, 
and  thirty-five  miles  more  of  the  road  were  graded.  In  the  spring  of  1878  the 
company  passed  into  the  hands  of  a receiver. 

Toward  the  construction  of  the  Wheeling  and  Lake  Erie  Road  the  citizens 
of  the  city  of  Sandusky  were  invited  to  contribute,  and  for  that  purpose  sub 
scription  books  were  opened.  It  was  promised,  and  generally  understood  th--t 
Sandusky  should  be  one  of  the  points  touched  by  the  road,  but  at  a time  when 
the  company  were  seriously  in  need  of  funds,  several  prominent  residents  • • 
Huron  came  forward  with  liberal  contributions,  and  the  road  was  built  to  tin- 
place.  An  attempt  was  afterward  made  to  secure  the  subscription  books  a- 
Sandusky  for  the  purpose  of  collecting  the  amounts  by  the  several  persons  sub- 
scribed, but  they  were  not  secured,  nor  was  the  money  paid.  The  road  wa- 


. 


Railways  of  the  County. 


271 


n t,  therefore,  particularly  friendly  to  the  Sandusky  people  or  interests.  The 
r,  ad  is  easily  reached  by  way  of  the  Lake  Shore  and  Michigan  Southern  Road 
.it  Huron. 

THE  LAKE  ERIE  AND  WESTERN  RAILROAD. 

This  is  the  youngest  of  its  class  of  corporations  now  in  full  operation  in 
Erie  county.  The  company  was  chartered  about  1879,  and  the  road  went  in- 
to operation  some  two  or  three  years  later.  The  line  runs  from  Sandusky  to 
Fremont;  thence  via  Findlay,  Lima  and  Nuncie,  to  Bloomington,  111  From 
the  latter  point  the  road  will  soon  be  fully  completed  to  Peoria,  111. 

As  an  encouragement  to  build  the  Lake  Erie  and  Western  road,  the  City 
of  Sandusky  in  188 1,  issued  its  bonds  to  the  extent  of  sixty  thousand  dollars, 
the  avails  of  which  were  given  to  constructing  the  road 

THE  SANDUSKY,  ASHLAND  AND  COSHOCTON  RAILROAD. 

No  part  of  the  corporation  erection  of  this  company  is  now  in  operation 
except  official  organization.  The  company  was  chartered  in  1883  and  was 
formed  for  the  purpose  of  tapping  the  vast  coal  and  iron  regions  of  the  south- 
ern counties  of  the  State  and  elsewhere,  and  for  the  purpose  of  bringing  those 
products  to  Sandusky  for  consumption  and  manufacture.  The  line  of  the  pro- 
posed road  is  one  hundred  and  thirty-nine  miles  in  length. 

It  is  a well  known  fact  that  there  exists  in  Coshocton  county  a bed  of  the 
finest  quality  of  cannel  coal,  and  this  road  will  bring  this  city  of  Sandusky  in 
direct  communication  with  that  region  and  afford  a desirable  outlet  for  its  most 
valuable  product. 

The  capital  stock  of  the  company  is  five  millions  of  dollars,  but  instead  of 
asking  for  subscriptions  to  the  stock  the  company  have  issued  bonds  and  have 
arranged  to  build  and  stock  their  road  with  the  proceeds  of  the  bond  sales  In 
fact,  W.  D.  Crane,  of  New  York  city  has  agreed  to  take  the  bonds  and  build 
and  equip  the  road,  and  construct  extensive  docks  at  Sandusky  as  well. 

The  present  officers  of  the  comapany  are  Hon  John  Mackey,  president;  P. 
H.  Clark,  secretary,  and  David  Brubaker,  treasurer. 

THE  NEW  YORK,  CHICAGO  AND  ST.  LOUIS  RAILWAY. 

This  road,  which  is  more  commonly  known  as  the  “ Nickel  Plate,”  has  its 
•Ine  across  Erie  county,  entering  from  the  east,  in  the  north  part  of  Vermillion 
township,  and  departing  near  the  southwest  part  of  Groton  township.  The 
foad  is  of  no  practical  benefit  to  the  county,  having  but  an  occasional  passen- 
Kcr  train  and  doing  but  little  other  than  a through  freight  business  as  apart  of 
the  44  Vanderbilt  system.” 


. 

' 


, 


272 


History  of  Erie  County. 


CHAPTER  XIX. 

SOME  EVENTS  OF  ERIE  COUNTY’S  POLITICAL  HISTORY. 

ERIE  county  has  never  achieved  a standing  of  any  special  importance  in  thv. 

political  history  of  the  nation  or  of  the  State  of  Ohio;  but  to  the  county  it- 
self its  political  history  has  been  as  important  as  that  of  any  county  in  the  Stat( 
to  itself.  In  the  year  1838,  at  the  time  the  county  by  Legislative  enactment 
was  created,  there  existed  but  two  recognized  political  parties,  the  Whig  and 
the  Democratic;  but  there  did  exist  at  that  time  a strong  anti-slavery  feeling!;, 
the  hearts  of  a few,  and  but  a few  men,  whose  chosen,  fearless  and  out-spoker. 
champion  was  Francis  D.  Parish,  who  had  then  had  a residence  in  Sandusky 
of  some  sixteen  years.  At  the  time  of  which  we  speak  the  cause  of  the  De- 
mocracy was  championed  by  Colonel  Hanies,  at  one  time  collector  of  the  port; 
William  H.  Hunter,  at  one  time  member'  of  Congress  ; William  B.  Smith, 
Horace  Alpin,  H.  W.  Conklin,  Zenas  W.  Barker,  John  S.  Campbell,  and  oth- 
ers, who,  though  less  active,  were  none  the  less  zealous  in  their  labors.  The 
Whig  principles  were  advocated  by  Elentheros  Cooke,  Oran  Follett,  ColonC 
John  N.  Sloane,  Colonel  Abner  Root,  William  Townsend,  Joseph  M.  Root. 
John  Weeden,  John  Wheeler,  Philip  R.  Hopkins,  Judge  Caldwell,  Judge  Far- 
well,  Major  Camp,  David  Campbell,  and  perhaps  others  equally  prominent 
whose  names  cannot  now  be  recalled. 

The  political  complexion  of  the  county  at  that  time  was  Democratic,  and 
nearly,  if  not  quite  all,  of  the  first  officers  were  of  that  party.  Horace  Alpin 
was  recorder,  H.  W.  Conklin  was  auditor,  William  B.  Smith  was  treasurer. 
Zenas  W.  Barker  was  clerk  of  the  courts,  Harvey  Long  was  sheriff,  and  John  S 
Campbell  was  prosecuting  attorney,  and  each  was  elected  on  the  Democrat; 
ticket.  At  the  next  election,  however,  there  seems  to  have  been  a decidec 
change  in  affairs,  brought  about  in  part  by  the  increase  in  the  Whig  rank' 
and  in  part  by  the  fact  that  General  Harrison  was  upon  the  ticket  as  a candi- 
date for  the  presidency,  and  his  personal  popularity  rallied  to  his  support  the 
entire  Whig  strength  and  drew  largely  from  the  opposition  party.  In  that 
year  the  Whigs  elected  C.  B.  Squires  for  recorder,  William  Neill  for  auditor. 
Zalumna  Phillips  for  sheriff,  and  Francis  D.  Parish  for  prosecuting  attorney. 
Mr.  Parish  affiliated  somewhat  with  the  Whigs,  that  party  coming  nearer  t 
his  principles  than  any  other. 

But  during  the  first  ten  years  of  the  county’s  political  history  the  majority 
for  the  successful  party,  which  ever  it  may  have  been,  was  very  slight  an 
liable  easily  to  be  overthrown  by  the  unpopularity  of  a nominee.  Gener. 
Harrison,  as  is  well  known,  died  soon  after  entering  upon  the  discharge  ofD' 
duties  as  president  and  John  Tyler  succeeded  him.  His  administration  wa» 


. 


Political  History. 


273 


hardly  in  accord  with  true  Whig  doctrines,  and  resulted  disastrously  to  the 
party.  James  K.  Polk  succeeded  by  the  election  in  1844,  as  the  candidate  of 
the  Democracy.  In  the  county  Ebenezer  Merry,  Whig,  was  elected  recorder; 
Orlando  McKnight,  Democrat,  for  auditor ; Rice  Harper,  Whig,  for  clerk  ; 
Kbcnezer  Warner,  Democrat,  for  sheriff,  and  S.  F.  Taylor,  Whig,  for  prose- 
cuting attorney. 

In  1848  the  Free-Soil  party  took  shape,  and  in  the  campaign  of  that  year 
Mr.  Parish  and  other  anti-slavery  men  supported  the  nomination  of  its  candi- 
date, Martin  Van  Buren,  while  Zack.  Taylor  appeared  as  the  Whig  nominee, 
and  General  Lewis  Cass  as  the  choice  of  the  Democracy.  General  Taylor, 
better  known  as  old  “ Rough  and  Ready,”  carried  the  day,  and  with  it  came 
a majority  of  the  local  offices  into  the  hands  of  Whigs. 

In  the  fifties  the  old  Whig  party  gradually  merged  into  the  Republican 
party,  except  a few  who  could  not  adopt  the  full  platform  of  the  latter  party, 
but  this  decade  saw  a majority  of  the  county  offices  in  the  control  of  the  Whigs 
and  Republicans.  The  Know-Nothing  party  also  became  developed  suffi- 
ciently in  the  county  to  put  a candidate  in  the  local  field  for  the  several  offices, 
although  in  part  it  fused  with  the  Republicans.  A.  H.  Striker  became  their 
nominee  for  the  probate  judgeship  and  was  elected,  but  he  had  also  the  Dem- 
ocratic support.  They  also  supported  Horace  N.  Bill  for  clerk,  although  he 
was  also  the  Republican  candidate.  During  this  same  decade,  in  1852,  the 
Democratic  and  States’  Rights  parties  nominated  and  elected  Franklin  Pierce; 
and  again,  in  1856,  they  triumphed  by  the  candidacy  of  James  Buchanan  In 
this  latter  campaign  the  Northern,  Free-Soil,  and  Abolition  parties  supported 
John  C.  Freemont,  while  the  Know-Nothings  found  a candidate  in  Millard  Fill- 
more. From  1850  to  i860  the  office  of  recorder  was  held  by  Charles  Wilbur 
and  James  W.  Cooke,  both  Republicans;  the  office  of  auditor,  Foster  M.  Fol- 
lett  and  Charles  H.  Botsford,  both  Republicans  ; the  office  of  treasurer  by  John 
B.  Wilber,  Democrat;  John  W.  Sprague,  Thomas  S.  Fuller,  Holly  Skinner, 
Whigs  and  Republicans,  and  Thomas  S.  Fernald,  Democrat;  the  office  of  clerk 
by  Rice  Harper  and  Horace  N.  Bill,  both  Whigs  ; the  office  of  sheriff  by  George 
W.  Smith,  G.  B.  Gerrard  and  Fred.  F.  Smith,  Democrats;  the  office  of  prose- 
cuting attorney  by  A.  W.  Hendry,  John  Mackey  and  O.  C.  McLouth,  Whigs 
and  Republicans. 

In  i860  Mr.  Lincoln  became  the  candidate  of  the  Republicans,  or  united 
Whig  and  Abolition  parties;  Stephen  A.  Douglass  and  John  C.  Breckenridge 
of  the  divided  factions  of  the  Democracy,  and  John  Bell  of  the  old  American  or 
Dnion  party.  Mr.  Lincoln  was  triumphantly  elected,  carrying  every  Northern 
State  except  New  Jersey.  After  this  came  the  secession  of  the  Southern 
States,  followed  by  four  years  of  civil  war.  The  Union  must  be  maintained 
and  the  Republican  president  and  his  cabinet  must  be  supported,  both  in  Fed- 
Cral,  State  and  county  politics;  therefore  it  is  not  surprising  that  the  ranks  of 


' 


274 


History  of  Erie  County. 


the  Democracy  became  decimated  and  those  of  the  Republican  party  largclv 
increased.  The  office  of  prosecuting  attorney  between  the  years  i860  and 
1870,  was  held  by  F.  W.  Cogswell,  a Republican;  sheriff  by  D.  S.  Worthing- 
ton and  Jesse  Davis,  both  Republicans;  clerk  by  John  J.  Penfield,  George  \Y 
Penfield  and  George  O.  Selkirk,  all  Republicans;  probate  judge  by  George 
Morton  and  A.  W.  Hendry,  both  Republicans;  recorder  by  James  W.  Cook, 
John  W.  Reed  and  William  A.  Till,  all  Republicans  ; auditor  by  George  \V. 
Smith  and  Ebenezer  Merry,  Republicans,  and  the  office  of  treasurer,  W.  H.  Mc- 
Fall  and  James  D.  Chamberlain,  both  Republicans. 

After  the  close  of  the  war  there  became  a desire  to  reward  with  office  those 
who  had  been  in  the  service.  To  this  end  nearly  all  of  the  local  offices  were 
filled  with  soldiers,  who  had  no  difficulty  in  obtaining  a nomination  in  the  con- 
vention, and  who  had  to  make  but  little  effort  to  secure  an  election,  as  the  Re- 
publican majority  in  the  county  reached,  on  certain  occasions,  something  like 
seven,  eight  or  nine  hundred.  But  after  a number  of  years  many  people  be- 
came tired  of  this  and  began  to  realize  the  fact  that  a person  that  had  not  a 
soldier  record  had  no  chance  for  a position.  This  drove  many  to  support  the 
candidates  of  other  parties. 

Then,  again,  after  the  Republicans  had  been  in  power,  both  in  general  and 
local  politics,  there  became  a growing  dissatisfaction  with  the  party  and  a de- 
sire for  a change.  These  things  resulted  in  a gradual  diminution  of  the  Re- 
publican vote  and  a corresponding  increase  of  the  Democratic,  until  the  parties 
were  again  nearly  equally  divided,  and  not  infrequently  would  the  minority 
party  of  the  county  elect  a candidate  to  an  important  office.  The  floating  vote, 
as  a rule,  inclines  to  a growing  party,  and  as  a result  of  this  and  other  causes, 
the  Democracy  succeeding  in  capturing,  not  only  most  of  the  fat  offices,  but  in 
a few  years  had  a decided  majority.  And  it  is  a fact  that  during  the  last  six 
or  eight  years  that  party  has  been  in  the  ascendancy  in  the  county,  although 
it  is  evident  that  the  majority  is  becoming  less  with  each  succeeding  year.  Ot 
the  present  officers  of  the  county  nearly  all  are  Democrats. 

Elsewhere  in  this  chapter  reference  has  been  made  to  the  anti-slavery  prin- 
ciples, so  strongly  advocated  by  Francis  D.  Parish.  This  idea  with  him  was 
by  no  means  a desire  to  become  conspicuous  among  his  fellow  men,  but  rather 
the  result  of  deep  conviction.  The  early  history  of  his  connection  with  the  anti- 
slavery party  and  its  few  adherents  in  this  county,  became  an  important  feat- 
ure of  the  political  history  of  the  county,  insomuch  that  in  compliance  with  a 
general  request,  we  feel  constrained  to  enter  somewhat  into  the  detail  of  that 
history  ; and  from  the  further  fact  that  but  little,  if  anything,  has  heretofore 
been  written  upon  that  subject. 

For  the  facts  following  upon  this  matter  the  writer  depends  upon  the  au- 
tobiography of  Mr.  Parish,  written  some  years  prior  to  the  time  of  his  death, 
and  never  appearing  in  print  heretofore,  although  the  case  at  law,  growing  out 


. 


Political  History. 


275 


of  Mr.  Parish’s  efforts  at  securing  the  liberation  of  fugitive  slaves,  has  been  ful- 
jv  stated  in  the  United  States  law  reports.  There  were  but  two  suits  brought 
to  recover  the  value  of  escaping  slaves,  which  arose  from  transactions  in  this 
county.  One  of  these  was  brought  against  Mr.  Parish  and  the  other  against 
Hon.  Rush  R.  Sloane,  and  these  it  is  proposed  particularly  to  notice.  From 
the  Parish  autobiography  the  following  is  taken. 

“ The  question  arose  as  to  the  relative  merits  and  the  tendency  of  the  col- 
onization and  the  anti-slavery  societies,  the  latter  of  which  was  being  organized 
in  different  localities  in  the  free  States.  I had  hitherto  supported  the  coloniz- 
ation society,  upon  the  assumed  ground  that  it  would  lead  ultimately  to  the 
abolition  of  slavery.  But  the  discussion  worked  an  entire  revolution  in  my 
mind.  I became  thoroughly  convinced  that  the  tendency  of  the  colonization 
scheme  was  only  to  add  value  to  slave  property  by  the  removal  of  free  labor- 
ers to  foreign  lands,  and  thereby  strengthen  and  perpetuate  the  slave  system 
in  the  United  States.  Consequently  I changed  to  an  open  and  zealous  hostil- 
ity to  that  society,  and  became  an  advocate  of  the  anti-slavery  society. 

“ As  the  agitation  of  the  question  became  general,  violent  opposition  de- 
veloped itself  in  all  quarters.  The  abolitiontists  were  not  only  opposed,  but 
persecuted  with  great  violence,  both  in  church  and  state.  The  press,  religious 
as  well  as  secular,  and  literary  institutions  of  the  country,  were  so  entangled 
and  involved  in  the  interests  of  the  slave  power  of  the  land,  that  they  at  once 
combined  in  a general  onslaught  upon  all  abolitionists.  All  heartily  joined  in 
a common  effort  to  overwhelm  them,  and  if  possible,  to  silence  and  suppress 
all  discussion  of  the  subject  in  compliance  with  the  arrogant  demands  of  the 
slave  holders.  Men  of  the  highest  respectability  in  the  country  were  repeatedly 
subjected  to  mob  violence,  stimulated  and  encouraged  by  men  of  property  and 
standing  in  the  cities  and  in  the  country  generally. 

“ Elisha  Parish  Lovejoy,  publisher  and  editor  of  a religious  paper,  moder- 
ately advocating  anti-slavery  principles,  first  in  St.  Louis,  then  in  Alton,  111., 
"’as  driven  from  place  to  place  and  finally  murdered,  and  his  press  destroyed 
at  the  latter  place.  Not  the  least  notice  in  law  was  taken  of  the  outrage. 

“ William  Lloyd  Garrison,  publisher  and  editor  of  the  Liberator *,  was  at  one 
time  dragged  through  the  streets  of  Boston  with  a rope  around  his  neck  or 
kody,  by  a furious  mob  composed  (as  was  announced  in  the  papers)  of  ‘ men 
°f  property  and  standing  ’ of  that  city.  Examples  might  be  multiplied  of  sim- 
ilar mobs  in  other  cities  and  towns. 

“The  press  of  the  Philanthropist , early  published  in  Cincinnati,  O.,  was 
three  times  destroyed,  to  replace  which  I had  the  pleasure  to  as  often  contrib- 
ute-  For  some  time  I stood  alone  in  Sandusky  as  a known  abolitionist,  and 
^°r  a time  my  person  and  residence  were  exposed  to  and  threatened  with  mob 
violence. 

“ Abolitionists  and  some  others  helped  along  fugitive  slaves  in  their  flight 


. 


276 


History  of  Erie  County. 


through  the  free  States  to  Canada,  where  alone  they  could  find  peace  and  safetv 
On  reaching  the  southern  borders  of  the  free  States,  by  the  aid  of  the  north  star, 
they  found  some  one  ready  to  point  out  the  right  way,  and  some  often  con- 
veyed in  wagons  and  carriages  from  place  to  place,  till  they  reached  the  water 
of  Lake  Erie  or  the  rivers.  Sandusky  was  the  general  point  of  shipment  r f 
such  articles  for  Canada.  Here  I was  in  readiness  to  see  them  safely  on  boar : 
a reliable  craft.  Hence  I was  often  designated  as  the  ‘ keeper  of  the  dep>  ; 
or  warehouse  of  the  Underground  Railroad.’  I have  helped  along  hundred- 
and  perhaps  thousands.  Often  the  fugitive  was  hotly  pursued,  and  there  were 
those  in  and  about  Sandusky  eager  to  seize  him  at  the  beck  of  the  hounds  in 
pursuit.  Haste  and  skill  were  therefore  required  to  insure  the  deliverance  cf 
the  panting  victims.  It  was  known  to  the  general  public  that  it  was  my  busi- 
ness and  practice  to  send  forward,  by  water  or  otherwise,  all  such  as  were  for- 
tunate enough  to  reach  Sandusky;  yeti  was  never  molested  but  once.  In 
that  case  I was  sued  in  the  Circuit  Court  of  the  United  States  for  the  district 
of  Ohio,  under  the  fugitive  slave  law  of  Congress,  of  1793,  and  was  finally 
mulcted  in  the  sum  of  $1,000  and  costs,  which  were  taxed  at  $500.” 

The  Driscoll  Case . — “ In  the  fall  of  1844  there  came  to  my  house  a fugitiv 
slave  woman  with  six  children.  The  oldest  was  a son  of  seventeen  or  eighteen, 
and  the  youngest,  also  a son,  about  six  years  old  ; one  daughter,  about  fifteen 
and  three  other  sons,  aged  respectively,  about  sixteen,  fourteen,  and  twelve 
As  they  arrived  the  steamboat  for  Detroit  had  just  left  the  dock.  It  proved  : 
be  the  last  trip  as  the  bay  was  that  night  frozen  over.  It  thus  appeared  proba- 
ble that  they  must  pass  the  winter  in  Sandusky.  The  two  older  boys,  how- 
ever, soon  made  their  way  to  Canada  by  land  and  ice.  I gave  the  mother  am: 
youngest  boy  a place  in  my  family,  the  mother  doing  work  at  $1  per  week  an 
board  of  self  and  little  boy.  Places  were  found  for  the  girl  and  other  two  b o}* 
to  work  for  their  board.  These  boys  were  sent  on  errands  through  the  street*, 
and  one  of  them  was  often  sent  for  water  to  a pump  in  the  street  near  th 
Townsend  House.  It  so  happened  that  a Kentucky  traveler,  stopping  at  th 
hotel,  saw  and  recognized  this  boy,  and  so  informed  the  man  who  claimed  t 
be  the  owner,  Peter  Driscoll,  of  Mason  county,  Ky.  The  other  boy,  who  ua- 
called  ‘ Doc,’  was  with  a family  near  my  own  residence  (No.  5 Washing^ 
Row). 

“ On  one  of  the  last  days  of  February,  1845,  the  woman  of  this  family  cam- 
hastily  into  my  kitchen,  exclaiming,  ‘ Mr.  Parish,  what  does  this  mean  ? *1" 

men  came  into  our  wood-house,  where  he  was  sawing  wood,  seized  Doc,  a: 
carried  him  off,  he  screaming  for  his  life.’ 

“ Understanding  at  once  what  was  up,  I passed  hastily  to  my  front  do 
on  opening  which  I saw  two  men  walking  rapidly  past  my  front  gate  and  ti  - 
the corner  of  my  lot,  apparently  to  go  to  my  wood-house,  which  was  cc  ' 
nected  with  the  kitchen.  On  turning  the  corner  they  saw  me  upon  the  p’a:* 


.. 

. 


Political  History. 


2 77 


form  of  my  steps,  and  one  of  them  exclaimed,  ‘ Oh,  here  is  Mr.  Parish  !’  And 
both  turned  and  walked  back  to  my  front  gate.  Mitchell  (as  I afterward 
learned)  asked  me  if  there  was  a colored  woman  at  my  house,  called  Jane  Gar- 
rison. My  prompt  reply  was,  ‘There  is,  sir.’  He  then  said  he  was  the  agent 
of  the  owner  of  the  woman  and  the  family,  and  was  authorized  to  take  and 
return  them  to  their  master.  ‘ Very  well,’  says  I,  ‘ if  you  have  a right  to.  take 
her,  and  pursue  the  legal  course,  I shall  not  resist,  but  you  must  pursue  the 
course  pointed  out  by  law  in  such  cases,  and  if  you  prove  your  right,  very  well. 
I shall,  however,  see  that  she  has  a fair  trial.’  ‘ Well,’  says  he,  ‘ I also  am  a law 
abiding  man,  and  ask  nothing  but  what  the  law  gives  me.*  He  asked  to  see 
the  woman,  and  I told  him  I had  no  objection,  if  the  woman  was  willing  to  see 
him.  I stepped  into  the  house  and  asked  Jane  if  she  was  willing  to  see  the 
men.  She  said  not,  but  on  my  advising  her  to  do  so,  she  went  with  me  to  the 
front  door,  and  stood  on  the  platform,  while  the  men  were  outside  the  gate, 
ten  feet  from  her.  Mitchell  spoke  to  her,  calling  her  by  name,  but  I do  not 
remember  that  she  made  any  reply.  Mitchell  asked  the  little  boy,  who  stood 
by  his  mother,  to  come  and  shake  hands  with  him,  and  I said,  ‘ it  is  not  nec- 
essary.’ Mitchell  then  urged  me  to  have  the  woman  taken  before  a justice  of 
tiie  peace  at  Castalia.  I objected,  saying  that  there  were  competent  officers  in 
the  city,  after  which  they  went  away,  not  having  been  inside  the  gate.  I then 
took  out  a writ  of  habeas  corpus , to  take  the  boys  whom  they  held  in  confine- 
ment in  their  room  at  the  hotel,  and  at  the  same  time  lodged  a complaint 
against  Mitchell  and  the  other  man  for  assault  and  battery  upon  the  boys. 
The  proceedings  were  before  the  late  Judge  Farwell,  who,  after  hearing  the 
whole  evidence  on  both  sides,  discharged  the  boys,  and  they  departed.  Mit- 
chell and  his  companion  were  bound  over  to  court  to  answer  the  charge  of 
assault  and  battery. 

“In  August,  1845,  I was  served  with  two  writs  of  summons  from  the 
United  States  Circuit  Court  of  this  State,  at  the  suit  of  Peter  Driscoll,  in  one 
<ase  demanding  the  penalty,  and  in  the  other  claiming  the  value  of  the  slaves, 
under  the  law  of  Congress  of  1793,  for  the  alleged  rescue  of  the  slaves  from 
their  owner.  The  suits  were  instituted  by  Henry  Stansbury,  then  of  Colum- 
bus, but  later  of  Covington,  Ky.,  the  same  man  who  was  attorney-general 
under  Andrew  Johnson.  Salmon  P.  Chase,  of  Cincinnati,  and  John  W.  An- 
drews, of  Columbus,  were  my  attorneys,  voluntary,  that  is,  they  made  no 
charge  for  their  services.  The  issue  was  duly  made  up,  and  I attended  court 
from  year  to  year,  generally  with  several  witnesses  from  Sandusky,  until  the 
hnal  trial  in  1849.  The  cases  were  twice  tried;  once  the  jury  could  not  agree, 
and  once  a verdict  against  me  was  set  aside  and  a new  trial  granted.  At  the 
term  of  1848,  at  the  solicitation  of  kind  friends  of  the  Ohio  bar,  the  Hon. 
Thomas  Ewing  volunteered  in  the  defense.  In  the  fall  of  1S49  Mr.  Ewing 
was  called  to  the  cabinet  of  President  Taylor,  and  could  not  be  present  at  the 
36 


. 


2jS 


History  of  Erie  County. 


term  of  that  year  ; but  at  the  like  solicitation,  the  Hon.  Thomas  Corwin  vol- 
unteered assistance  in  the  defense.” 

Upon  the  third  and  final  trial  of  the  case,  the  details  of  which  are  deemci 
unimportant  here,  Mr.  Parish  was  mulcted  in  damages  to  the  extent  of  $2,000, 
besides  costs,  amounting  to  several  hundred  dollars  more.  But  the  judgment 
for  damages  was  reduced  to  $1,000,  and  the  costs  were  likewise  reduced  to 
$250.  By  the  generous  assistance  of  personal  friends,  and  friends  of  the  cau-t 
to  which  Mr.  Parish  was  so  earnestly  devoted,  the  whole  amount  of  judgment 
and  costs,  amounting  to  $1,250  was  paid. 

This  was  the  first  case  of  this  character  brought  against  a citizen  of  San- 
dusky, upon  a cause  of  action  arising  in  Erie  county,  and  becomes  important 
from  its  very  nature,  and  will  prove  doubly  interesting  to  the  thousands  of 
friends  that  hold  the  victim  of  the  prosecution  in  such  kindly  remembranc 
The  names  of  the  slaves,  the  value  of  whom  was  sued  for,  were  Jane  Garrison 
and  Harrison  Garrison. 

The  case  has  but  one  fellow,  that  is,  an  action  brought  against  a resident 
of  Sandusky,  and  this  was  the  case  of  Lewis  F.  Weimer  against  Rush  R. 
Sloane,  then  a young  and  active  practicing  attorney  of  the  city.  But  this  dif- 
fers in  some  respects  from  that  just  quoted,  and  was  brought  under  a moo- 
recent  act  of  Congress,  procured  to  become  a law  through  the  great  power  of 
southern  chivalry,  and  by  which  the  value  of  a slave  was  fixed  at  $1,000,  re- 
gardless of  physical  condition,  age,  or  actual  value.  The  names  of  the  slaves 
that  were  aided  in  their  escape  were  George  Bracken,  Emily  Bracken,  Ellen 
Bracken,  Robert  Pritt,  Matilda  Pritt,  Eliza  Pritt,  and  Thomas  Pritt.  The  action 
of  Weimer  against  Sloane  was  brought  to  recover  the  value  of  three  of  these 
and,  for  the  events  at  the  time  that  led  to  the  suit  we  have  recourse  to  the 
testimony  of  Major  Foster  M.  Follett,  one  of  the  witnesses  for  the  defendant, 
although  the  evidence  offered  by  the  plaintiff  was  somewhat  different. 

“Mr.  Follett,  sworn:  ‘Was  mayor  of  Sandusky  city  October  20,  1 S 5 - • 
heard  a noise  in  the  street;  the  crowd  came  into  the  office;  was  writing  at  the 
time  ; knew  there  were  slaves  there  ; negroes  were  seated  in  the  room  ; paid 
no  attention  but  kept  on  writing,  with  back  to  negroes  ; after  some  time,  Riee 
(Oliver  Rice  the  marshal  at  the  time)  came  in  and  laid  the  papers  on  my  de^ 

. did  not  look  at  the  papers.  Mr.  Bill  asked  what  I was  going  to  do.  I replied 
that  I had  no  jurisdiction;  think  he  did  not  speak  to  Patton  (the  slave  catcher), 
or  Patton  to  him  ; after  some  time  Rice  came  to  my  desk  and  I handed  the 
papers  to  him,  but  Rice  asked  if  I had  examined  them,  and  I said  I had  not. 
after  which  I went  towards  the  door. 

“ ‘The  defendant  (Sloane)  then  came  in,  turned  around  and  said,  “ By  what 
authority  are  these  persons  held  in  custody?  Are  there  any  papers  to  sh"  • 
why  they  are  held  here  ?”  Think  Patton  said  Rice  had  the  papers.  Defend- 
ant then  said,  “ Colored  citizens,  I see  no  authority  for  detaining  your  colored 


Political  History. 


279 


friends.”  The  negroes  and  crowd  then  went  out,  after  which  Patton  said  to 
Sloane,  “Here’s  the  papers  ; those  slaves  are  mine  and  I will  hold  you  respon- 
sible.” There  was  not  much  noise  or  excitement.’” 

These  slaves  had  arrived  in  Sandusky  on  the  evening  of  October  20,  1852, 
the  day  on  which  these  events  occurred,  and  were  immediately  taken  on  board 
the  steamboat  Arrow,  that  lay  at  the  wharf.  The  slave-catcher,  Patton,  saw 
them  on  the  boat  and  at  once  called  upon  Oliver  Rice  and  others  to  arrest  and 
take  them  into  custody,  which  was  done.  They  were  then  taken  before  Mayor 
Follett  that  the  ownership  might  be  proved  ; and  it  was  during  the  early  part 
of  the  proceedings  in  the  mayor’s  office  that  some  colored  men  had  gone  for 
Mr.  Sloane  to  engage  him  to  appear  in  their  defense. 

To  a person  unacquainted  with  the  arbitrary  laws  then  in  force  regarding 
fugitive  slaves,  it  would  seem  that  the  part  taken  by  Mr.  Sloane  after  his  ar- 
rival, formed  a very  flimsy  foundation  upon  which  to  base  an  action.  But  the 
reader  must  bear  in  mind  that  that  law  was  enacted  by  Congress  at  a time  when 
the  Southern  people  held  absolute  sway  in  the  legislative  halls  of  Congress,  and 
by  their  controlling  strength  could  and  did  pass  measures  wholly  in  their  favor, 
however  tyrannical  and  oppressive  they  may  have  been  to  others. 

The  section  of  the  act  under  which  the  slaves  were  detained  provided, 
“That  where  a person  held  to  service  or  labor  in  any  State  or  Territory  of  the 
United  States,  has  heretofore,  or  shall  hereafter  escape  into  another  State  or 
Territory  of  the  United  States,  the  person  or  persons  to  whom  such  service  or 
labor  may  be  due,  or  his,  her,  or  their  agent  or  attorney,  duly  authorized  by 
power  of  attorney  in  writing,  acknowledged  and  certified  under  the  seal  of  some 
legal  officer  or  court,  of  the  State  or  Territory  in  which  the  same  may  be  exe- 
cuted, may  pursue  and  reclaim  such  fugitive  person,  either  by  procuring  a war- 
rant from  some  one  of  the  courts,  judges  or  commissioners  aforesaid,  of  the 
proper  circuit,  district  or  county,  for  the  apprehension  of  such  fugitive ; or  by 
seizing  and  arresting  such  fugitive,  where  the  same  can  be  done  without  pro- 
cess; and  by  taking  or  causing  such  person  to  be  taken  before  such  court, 
judge,  or  commissioners,”  etc. 

It  was  by  the  authority  of  this  act  that  these  slaves  were  detained,  and  it 
was  on  account  of  the  part  taken  by  Mr.  Sloane  in  the  proceedings  before 
Mayor  Follett  that  he  was  summoned  to  answer  in  damages  in  the  United 
States  court.  The  trial  resulted  in  a verdict  against  the  defendant  in  the 
amount  of  three  thousand  dollars,  one  thousand  dollars  for  each  slave  claimed 
to  be  owned  by  Weimer.  This  judgment  and  costs  Mr.  Sloane  paid  in  full. 

Another  suit  growing  out  of  the  same  transaction  was  brought  against  him 
by  Charles  M.  Gibbons,  but  through  a defect  in  the  paper  the  action  was  dis- 
missed. 


280 


History  of  Erie  County. 


CHAPTER  XX. 

HISTORY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  SANDUSKY.*  THE  SEAT  OF  JUSTICE  OF  ERIE 

COUNTY. 

'T'O  attempt  the  production  of  an  original  chronological  history  of  the  City 
l of  Sandusky  would  be  out  of  the  question.  Various  historians,  both  local 
and  non-resident,  to  the  number  of  nearly  a score,  have  made  an  effort  in  thi> 
direction,  and,  in  some  few  instances,  with  a fair  measure  of  success ; so  that 
for  a writer  upon  the  ground  to-day,  there  seems  but  very  little  opportunity  for 
enlargement  upon  things  and  events  of  the  last  quarter  of  a century,  and  no 
room  whatever  for  any  additional  revelations  regarding  the  happenings  of  an 
earlier  period.  At  best  the  modern  writer  can  but  revise,  classify,  and  per- 
haps paraphrase  that  which  has  already  been  made  patent  through  the  labors 
of  early  historians.  And,  peradventure,  there  may  be  revealed  some  events 
that  have  been  heretofore  overlooked  or  considered  unworthy  a place  in  history, 
and  thus  it  may  be  possible  that  a satisfactory  record  be  made  that  shall  be  of 
some  substantial  use  and  benefit  to  the  present  and  future  generations  of  this 
county. 

The  writer  of  modern  times  finds  the  most  satisfaction  in  the  fact  of  being 
able  to  give  to  the  public  something  before  unknown,  or  to  settle  conflicting 
opinions,  or  to  give  a new  and  satisfactory  version  of  misunderstood  things.  Vet 
in  the  present  case  there  seems  no  avenue  of  escape  by  these  subterfuges,  and 
we  must  look  the  facts  squarely  in  the  face,  scan,  and  if  possible,  criticise  past 
works,  still  depend  upon  them  for  truth,  then  sift  and  separate  the  good  history 
from  the  bad,  and  present  the  former  to  the  reader,  clearly  and  in  the  most  in- 
telligent manner  possible,  and  finally,  ask  the  most  kindly  indulgence  and  for- 
bearance of  the  reader  for  not  having  been  able  to  provide  new,  startling  and 
wonderful  historic  revelations.  So  much  by  way  of  explanation — not  apology. 

It  has  not  been  deemed  advisable  for  the  purposes  of  this  chapter  to  restate 
or  re-narrate  the  events  of  the  Indian  occupation  of  the  lands  now  comprised 
by  the  corporate  limits  of  this  city,  but  to  commence  this  subject  at  a time 
within  the  memory  of  man,  referring  the  reader  to  the  earlier  chapters  of  th'' 
volume  for  such  knowledge  as  may  be  sought  concerning  the  savages  whose 
different  tribes  held  jointly  and  in  severalty  the  country  which  we  now  occupy- 


*The  point,  Sandusky,  first  became  so  named  from  the  beautiful  bay  on  the  shore  of  which 
it  is  situate.  The  bay  was  known  to  the  Indians  as  a lake  — a small  lake  of  cold  water,  an 
from  that  the  name  *•  Lac  Sandouske  ” was  applied.  This  name,  however,  partakes  largely  -i 
the  French  accent,  and  is  believed  to  be  of  French  origin  The  Jesuits  carried  on  their  labors 
through  this  region  generally,  but  of  them  we  have  no  reliable,  ancient  record  ; and  it  .s  quite 
probable  that  the  Indians  adopted,  as  nearly  as  possible,  the  name  the  French  had  given. 
name  was  first  mentioned,  so  far  as  we  have  knowledge,  in  1708,  at  which  time  the  Iroquois 
Indians  destroyed  a village  of  the  Eries  on  “Conti  Lake.” 


' 


The  City  of  Sandusky. 


28  r 


The  territory  now  included  within  the  city  limits  of  Sandusky  formed  a 
very  small  portion  of  the  historic  “ firelands,”  which  was  donated  to  the  inhab- 
itants of  certain  towns  of  Connecticut  to  compensate  them  for  losses  sustained 
at  the  hands  of  the  British  soldiers  during  the  Revolution  ; and  that  donation 
was  made  before  the  Indian  claims  to  the  land  had  been  extinguished.  No  at- 
tempt at  permanent  white  settlement  could,  of  course,  be  made  until  that  title 
was  acquired.  And  it  is  a fact  that  the  survey  and  partition  were  not  per- 
formed until  after  the  treaty  by  which  the  occupants  relinquished  their  claim 
of  title. 

After  these  preliminaries  had  been  satisfactorily  settled,  the  whites  came  to 
the  region  and  found  on  the  site  of  the  city  a “lone”  cabin,  presided  over  and 
occupied  by  an  Indian  named  “Ogontz,”  and  from  this  occupant  the  town,  if 
such  it  might  be  called,  received  its  first  name. 

OGONTZ  PLACE. 

From  all  authority  it  appears  that  this  chieftain  was  the  acknowledged  ruler 
of  the  town,  and  the  Indians  who  then  occupied  the  locality.  The  cabin  of 
Ogontz  was  situate  at  a point  some  ten  or  fifteen  rods  from  the  bay  shore,  be- 
tween what  are  now  known  as  Columbus  avenue  and  Wayne  street,  about  in 
rear  of  the  building  standing  between  the  Moss  National  and  the  Second  Na- 
tional Banks. 

Authorities  differ,  however,  on  the  subject  of  the  location  of  the  chiefs 
cabin,  but  from  the  best  information  obtainable,  it  is  thought  the  spot  indicated 
is  about  correct. 

Ogontz,  like  all  rulers  of  high  degree,  had  a history  ; and  inasmuch  as  he 
was  in  a manner  identified  with  the  past  of  this  city,  it  will  not  be  considered 
too  much  out  of  place  to  make  some  mention  of  his  life  and  tragic  death,  as 
the  same  was  sketched  by  one  of  the  pioneers  of  1810,  and  now  a resident  of 
Perkins  township,  from  which  sketch  we  copy  almost  literally : 

Ogontz. — “ His  life  and  somewhat  romantic  death  have  been  written  with 
varying  testimony.  He  was  captured  near  the  head  of  Lake  Huron,  about  the 
middle  of  the  last  century,  by  some  Jesuit  missionaries,  and  taken  to  Quebec 
’•vhen  he  was  but  a small  lad.  He  was  sent  to  a missionary  school,  was  bap- 
tized  in  the  name  of  Ogontz,  and  was  taught  the  English  and  French  lan- 
guages. He  graduated  with  the  highest  honors,  and  was  sent  back  as  a mis- 
sionary to  his  own  people.  During  the  latter  part  of  the  eighteenth  century 
Uc  came  to  Sandusky  and  settled  with  the  Ottawa  Indians,  on  the  southern 
^hore  of  the  bay,  then  a beautiful  plain,  dotted  over  with  Indian  wigwams, 
^urr  oaks,  and  clusters  of  hawthorns. 

” In  the  year  1805,  John  Fleming  came  from  Canada,  and  settled  on  the  east 
^nk  of  the  Huron  River,  three  miles  from  the  lake,  where  he  established  a 
small  trading  post,  exchanging  ammunition  and  other  commodities  for  furs. 


- 


282 


History  of  Erie  County. 


Ogontz  and  Fleming  soon  became  acquainted  and  their  friendship  continu- 
until  the  death  of  the  former. 

“ In  the  summer  of  1808,  a number  of  Indians,  with  their  chief  and  Ogont? 
assembled  at  Fleming’s  for  a yearly  sacrifice.  The  chief,  with  the  other?,  be- 
came intoxicated  and  quarrelsome.  The  chief  had  been  jealous  of  Ogontz  f • 
some  time,  on  account  of  his  steady  and  sober  habits  and  the  popularity  !, 
had  gained  among  other  Indians;  and  fearing  he  might  be  chosen  their  cl  - 
over him,  soon  got  into  a quarrel  with  Ogontz.  A deadly  conflict  ensued 
which  Ogontz  slew  his  antagonist. 

“The  next  day  he  was  arrested  and  tried  for  murder,  Fleming  acting  n - 
judge.  He  was  honorably  acquitted,  and  the  same  day  he  was  chosen  chi-.* 
over  the  tribe.  As  Ogontz  had  no  children  of  his  own,  he  adopted  the  on 
son  of  the  slain  chief,  who  was  but  a small  boy.  He  inherited  that  spirit  r 
revenge  that  is  generally  found  in  the  Indian  character.  As  soon  as  he  be- 
came a young  man  he  watched  his  opportunity,  and  one  day,  while  they  wer 
on  a hunting  excursion,  near  Perrysburg,  he  shot  his  adopted  father,  assumo 
the  title  of  chief  and  ruled  the  tribe.  Thus  fell  the  learned  Ogontz,  one  of  tli 
most  noble  sons  of  the  forest  that  ever  trod  the  soil  of  the  Sandusky  plains. 

“ Young  Ogontz’s  career  as  chief  was  short,  for  he  soon  became  a habitu;. 
drunkard  and  died  in  the  year  1822.” 

“ His  name,”  continues  the  same  writer,  concerning  Ogontz,  “will  never 
be  forgotten  by  those  at  Sandusky.  His  wigwam  was  on  the  bay  shore  at  th 
foot  of  Wayne  street.  His  favorite  retreat  from  the  piercing  sun  in  midsum 
mer  day  was  in  a little  cluster  of  hawthorns  near  the  foot  of  Columbus  avemu 
Beneath  this  shade  was  a beautiful  stone  chair  formed  by  the  hand  of  natun 
Here  the  chief  reclined  for  hours,  smoking  his  pipe  or  watching  the  breeze- 
ruffled  waters  of  the  broad  bay  as  they  glistened  in  the  sunlight,  or  gazing 
the  foaming  and  dashing  waves  of  the  lake  beyond.” 

Such,  then,  was  the  location  and  situation  during  the  early  years  of  th 
present  century;  a situation  real  as  well  as  fanciful,  although  the  latter  len«  - 
an  additional  charm  to  the  scene. 

Ogontz’s  Place  was  the  name  by  which  this  locality  was  known  and  desig- 
nated until  the  efforts  of  Zalmon  Wildman  changed  it  to  the  less  romanti* 
though  more  appropriate — Portland. 

The  first  attempt  at  settlement  by  the  whites,  at  what  was  known  a* 
Ogontz’s  Place,  was  made  in  the  year  1810,  by  one  John  Garrison  and  fa  mil} 
He  was  a former  resident  of  New  York  State,  and  came  to  this  region  inqur'- 
of  a home.  Not  many,  however,  ventured  into  this  locality  at  that  tinn 
There  were  loud  and  ominous  threatenings  of  war  The  Indian  occupant 
were  still  friendly  to  the  British,  and  the  latter  were  continually  urging  the  sav- 
ages to  deeds  of  violence  against  all  colonists.  The  storm-cloud  of  war  «»■ 
length  broke,  and  until  after  the  year  1815  had  passed,  settlement  was  danger- 


ous. 


_ 


The  City  of  Sandusky. 


283 


John  Garrison  came  to  Ogontz’s  Place,  as  has  been  stated,  to  make  a home. 
He  brought  a stock  of  goods  to  exchange  for  furs,  and  to  supply  the  whites 
that  then  chanced  to  live  in  the  country.  He  was  the  intended  victim  of  a 
murderous  Indian  named  Semo,  but  the  designs  of  the  latter  were  frustrated 
by  the  outbreak  of  the  war,  causing  Garrison  to  return  to  New  York  State. 
The  Indian,  however,  with  an  accomplice,  murdered  Michael  Gibbs,  a trapper, 
living  on  Pipe  Creek.  This  occurred  while  a party  of  rangers  were  at  Huron, 
for  defensive  purposes,  and  when  the  news  reached  them  Semo  was  tracked 
and  captured  and  subsequently  hanged.  His  companion  in  crime  was  an  In- 
dian named  Omeek,  and  he  being  afterward  taken,  killed  himself. 

Few  of  the  Connecticut  sufferers  occupied  the  lands  donated  them.  Their 
interests  were  purchased  by  others,  who  became  known  under  the  style  of 
“Proprietors,”  and  it  wras  by  the  extensive  purchase  of  sufferers’  claims  that 
Zalmon  acquired  title  to  the  large  body  of  land  whereon  stands  a part  of  San- 
dusky. 

(Zalmon  Wildman  was  born  at  Danoury,  Conn.,  in  the  year  1774,  and  died 
December  10,  1835.  * He,  with  his  brother,  Seymour  Wildman,  were  hatters 
at  Danbury.  From  1808  until  1835,  Zalmon  Wildman  was  postmaster  at 
Danbury,  and  from  1817  to  1824  he  was  associate  judge  of  the  county  court  of 
Fairfield  coufity.  -He  first  came  to  the  fireland  in  1810,  on  horseback.  Here 
he  had  several  thousand  acres  of  land  which  he  acquired  by  purchasing  suffer- 
ers’ certificates^.  Judge  Wildman  was  never  a resident  of  Ohio,  although  he 
frequently  visited  this  locality,  looking  after  his  land  interests.  In  1833  he 
subscribed  $15,000  toward  the  construction  of  the  Mad  River  Railroad,  and 
paid  it  in  full.  Upon  his  death  l)is  son,,  Frederick  S.  Wildman,  and  his  son- 
in-law,  Nathan  Starr,  were  appointed  administrators  of  his  estate.  They  also 
subscribed  a large  tract  of  land  to  the  building  of  the  railroad,  taking  stoek^or 
s -rip  of  the  company  in  payment,  but  never  realized  anything  from  the  stock.) 

Mr.  Wildman  unquestionably  saw  that  this -locality  was  destined  to  become 
a city  of  some  considerable  magnitude,  and  with  this  belief  strongly  impressed 
upon  him,  in  the  year  1816  he  laid  out  and  caused  to  be  platted  the  town  of 

PORTLAND. 

Up  to  this  time  the  town  had  been,  it  is  generally  conceded,  known  as 
* ^ontz’s  Place,  and  this  belief  seems  to  be  well  founded,  taking  the  declara- 
tions of  Zalmon  Wildman  as  authority. 

Mr.  Wildman  acquired  title  to  a large  body  of  land  in  this  immediate  vi- 
cinity by  the  purchase  of  sufferers’  rights.  This  surveyed  township  was  but  a 
fraction  of  a whole  township  lying  north  of  Perkins,  or  rather,  north  of  town 
number  six  in  range  twenty-three,  and  between  town  six  and  the  bay. 

It  has  been  generally  understood  that  Mr.  Wildman,  in  the  year  1816,  laid 
°ut  and  platted  his  lands  here,  or  at  least  a part  of  them,  and  gave  to  the  place 


! Cl 


284 


History  of  Erie  County. 


the  name  of  “ Portland.”  This  may  be  true,  and  the  belief  is  in  a measur 
verified  by  referring  to  the  map  itself  (on  record),  which  is  drawn  under  th 
title  of  Portland.  The  signification  of  this  name  becomes  clear  by  simply  di- 
viding the  syllables  thus,  “ Port-land;”  the  first,  Port,  meaning  a harbor,  an-: 
by  adding  the  suffix  land,  we  have  the  meaning:  land  upon  a harbor,  or. 
more  clearly,  land  located  upon  a harbor,  or  adjoining  a harbor. 

Portland,  as  a town,  had  a very  brief  existence,  in  fact,  even  if  it  had  am 
One  thing  is  sure,  and  that  is,  that  the  town  was  known  as  Portland  for  sonic 
time,  but  whether  such  was  its  name  as  a truth,  and  whether  that  name  \va- 
given  it  by  Mr.  Wildman,  or  those  acting  for  him  and  under  his  direction,  is  a 
question  susceptible  of  argument.  Custom,  prevailing  opinion  and  tradition, 
-all  say  that  it  was  named  Portland,  and  so  named  honestly.  This  we  shall  not 
contradict,  nor  shall  we  make  an  attempt  to  disprove  it,  but  if  we  take  the 
county  records  as  a standard  authority  (and  in  preparing  this  work  great  de- 
pendence is  placed  on  the  records),  it  will  be  found  that  the  name  of  “San- 
dusky City”  was  given  the  place  by  Zalmon  Wildman,  on  the  17th  day  of 
August,  1816,  by  his  dedication,  which  was  follows: 

“ The  within  town  plat  is  situated  on  the  south  shore  of  Sandusky  Bay,  on 
the  ground  formerly  known  by  the  name  of  Ogontz  Place.” 

“ A store  is  now  erected  on  the  southwesterly  side  of  lot  number  six,  on 
the  easterly  side  of  Main  street.” 

“The  foregoing  town  plat,  by  the  name  of  4 Sandusky  City,’  I allow  shall 
be  subject  to  and  governed  by  the  same  laws  that  other  town  plats  are  in  this 
State.  Zalmon  Wildman.  [Seal.] 

“Huron,  August  17,  1816. 

“ Signed,  sealed  and  acknowledged  before  Jabez  Wright,  associate  judge.’’ 

From  this  instrument  it  seems  clear  that,  at  the  above  date,  Zalmon  Wild- 
man laid  out  the  town  of  Sandusky  City.  The  article  also  states  that  the 
same  is  situated  on  the  “ ground  formerly  known  by  the  name  of  Ogontz 
Place.” 

Well,  Portland  or  Sandusky  City,  which  ever  it  may  have  been,  comprised 
four  separate  blocks  of  land,  two  large  and  two  small,  and  contained  in  all 
sixty  lots.  The  streets  were : Commerce  on  the  east,  State  (in  the  dedication 
called  Main)  in  the  center,  and  Mechanic  on  the  west.  These  run  north  and 
south.  Water  street  had  an  east  and  west  direction  and  separated  the  small 
blocks  from  the  larger.  State  street  separated  the  larger  blocks,  and  also  the 
smaller. 

There  was  but  one  store  at  that  time  on  the  tract,  situated  at  the  corner  of 
State  (or  Main)  and  Water  streets. 

There  seems  to  have  been  at  this  time,  or  very  soon  afterward,  a claim  in- 
terposed to  the  effect  that  Zalmon  Wildman  was  not  the  rightful  owner  of  thi> 
whole  tract.  And  just  here  it  may  be  stated,  parenthetically  perhaps,  that 


. 


-*»•  )f-  j ii'.Hi  -miirr^'ii»"tiir  fWff»Wnr-^Ti  - - f r*  — «. .- * **& 


The  City  of  Sandusky. 


285 

conflicting  claims  of  title  to  the  lands  of  Sandusky  City  was  the  greatest  ob- 
struction or  obstacle  in  the  way  of  its  early  growth  ; an  obstacle  that  was  not 
finally  removed  until  after  the  year  1840;  and  by  that  time  her  sister  cities, 
Cleveland  on  the  east,  and  Toledo  on  the  west,  had  a decided  advantage  over 
her  in  point  of  early  and  substantial  settlement  and  internal  improvement. 
This  was  one,  and  but  one,  of  the  many  causes  that  seriously  retarded  San- 
dusky’s growth  at  a time  when  enterprise  and  harmonious  action  were  most 
needed  for  her  future  welfare.  But  to  return.  In  explanation  of  this  conflict 
of  claims  to.  title  is,  may  be  remarked,  that  Mr.  Wildman  and  Isaac  Mills,  the 
latter  interposing  the  claim,  made  an  amicable  adjustment  of  their  existing 
difficulties,  which,  in  the  year  1818,  resulted  in  the  platting  and  laying  out  of 
the  more  extensive  tract  of  land  whereon,  in  part,  now  stands  the  city  of  San- 
dusky. And  here  another  actor  appears  upon  the  scene,  in  the  person  of 
George  Hoadley,  the  ancestor  of  the  late  Governer  of  the  State  of  Ohio.  As 
to  how  he  acquired  an  interest  in  these  lands  the  record  does  not  show,  but  it 
was  unquestionably  a lawful  and  valid  title,  else  it  had  not  been  made.  The 
dedication  made  by  these  three  men  appears  upon  the  records  as  follows  : 

“The  city  of  Sandusky  is  situated  on  the  south  shore  of  Sandusky  Bay, 
about  three  miles  from  the  entrance  into  said  bay,  on  the  portion  lying  between 
town  number  six  in  the  twenty-third  range  and  the  said  bay. 

“ The  above  and  within  (referring  to  the  map  accompanying  the  instru- 
ment) is  a true  and  accurate  map  or  plat  of  the  city  of  Sandusky.  The  streets 
east  and  west  are  : Water  street,  which  is  four  and  one- half  rods  in  width  ; 
Market  street  is  five  rods  ; Washington  street  is  six  rods;  Adams  street  is  five 
rods;  Jefferson,  Madison  and  Monroe  are  four  rods;  Wayne  and  Jackson  are 
each  five  rods;  and  all  the  other  streets  running  northerly  and  southerly,  to- 
gether with  Poplar  and  Elm  streets,  are  each  four  rods  in  width.  Columbus, 
Huron  and  Miami  avenues  are  each  six  rods  wide.  The  two  open  spaces  on 
Market  street,  marked  B.B.,  are  appropriated  as  and  for  public  market  grounds, 
and  forever  to  remain  for  that  purpose  and  for  no  other. 

“Washington  Square  is  hereby  appropriated  as  and  for  a Public  Ground, 
Parade  and  Walk,  and  is  never  to  be  obstructed,  except  that  part  of  it  included 
in  lines  marked  A. A.,  which  is  hereby  appropriated  for  public  building  for  re- 
•'gious,  literary,  State,  county  and  city  purposes,  but  no  jail  or  State’s  prison 
,s  ever  to  be  erected  thereon. 

“The  Columbus,  Miami  and  Huron  Parks  are  also  hereby  ap